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Vladimír Orel 


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For Miriam, Elizabeth and Ira, to hear the unspoken mord. 

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If the lost word is lost, if the spent word is spent 

If the unheard, unspoken 

Word is unspoken, unheard; 

Still is the unspoken word, the Word unheard, 

The Word without a word, the Word within 

The world and for the world; 

And the light shone in darkness and 

Against the Word the unstilled world still whirled 

About the center of the silent Word. 

T.S. Eliot 

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Preface xi 

List of references xv 

Abbreviations xxxvii 

Dictionary 1 

Indie es 

Germanic languages 477 

Oťher Indo-European languages 629 

Non-Indo-European languages 683 

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The objective of this work is to present a reasonably full (but certainly not 
exhaustive) collection of Proto-Germanic lexemes with their reconstruc- 
tions, their reřlections in main branches of Germanic and, whenever 
possible, with plausible etymologies and etymological references (the latter 
include main etymological dictionaries as well as articles and notes). As it 
sometimes happens in other fields of knowledge, for the last fifty or sixty 
years linguists háve operated imder the misleading impression that Ger- 
manic etymology does not leave us much more than minor issues to deal 
with and that the main bulk of relevant problems in this field has been 
solved. I do not believe this view to be true and this book is to prepare 
grounds for a future serious revision of the etymologies (mainly, root ety- 
mologies) automatically accepted today and sanctified more by hábit than 
by reason. 

The dictionary includes the following categories of (Proto-)Germanic 

(a) words attested in two or three branches of Germanic; 

(b) words attested in only one Germanic branch but having precise exter- 
nal cognates or being sources of wider attested Germanic derivatives; 

(c) words attested in only one Germanic branch but representing ancient 
loanwords that might háve penetrated Germanic at the Proto- 
Germanic level. 

Clearly, with words of categories (b) and (c), the writer depends on ety- 
mological solutions and, therefore, on scholarly preferences and tastes to 
a greater extent than with words of category (a). That has certainly 
influenced the choice of certain entries. In some cases, entries were added 
even when the word represented an innovation in one branch but its dis- 
cussion and analysis in the etymological literatuře indicated otherwise and 
the entry could be of some interest for the study of Proto-Germanic. 

The dictionary only deals with full lexical parallels in Germanic and the 
resulting reconstructions are words (sometimes with their morphological 
variants), not morphemes. Internal Germanic cognates are represented by 
the oldest attested forms from each branch involved in a given compari- 
son. Thus, High German is represented by an Old High German form 
unless such has not been registered. In the latter čase, High German will 
be represented by Middle High German or modem German, and so on. 
Normally, an entry will include Gothic (or other East Germanic dialects, 


usually in reconstruction), Old Norse (or other Old Scandinavian), Old 
English, Old Frisian, Old Saxon and Old High German forms. 

The Proto-Germanic phonological reconstruction ušed in the Dictionary 
is fairly traditional. No attempt has been made to solve the problém of the 
(lack of) opposition between Gmc short *e and *i (even though the present 
writer believes the reconstruction of one phoneme would be appropriate): 
in most words with established etymology or related forms with different 
ablaut grades, the choice between *e and *i raises no doubts. In more 
difficult (and rarer) cases, the reconstruction of *e or *i is close to arbitrary. 
The samé applies to some instances when there was no way to distinguish 
between jf and *t or *p and *d on the reconstruction level. One can only 
hope that the further progress of Germanic etymology will allow to 
improve such reconstructions. Otherwise, the phonological inventory of 
Proto-Germanic and the alphabetic order ušed in the dictionary are estab- 
lished as follows: a i i e ě (and « 2 )/j xiíjklmnoprstpuúw. 

Transliterations chosen for individual Germanic languages could not be 
entirely consistent throughout the book. However, an attempt has been 
made to reach a certain level of standardization (which includes, among 
other conventions, the omission of traditional post-word asterisks in 
Gothic). At the samé time, I made it a point to retům to the main lexico- 
graphic sources for most of the involved Germanic languages (and occa- 
sionally, to texts), with the unfortunate exception of Low German, in order 
to verify morphological features and meanings of the forms compared. 
This process took considerable time and some effbrts and was particularly 
painful in determining meanings and expressing them in English. It is well- 
known how misleading translations of translations of translations can be — 
I did my best to control them and to replace them with originally coined 
English glosses whenever possible (that applied primarily to Gothic, Old 
Norse and Old English). Numerous ghost-words and ghost-meanings 
appearing in linguistic publications (not only on Germanic but on other 
Indo-European dialects as well) were pitilessly eliminated. I realize, how- 
ever, that some of those unfortunately remained undetected. 

The semantic reconstruction of the Proto-Germanic words was not even 
attempted: too many complications and arguments would háve followed 
the decision to ascribe meanings to Proto-Germanic words. This exercise 
is therefore left to the reader, not without some reliéf on my part. 

Certain constraints (pardy dictated by external factors, pardy following 
the linguistic views of the author) háve been imposed to filter out several 
groups of words. Primarily, that applies to prefixal verbs and nouns that 
háve not been included as separate entries even in (numerous) cases when 
a prefix is attested in all compared forms. Whenever the prefix can be pro- 
jected into the Indo-European prehistory of Germanic, this — rather infre- 


quent — fact is noted in the corresponding unprefixed entry. It was also 
decided not to include Germanic proper names, toponyms and ethnonyms 
as separate units. Proper names, however, appear in quite a few entries 
whenever they form parallels to appellative nouns in other Germanic lan- 
guages. Loanwords to Proto-Germanic háve been included; however, the 
status of Latin loanwords proved to be problematic. As a result, the dic- 
tionary covers only such Latin elements as may be given the credit of 
doubt of being quite old and not obtained by different Germanic dialects 
separately or through chain-borrowings. 

Clearly, some of the Proto-Germanic morphological reconstructions of 
entries are, to a great extent, idealized. In certain cases, for example in 
nouns, when certain fluctuations of gender appeared to be of regular 
nature, a deeper reconstruction was offered without additional comments. 
Some other reconstructions, for example, those of root stems, are undoubt- 
edly rather arbitrary too. The samé accounts for the reconstruction of 
stem vowels in compounds and for the way in which adverbial forms are 

I owe my gratitude to several colleagues of mine: my teachers Leonid 
A. Gindin and Vladimir A. Dybo whose interest and encouragement were 
always of great importance, Oleg N. Trubachev and Zhanna Zh. Varbot 
whose insights of etymology inspired me, Olga A. Smirnitskaia who was 
my hrst teacher of Gothic and Old Norse. I feel greatly indebted to George 
Durman and Grigory Zubakov for their practical help with the retrieval of 
some etymological sources. 1 

Several institutions provided me with their assistance, in particular, the 
libraries of McMaster University, Princeton University, Hebrew University 
in Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv University and Bar-Ilan University. 

Finally, I must thank those whose unspoken word keeps me alive. 

Vladimir Orel 

Princeton — Calgary 
March 29, 2003 

1 Most of my bibliographic inquiries were successful, with the exception of the recent 
work published in the Ukraine: V. V. Levitskii "Etimologicheskii slovar' germanskikh 
iazykov", I— II, Chernovtsy: Ruta, 2000 of which I could only obtain some information from 
the review of Makovskii VJa XLVIII/5 124-130. 

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fórlag, 1912. 
Zalizniak - Zalizniak, Andrei A. Materiály dlia izucheniia motfologicheskoi struktury drev- 

negermanskikh sushchestvitďnykh I II = Etim. 124-160, Etim. 1964 160-235. 
^DADL - ^eitschrift fůr deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur. Leipzig-Berlin, 1841—. 
?DK - ^eitschrift fůr Deutschkunde. Leipzig-Berlin, 1887—. 
?DMG - Zjitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. Leipzig, 1847—. 
?dPh - Zfitschrift fůr deutsche Philologie. Halle, 1869—. 
\d]if- ^eitschrift fůr deutsche ]Vortforschung. StraBburg, 1901—. 
Zeuss Deutsch. - Zeuss, J. Kašpar. Die Deutschen und die Machbarstamme. Leipzig-Miinchen, 

ZfBalk - Teitchrift fiir Balkanologie. Wiesbaden, 1962—. 
ZfceltPh - ^eitschrif fůr celtische Philologie. Halle, 1897—. 
žflni - ^eitschrift fiir Indologie und Iranistik. Leipzig, 1922—. 
žfMund - šjitschrift fiir Mundartforschung. Halle, 1 935-. 
žfOrt - ^eitchrift fůr Ortsnamenforschung. Mtinchen-Berlin, 1925- [= £OjVF]. 
žfPhonetik - Tfitschrifi fiir Phonetik und allgemeine Sparchwissenschaft. Berlin, 1947— [= ^eitschrift fůr 

Phonetik, Sparchwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung] . 
ZfslavPh - Zjitschrift fiir slavische Philologie. Leipzig-Heidelberg, 1924—. 
ZOG - ^eitschrift fůr die osterreichischen Gymnasien. Wien, 1850—1928. 
ZONF - TfOrt. 

?SSR - ^eitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung fůr Rechtgeschichte. Germanistische Abteilung. 
Zupitza Gutt. - Zupitza, Ernst. Die germanischen Gutturale. Berlin: Weidmann, 1896. 



Alb - Albanian 

Arm - Armenian 

Av - Avestan 

Balt - Baltic 

Bret - Breton 

Burg - Burgundian 

Chův - Chuvash 

Crim. Goth - Crimean Gothic 

Dor - Doric 

Du - Dutch 

E - English 

EGmc - East Germanic 

ELith - East Lithuanian 

Ethio-Sem - Ethio-Semitic 

Etr - Etruscan 

Finn - Finnish 

Flem - Flemish 

Fr - French 

G - German 

Gaul - Gaulish 

Gep - Gepidic 

Gk - Greek 

Gmc - Germanic 

Goth - Gothic 

Grg - Georgian 

Hbr - Hebrew 

Hom - Homeric 

Hung - Hungarian 

Icel - Icelandic 

IE - Indo-European 

Ion - Ionic 

Irán - Iranian 

Lat - Latin 

Latv - Latvian 

LG - Low German 

Lith - Lithuanian 

MDu - Middle Dutch 

ME - Middle English 

Messap - Messapic 

MGk - Middle Greek 

MHG - Middle High German 

Mír - Middle Irish 

MPers - Middle Persian 

MW - Middle Welsh 

Myc - Mycenaean 

NCauc - North Caucasian 

Norw - Norwegian 

NPers - Modern Persian 

OCS - Old Church Slavonic 

OE - Old English 

OESc - Old East Scandinavian 

OFrank - Old Frankish 

OHG - Old High German 

OHung - Old Hungarian 

Olr - Old Irish 

OLFr - Old Low Frankish 

ON - Old Norse 

OPic - Old Picardian 

OPrus - Old Prussian 

OS - Old Saxon 

Ose - Oscan 

OSwed - Old Swedish 

OW - Old Welsh 

PAlb - Proto-Albanian 

Phryg - Phrygian 

PIE - Proto-Indo-European 

Pkt - Prakrit 

Pol - Polish 

Rom - Romance 

Russ - Russian 

Sem - Semitic 

Skt - Sanskrit (including Vedic) 

Slav - Slav(on)ic 

Slvn - Slovené 

Sum - Sumerian 

Sweb - Swebian 

Swed - Swedish 

Umb - FIND 

W - Welsh 

WGmc - West Germanic 

Yns - Yenisseyan 

Grammatical terms 

acc. - accusative 
adj. - adjective 
coll. - collective 
empn. - compound 

comp. - comparative 
cons. - consonantal 
denom. - denominative 
derive. - derivative 


deverb. - deverbative pl. - plurál 

dial. - dialectal pln. - pláce name 

dim. - diminutive poet. - poetic 

ethn. - ethnonym prep. - preposition 

f. - feminine prop. - proper name 

impf. - imperfect ptcl. - particle 

indecl. - indeclinable reřl. - reflexive 

irreg. - irregular rvn. - river name 

m. - masculine sb. - substantíve 

mtn. - mountain name sbst. - substantivized 

n. - neuter sg. - singulár 

part. - participle theon. - theonym 
perf. - perfect 


*aba prep.: Goth af 'from, away from', 
ON af id, OE tC j oj id., OFris af, oj id., 
OS n/Td., OHG «ž>« id. (with secondary 
-a). Identical with Skt apa 'away, off', Av 
apa id., Gk traó, citTto 'from', Alb pa 
'withouť, Lat ab 'from'. Bartholomae 
72; Torp-Falk 15; Holthausen AEEW 
9; Walde-Hofmann I 1; Feist 3; 
Mayrhofer I 37; Pokorný I 53; Vries 
AMEW 2; Frisk I 122; Onions 624: 
Lehmann GED 2; Lloyd-Springer I 5—8 
Rluge-Seebold 2-3; Orel AED 307 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*abisjanan wk.vb.: ON ejsa 'to cut off', 
OE ejesian 'to cut, to round, to shear'. 
Probably derived from *aba. Vries 
AMEW 94. 

*abjon sb.f: ON eja 'mud, ooze', OE ebba 
'ebb' (mase), OFris ebba id., MDu ebbe id. 
Closely related to Gk cíjuoc; 'far away'. 
Derived from *aba. Torp-Falk 15; 
Holthausen AEE]V 87; Pokorný I 54; 
Vries AMEW 94; Frisk I 121-122; 
Onions 299; Kluge-Seebold 203. 

*abnjan sb.n.: ON ejni 'materiál, stuff', 
OE and-ejn 'equality, proportion, meas- 
ure, amounť. Related to Skt ápna- 
'possession, work', Gk ctcpvog 'riches, 
wealth' (with irregular -9-). Torp-Falk 
15-16; Holthausen AEEW 88; May- 
rhofer I 40; Vries AMEW 94. 

*abnjanan ~ *abnjójanan wk.vb.: ON 
efna 'to perform, to prepare, to make 
arrangements', OE ejnan 'to perform, to 
execute, to labor', OHG ebanon id. 
Derived from *abnjan. Torp-Falk 15— 
16; Holthausen AEEW 88; Vries 
AMEW 94. 

*ab5n sb.m.: Goth aha 'husband, man', 
ON afi 'grandfather, man', OHG prop. 
Abo. Probably, a Lallwort (Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXII 188, XXVII 113-1 14: nursery 
word for 'father'). Torp-Falk 15; Bez- 
zenberger BB XXI 296 (to * obraz and 
Lith úošvis 'father-in-law'); Lidén Studien 
73-74 (to IE *op- 'to be able, to bring 
abouť); Fórstemann AMD 111; Zimmer- 
mann BB XXLX 272 (to Etr apa 'father, 
husbanď); Schulze K£ Lil 311 (samé as 
Bezzenberger); Meringer IF XVII 
129, XVIII 208-209 (follows Lidén); 
Zachrisson Festschr. Kock 405 (to OE Aba, 
Abba, Aja); Feist 1; Pokorný I 2; Vries 
AMEW 2 (to *ajalan\ separates ON af. 
'man' from afi 'grandfather', the latter to 
Goth awo 'grandmother'); Zalizniak I 
152; Jucouois LBd LX 199-203; Benve- 
niste IEL 181; Lehmann GED 1 (against 
comparison of Goth wiuh ON). 

*abraz adj.: Goth abrs 'great, severe, 
extréme', ON ajr-endr at aflí 'very strong, 
valianť. Related to Mír abor- 'very', W 
ajr- id. (Loth RC XLII 64), Thrac prop. 
'APpo-^eAiiiq. Meyer Goth. 64 (to Skt 
abhva- 'monstrous'); Kluge K£ XXV (to 
Skt áprá- 'active, eager (?)'); Johansson IF 
III 239-241 (to Skt ámbha- 'power', Lat 
omnis 'all'); Bezzenberger BB XXI 296 
(to *abon); Fick K£ XLV 56-57 (samé 
as Johansson); Uhlenbeck Btrg. Gesch. 
XXX 253; Meillet Etudes 183 (to Slav 
*obr"b Avar'); Torp-Falk 16; Feist 1-2; 
Stender-Petersen Slav.-germ. 184-185 
(Slav *obrh from Gothic); Mezger K£ 
LXV 122-123 (foUows Bezzenberger); 
Vaillant RESl XXIX 122 (against 



Stender-Petersen); Jucouois LBd LX 
199-203; Wagner R'Z LXXV 58-75 (to 
Sum áb q 'to procreate', Akk abaru 'to be 
strong'); Jóhannesson IEW 86; Pokorný 
I 2; Vries AMEW 2-3; Vendryes A6-7; 
Lehmann GED 1; Bammesberger Mom. 
248; Heidermanns 93 (to Skt ápas- 'work, 
action', Lat opus 'work'). 

*abu prep.: ON au-virdi 'worthless wretch, 
damage', MHG abe 'from'. A variant of 
*aba. Cf. Gk Arc-Cypr ani for áizó. 
Pokorný I 55; Frisk I 122. 

*abu3az ~ *abuxaz adj.: ON qfugr 'bent 
back, inverteď, OS abuh 'evil', OHG abuh 
'bad, wrong'. Derived from *aba. Cf. sim- 
ilar but not identical derivatives in Skt 
ápáka- 'aside, back', Slav *opak"b 'back, 
back to front'. Schmidt Plur. 392; 
Kretschmer KZ XXXI 389; Torp-Falk 
15; Weisweiler IF XLI 345-350; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 2; Pokorný 154; Vries 
AMEW 685; Vasmer-Trubaghev III 
142; Lloyd-Springer I 33-35; Kluge- 
Seebold 6; Heidermanns 93-94. 

*adelaz ~ *adelón sb.m.: OSwed ko-adel 
'cow's urine', OE adela 'filth', MLG adel(e) 
'unpleasant dampness'. Of unknown ori- 
gin. Torp-Falk 10 (to Gk ov6o<; 'dung'); 
Holtuausen AEEW 2; Onions 12. 

*afalan sb.n.: ON afl 'strength', OE afol 
'power', OS abal id. The samé root is 
preserved in Gk áv-amXáaa.<;' ó.vap- 
pcoaQeíq, Hes., Ion EijjteXT|c; 'strong', Hom 
óX\yr\-KeXu\ 'weakness', Ion ávr|jteWT| • 
áaOéveia (Hes.). Torp-Falk 16; Hol- 
thausen AEEl\ r 2; Porzig Gliederung 130; 
Pokorný I 52; Vries AMEW 2 (OE < 
ON); Lehmann 1 (to *abón). 

*afalojanan wk.vb.: ON afla 'to acquire, 
to cause, to contrive', OHG part. avalonti 
'farmer'. Derived from *afalan. Torp- 
Falk 16; Vries AMEW 2, 94. 

*afarě adv.: Goth afar 'after', ON afar- 
'very' (in compounds), OHG avur 'again'. 
Related to Skt ápara- 'posterior, later', Av 
aparo id. Cf. *aba. Bartholomae 76-77; 
Torp-Falk 15; Feist 3-4; Mayrhofer I 
38; Pokorný I 54; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
107; Vries AMEW 2; Lehmann GED 2-3. 

*afaron sb.m.: Goth ajara 'descendanť, 
OE eafora 'heir, offspring, successor, son', 
OS avaro 'descendanť. Derived from 
*afart (Feist 4). Torp-Falk 15; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 83; Thyagaraju JEGP 
XLVII 180 (to *abdn); Vries AMEW 2 (to 
ON afi 'buttermilk'); Sghmidt Studien 164; 
Lehmann GED 3. 

*aftaně adv.: Goth aftana 'from behinď, 
ON aptan 'afterwards, again', OE iefian 
'behinď, OFris efta id., OS aftan 'eventu- 
ally', OHG aftan 'behind, from behinď. 
Derived from *a/íí. Holthausen AEE]\ t 
9; Feist 11; Pokorný I 54; Vries AMEW 
11; Onions 18; Lehmann GED 7; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aftan{5az ~ *ěbandaz sb.m.: ON 
aptann, eptann 'evening', OE éfen id., OFris 
evend, iound id., OS áband id., OHG aband 
id. Derived from *aftane (Johanisson 
MASO V 50-75) with taboo transforma- 
tions. Brugmann IFV 376 (to IE *epi ~ 
*opi); Wiedemann BB XXVIII 73 (samé 
as Brugmann); Holthausen AEEW 9; 
Pokorný I 324; Onions 331; Vries 
ANEW 11; Lloyd-Springer I 9-13; 
Beekes KZ CLX 231-232 (non-Indo- 
European); Kluge-Seebold 3—4. 

*aft(e)raz adj.: Goth aftaro 'in back of, 
from behinď (with analogical -o), ON 
eptir 'after', OE itfter id., OFris efter id., 
OS aftar id., OHG after id. Modification 
of a comparative degree of *aba influ- 
enced by *afta. Close to Skt apataram 
'farther off', OPers apataram 'away from, 
far away', Gk áTtraxépcD 'farther' (Brug- 
mann Grundrifi 11/ 1 324—326). Torp- 
Falk 15; Feist 11-12; Sghulze KZ XL 
414; Pokorný I 53; Schmidt Studien 262 
(to IE *opi); Mayrhofer I 37; Vries 
AMEW 11; Onions 18; Peeters SL 
XXLX, 59-60; Lehmann GED 8; Kluge- 
Seebold 18; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*afte adv.: Goth afta 'behinď, ON eft 
'after' (with e- from eftir), OE eft 'behind, 
again', OFris eft 'later, afterwards', OS eft, 
eht 'after'. Derived from *aba (Schmidt 
Studien 88). Holthausen AEEW 88; 
Feist 1 1; Pokorný I 53-54 (to Gk oitiOev 



'bchinď). Streitberg Bibel I 484 (Goth 
afla as an erroneous reading of aftrd); 
Lehmann GED 7-8; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aftrě adv.: Goth aftra 'back, again', ON 
aptr id. See *aft(e)raz. Torp-Falk 15; 
Feist 12; Pokorný I 53; Schmidt Studien 
262 (to IE *opi); Vries ÁNEW 11; 
Lehmann GED 8. 

*aftumón adj.: Goth aftuma 'aftermost, 
hindmosť. Superlative degree of *aia. Cf. 
*aftumistaz. Feist 12; Pokorný I 53; 
Lehmann GED 8; Bammesberger Mom. 

*aftumistaz adj.: Goth aftumists 'endmost, 
finál', OE teftemest 'lasť. Secondary super- 
lative based on *aftumon. Holthausen 
AEEW 9; Feist 12; Pokorný I 53; 
Lehmann GED 8; Bammesberger Mom. 

*a3a-laikín ~ *a3a-laikan sb.f./n.: Goth 
ag-laitei 'licentiousness, debauchery' (irreg- 
ular -t- < *-k-), OE (13-lác 'misery, grief, 
trouble'. Compound of *«3« (see *a3anan) 
and Haikan (Mezger Word II 66—71). 
Torp-Falk 9; Holthausen AEE] V 3; Auf- 
derhaar Lehnw. 28—31 (OHG agaleizi 'dili- 
gence, zeal' < Goth); Feist 14 (to *a3luz)', 
Scardigli Goten 227-228 (follows Aufder- 
haar); Lehmann GED 10. 

*a3anan str.vb.: Goth agan 'to be afraid of 
part. un-agands 'fearless'. Related to Gk 
a^oiiai 'to be sad, to mourn', Olr ad- 
ágathar 'to fear'. Torp-Falk 9; Feist 13, 
380-381 (on Goth og 'to be afraid of); 
Pokorný I 7; Vrtes ANEW 3; Frisk I 
202-203; Seebold 362; Peeters KZ XC 
9-10; Lehmann GED 9. 

*a3anó ~ *axanó sb.f: Goth ahana 
'chaff , ON Qgn id. (pl. agnir < fem. 
*a3aniz), OE e3en.11 'litde round heap' (< 
*a3Íno; pl. from fem. *a3anon), OS agana 
'chaff, OHG agana id. Derived from 
*a3az. Derivationally close to Skt asáni- 
'thunderbolt, tip of a missile', Gk aKaiva 
'spike, prick', aicavoc; 'pine-thisde', Lat 
agna 'ear (of grain)' < *akná, Lith ašnis 
'edge, blade', Latv asns 'new shooť. 
Aufrecht K^ I 353 (to Lat acus 'needle, 
pin'); Zupitza Gutt. 129; Torp-Falk 7; 

Holthausen AEE] I ' 89; Walde-Hofmann 
I 22-23; Feist 16; Mayrhofer I 59; 
Pokorný I 19-20; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
63; Fraenkel 18; Frisk I 49, 62; Vrtes 
AJVEW 685; Zalizniak II 194; Onions 
66; Lehmann GED 1 1 . 

*a3az sb.m.: Swed ag 'swamp grass', MLG 
ag 'perch'. For the etymology see *a3ano 
~ *axano. Pokorný 118. 

*a3ej5Ó sb.f: OE ejeáe, e3de 'rake, harrow', 
OFris eide id. OS egitha id., OHG egida id. 
Related to OW ocet id. < *okita, OPrus 
aketes id., Lith akěčios, ekěčios id. Torp- 
Falk 8; Hirt IF XXXVII 230 (also to 
Lat occa 'harrow'; Holthausen AEE]f 
88; Pokorný I 22; Chemodanov SGGJa 

I 62; Fraenkel 1 1 9; Ktuge-Seebold 

*a3ez sb.n.: Goth agis 'awe, fear', OE 
mase. e3e 'fear, horror, dreaď. An e^-stem 
derivationally identical with Gk neut. 
a%oq id. (Aufrecht KZ I 355). Further 
connected with *a3anan. Already in Goth 
oblique cases are based on *a3esan. Cf. 
mase. *a3eson id. > OE e3esa id., OS egisa 
id., OHG egiso id. Zupitza Gutt. 218; 
Torp-Falk 9; Holthausen AEE] V 89; 
Feist 14; Pokorný I 7; Chemodanov 
SGGJa 1110; Frisk I 202-203; Zalizniak 

II 223; Seebold 362; Lehmann GED 10; 
Plassmann Karg-Gasterstádt Festschr. 93- 
135 (to *a3wi- 'snake' in *a3wi-paxsjon); 
Bammesberger Nom. 211; Kluge-Seebold 

*a3in sb.f: Goth un-agei 'fearlessness', 
OHG egí 'fear'. Derived from *a3anan. 
Feist 13; Pokorný I 7; Vries ANEW 3; 
Zalizniak II 223; Onions 65; Lehmann 
GED 10; Heidermanns 94. 

*a3Ja-stainaz sb.m.: ON egg-steinn 'sharp 
stone', MLG egge-sten 'corner-stone', 
MHG ecke-stein id. Compound of *a3Jo 
and *stainaz. Carr Mom. comp. 83 (par- 
allel formations). 

*a3J5 sb.f: Burg *agja 'edge', ON egg id., 
OE ec3 'edge, angle, blade, sworď, OFris 
egg, ig 'edge, sworď, OS eggia id., MHG 
ecke 'sharp point, side'. Related to Gk 
ÚkÍ<; 'sharp point', Lat aciěs 'sharp edge' 



and other continuants of IE *ak- 'sharp'. 
Torp-Falk 8; Holthausen AEE]\ t 87; 
Walde-Hofmann I 8; Pokorný I 19; 
Vries ANEW 94; Zalizniak I 148; Frisk 
I 52; Onions 301; Bammesberger Nom. 
113; Kobler 708; Kluge-Seebold 204; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*a3J5janan wk.vb.: ON egg/a 'to incite, to 
goaď, OE ec^an 'to sharpen', OFris eggia 'to 
drive, to fence', MLG eggen 'to sharpen'. 
Derived from *a%jo. Holthausen AEEW 
87; Vxms ANEW 95. 

*a3ljanan wk.vb.: Goth agljan 'to harm', 
OE e^lan 'to trouble', MLG egelen 'to 
annoy', OHG egilen 'to tormenť. Derived 
from *ashuz- Holthausen AEE]V 89; 
Feist 15; Pokorný I 8; Onions 21; 
Lehmann GED 10; Heidermanns 95. 

*a3luz adj.: Gouh aglus 'difficult, toilsome', 
OE «3& 'troublesome, hateful'. Con- 
nected with Skt aghá- 'baď, Av ayo id. 
Schweizer K~l I 151; Wtedemann BB 
XXVIII 50 (to Gk áxlvq 'fog'); 
Bartholomae 47-48; Torp-Falk 9 (to 
Gk 6%^-oq 'crowd, throng'); Feist 15; 
Holthausen AEE1\' 89; Mezger JVordll 
67; Mayrhofer I 19; Pokorný I 8; 
Lehmann GED 10; Bammesberger Nom. 
249; Heidermanns 95. 

*a3nan sb.n.: ON agn 'baiť. From *aknó-. 
Related to *axjanan. Structurally close to 
Skt neut. áíana- 'meal'. Torp-Falk 8; 
Pokorný I 18; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
106; Vries A/VEII'3. 

*a3uraz sb.m.: ON qgr 'kind of fish, carp'. 
Derivationally close to Olr aicher 'sharp', 
Lith ešeiys, dial. ašerys 'perch', Latv asars, 
asaris id. (Moller KZ XXIV 466). Fur- 
ther related to IE *ak- 'sharp'. Torp- 
Falk 23; Trautmann BS]\ 7 14; Pokorný 
I 20; Fraenkel 125. 

*a3wi-baxsjón sb.f: OE áSexe 'lizarď, OS 
egithassa, ewithissa id., OHG egidehsa id. 
Compound consisting of *a^wi- (from 
*og'hi-, cf. Skt áhi- 'snake', Gk ocpvg id., 
Kluge apud Zupitza Gutt. 99) and 
*paxsjon derived from *\>exsanan. Torp- 
Falk 9; Holthausen AEE\V 8; Mayr- 
hofer I 68; Pokorný I 44; Frisk II 453. 

*a3wja-lančtan ~ *axwja-landan sb.n.: 
ON ey-land 'island', OE íyland id., OFris 
a-lond id., MLG ei-lant, eyg-lant id. Com- 
pound of *a3wjo ~ *axwjo and *landan. 
Onions 486-487; Kluge-Seebold 209; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*a3wjó ~ *axwjó sb.f: ON ey 'island', 
OE Í3 id., OFris «, ey id., OHG ouwa id. 
Pln. Okim (Jordanes 60.15) < Goth *aujan 
and -avia in Scandinavia belong here. 
Derived from *axwo (Bugge K^ XI 
403-404). Torp-Falk 9; Holthausen 
^LE£ir 186; Feist 18; Pokorný I 23; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 54; Zalizniak I 
148; Vries ANEW 106; Onions 486; 
Darms Vrddhi 25; Lehmann GED 13; 
Lloyd-Springer I 99—103; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 113; Kxuge-Seebold 61; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*a3wnojanan wk.vb.: OE eánian 'to yean, 
to bring forth (of ewe)', WFris eandje id., 
Du dial. oonen id. Based on the unattested 
*a3wnaz identical with Lat agnus 'lamb', 
Gk dnvó<; id., Olr úan id., Slav *agn^ id. 
Specifically close to Slav *agniti s^ 'to 
bring foruh (of ewe)'. Meillet BSL 
XXrV 183-184 (isolates Gk and Lat); 
Walde-Hofmann I 23; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 59; Pokorný I 9; Frisk I 93; 
Onions 1019; Trubaohev Zh'V- 71—73, 
ESSJa I 54-55; Dybo BSA 123-124. 

*axaz(an) sb.n.: Goth ahs 'ear of grain', 
ON ax id., OE ear id., OFris ar id., OS 
ahar id., OHG ehir id. Related to Toch B 
Sk 'ear of grain (?)', Gk ityy~t\ 'foam, 
chaff ' < *aksnd, Lat acus id. (í-stem), Slav 
*ostb 'spike of corn, sharp point', *osera 
'ear, spike of corn'. Zupitza Gutt. 129 
Torp-Falk 7-8; Holthausen AEE1V 85 
Walde-Hofmann I 11; Feist 1 7-1 8 
Pokorný I 22; Chemodanov SGGJa I 63 
Vries ANEW 21; Frisk I 202; Zalizniak 

II 223; Onions 297; Vasmer-Trubaohev 

III 167; Trubachev Etun. 1968 60 (OHG 
ahir < *akero- = Slav *osera, Lith ašays 
'perch'); Lehmann GED 12; Lloyd- 
Springer I 95-98; Bammesberger Nom. 
212; Kluge-Seebold 21; Adams TB 



*axiraz ~ *axuraz sb.m.: Dan ar 
'maple', Germ dial. Acher id. Related 
to Lat acer id. Walde-Hofmann I 6—7; 
Pokorný I 20. 

*axjanan wk.vb.: ON £Ja 'to bait, to resť. 
Probably derivationally close to Skt 
áíayati 'to make eať (to Skt ašnati 'to eat, 
to consume'). Torp-Falk 8; Mayrho- 
fer I 60; Pokorný I 18. 

*axmaz sb.m.: Swed dial. am 'swamp 
grass'. Derivationally similar to Gk dK(ir| 
'point, edge' < *ak-m- 'sharp point'. 
Pokorný 119; Frisk I 153-54. 

*axslo sb.f.: ON qxl 'shoulder-joinť (from 
fem. *axsliz), OE eaxel 'shoulder', eaxle id. 
(on-stem), OFris axle, axele id., OS ahsla 
id., OHG ahsla id. [5- and on-stem). 
Derived from *axso. Derivationally simi- 
lar to Lat ala id. < *agsld. Zupitza 
Gutt. 187; Pveichelt WuS XII 112-114: 
Torp-Falk 8; Holthausen AEEW 87 
Walde-Hofmann I 25; Pokorný I 6 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 89; Vries ANEW 
689; Zalizniak II 1 95; Lloyd-Springer I 
114-116; FCluge-Seebold 12. 

*axsó sb.f.: OE eax 'axis, axle', OFris axe 
id., MLG asse id., OHG ahsa id. Related 
to Skt áksa- 'axle', Gk aí^cov id., Lat axis 
id., Olr aiss id., Lith ašis id., Latv ass id., 
Slav *osb. Torp-Falk 8; Meillet BSL 
XXV 144; Trautmann BSW 14-15; Rei- 
chelt WuS XII 112-114; Holthausen 
AEE]V 87; Benveniste Origines 7; Walde- 
Hofmann I 89; Mayrhofer I 16; 
Pokorný I 6; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
108; Fraenkel 19; Frisk I 116; 
Zalizniak I 146; Vasmer-Trubachev III 
167-168; Lloyd-Springer I 113-114; 
ICluge-Seebold 11-12. 

*axsulaz sb.m.: ON qxull 'axle'. Derived 
from *axso. Derivationally close to W echel 
id., Bret ahel id. < *aksila. Torp-Falk 8; 
Pokorný I 185; ICluge-Seebold 11. 

*axt5u mim.: Goth ahtau 'eighť, ON átta 
id., OE eahta id., OFris achta id., OS ahto 
id., OHG ahto id. Continues the Indo- 
European word for 'eighť: Toch A okát, 
B okt-, Skt astáu, astá, Av ašta, Gk oktco, 
Arm uť, Lat octo, Olr ocht n-, Lith astuoni. 

Zupitza Gutt. 188; Bartholomae 260; 
Torp-Falk 8; Muller IF XLIV 137 
138; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 103, 392 
Walde-Hofmann II 199-200; Feist 18 
Mayrhofer I 63; Pokorný I 22, 775 
Fraenkel 19-20; Vries ANEW 1 7; Frisk 
II 374-375; Onions 304; Lehmann GED 
12; Lloyd-Sprlnger I 121-124; Ross- 
Berns Numerals 588—589; ICluge-Seebold 
12; Adams TB 110; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*axtudon ~ *axtub5n mim.: Goth 
ahtuda 'eighth', ON átte id., OHG ahtodo 
id. Other forms, ON áttandi, OFris ach- 
tunda, MLG achtende and the like, were 
restructured under the influence of 
*seiunian ~ *seíunpan. Torp-Falk 8; 
Feist 18; Vries ANEW 17; Ross-Berns 
Numerals 629-630; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*axurnaz sb.m.: OS ahorn 'maple', OHG 
ahorn id. Derivationally close to Gk 
«Kapva- 8á<pvr| (Hes.), Lat acernus 'of 
maple-tree'. Connected with *axiraz 
~ *axuraz. Walde-Hofmann I 6-7; 
Pokorný I 20; Lloyd-Sprtnger I 110- 
113; FCluge-Seebold 20-21. 

*axwa-ťíukk5n sb.f: ODan a-dokke 'water- 
dock', OE éa-docce id. Compound of *axwo 
and *dukkon. Onions 280. 

*axwalaz sb.m.: ON soš-áll 'flesh-hook' (= 
Lat fusánula), OE neut. awel 'awl', OHG 
ahil 'point of the ear (of corn)'. Deriva- 
tionally similar to Lat aculeus 'spině', W ebil 
'drill' < *akullio-. Connected with IE *ak- 
'sharp', see *a^ano ~ *axano. Torp-Falk 8; 
Holthausen AEEW 8; Walde-Hofmann 
111; Pokorný I 1 9; Chemodanov SGGJa 
I 63, 107; Vries XAEn' 6. 

*axwo sb.f: Goth atva 'flowing body of 
water, river', ON á 'river', OE eá 
'running water, stream' (root stem), OFris 
a, ě id., OS aha id., OHG aha id. Iden- 
tical with Lat aqua id. Zupitza Gutt. 
60; Torp-Falk 9; Bonfante IF Lil 
225; Holthausen ^££11' 82; Walde- 
Hofmann I 60; Feist 18-19; Porzig 
Gliederung 100-101, 205-207 (on the rela- 
tion with *ap- 'river'); Wagner K^ 
LXXV 67 (to *ekttos); Jungandreas ^dPh 
IX 113 (ON to Gmc theon. ON Yngm, 



OE In.3, OS Ing); Pokorný I 23; Chemo- 
danov SSGJa I 54; Vries ANEW 1; 
Zalizniak II 205; Onions 487; Lehmann 
GED 12-13; Bammesberger Nom. 199; 
Lloyd-Springer I 99-103; Kluge- 
Seebold 1 1 ; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aidaz sb.m.: Crim. Goth sched-iit 'lighť, 
OE id 'funeral pile', OS id 'firebranď, 
OHG eit id. Identical with Skt édha- 'fuď, 
Gk od8o<; 'firebranď, Olr áed 'fire'. 
Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 57; Torp-Falk 2; 
Wood JEGP XIII 504; Holthausen 
AEEW 2; Feist 414; Mayrhofer I 128; 
Pokorný 111; Frisk I 37—38; Lehmann 
GED 298. 

*aidsón sb.f.: ON eisa 'glowing embers', 
MLG ěse 'hearth'. Derived from *aidaz. 
Reflects an originál j-stem *aidhes-. 
Torp-Falk 3; Vries ANEW 97-98; 
Pokorný 112. 

*aÍ3anan ~ *aÍ3enan sb.n.: Goth aigin 
'belongings, possessions, property', ON 
eigin 'one's own, of property', OE á^en 
'property', OFris ěgin, ein id., OS ěgan id., 
OHG eigan id. Substantivized *aÍ3anaz ~ 
*aÍ3enaz. Holthausen AEEW 10; Vries 
ANEW 95; Seebold 69-70. 

*aÍ3anaz ~ *aÍ3enaz adj.: ON eiginn 
'own', OE á^en id., OFris ein, egen id., OS 
ěgan id., OHG eigan id. Past participle of 
*aixa. Torp-Falk 1 ; Holthausen AEE] I ' 
10; Vries ANEW 96; Onions 638; Bout- 
kan OFED s.v. 

*aÍ3enan sb.n.: ON eigin 'seeď, MLG Tne 
'shoot, sprouť. Related to Lith áiža 
'crack, rifť, tížiti 'to be peeleď, éižéti 
'to jump up, to start up'. Fick III 2 
(to *aik- 'spear'); Torp-Falk 2; Bezzex- 
berger BB XXVII 166; Pokorný I 15; 
Fraenkel 4; Vries ANEW 95-96. 

*aÍ3enójanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-aiginon 'to 
appropriate', ON eigna 'to dedicate, to 
attribute'. Cf. also *aÍ3eněnan in OE ájmare 
'to possess, to own, to appropriate', MLG 
ěgenen id., OHG eigenen 'to také possession 
of. Derived from *aÍ3anaz ~ *aÍ3enaz. 
Holthausen AEEW 3; Feist 20; Vrdís 
ANEW 96; Lehmann GED 14; Kluge- 
Seebold 209. 

*aÍ3on sb.f: ON eiga 'ownership, prop- 
erty', OE Í3e 'property'. Derived from 
*aixa. Holthausen AEE]ť 3; Vries 
ANEW 9b; Seebold 69. 

*aÍ3wiskaz adj.: Goth un-aiwisks 'blame- 
less', OE dwisc 'disgraced, ashamed, 
abashed', MLG eisch 'hateful'. Related 
and structurally similar to Gk aía^o? 
'shame' < *aig"hsko- (Fick I 345-346), cf. 
*aÍ3wjanan > OE éwan 'to despise, to 
scorn' (Wood MLN XVI 309). Torp- 
Falk 2 (to Gk aiox ? 'shame'); Holt- 
hausen AEE] V 14; Feist 30; Pokorný I 
14; Frisk I 146-47; Mezger KZ LXXLX 
38—41 (to *aiwaz ~ *aiwiz); Beck Gedenk- 
schr. Gůntert 53, 55; Puhvel IF LXXXIII 
138 (agrees with Mezger); Seebold KZ 
LXXXI 123; Lehmann GED 21; Kluge- 
Seebold 214. 

*aixa str.vb.: Goth aih 'to háve, to own', 
ON á id., OE áh id., OFris aga, hága id., 
OS pl. ěgun id., OHG pl. eigun id. Related 
to Toch B aik- 'to know, to recognize', 
Skt Iše, iste 'to possess, to own', Av aěs- 'to 
dominate' (Pedersen Gr. 31). Schweizer 
KZ I 153; Bartholomae 26; Torp-Falk 
1; Feist 20; Holthausen AEE1\ t 10; 
Jóhannesson IEW 46; Mayrhofer I 96; 
Pokorný I 299; Zalizniak I 150; Vries 
ANEW 95; Onions 638; Seebold 69-72; 
Lehmann GED 14; Kluge-Seebold 
208-209; Adams TB 101-102; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*aixtiz sb.f: Goth aihts 'belongings, pos- 
sessions, property', ON étt, átt 'family, 
race', OE éht 'possessions, property, 
power', OHG ěht 'property, power'. Deri- 
vative in *-ti- of *aixa. Close to Av išti- 
'ability, power, property'. Bartholo- 
mae 376—377; Torp-Falk 1; Holthausen 
AEEW 10; Feist 20; Mezger W^UG VI 
218-220; Pokorný I 298-299; Zalizniak 
I 150; Seebold 70; Lehmann GED 14; 
Bammesberger Nom. 143. 

*aikanan str.vb.: Goth aj-aikan 'to děny, 
to abjure', OHG in-eihhan 'to claim' 
(gloss, = in-sageri). Related to Mír éigid 'to 
shouť. Further cf. *aixtrojanan > Goth 
aihtron 'to beg, to pray', a denominative 



based on the unattested *aixtra- — Gk 
oiKxpó<; 'pitiable'. Bezzenberger %iPh 
V 229-230 (from *aig- 'to spring'); 
Sutterlin IF TV 101 (to Gk BÍTOV 'to 
speak, to say'); Grienberger Goten 4 
(to Gk T]|jí 'to say'); Torp-Falk 1; 
Uhlenbeok PBB XXVII 114 (to Slav 
*izt 'out, from'); Feist 3; Foes JEGP 
XLII 270 (to Gk oiKxoq 'waiting', Mír 
éigid 'to cry'), Goth. 2-3; Bailey BSOAS 
XXI 536-538 (to Toch en- 'to instrucť, 
Gk ávaívonai 'to refuse, to renounce, to 
spurn'); Pokorný I 298; Frisk II 361 
362; Seebold 72-73; Lehmann GED 2. 

*aikínaz adj.: Burg *aikins, ON eikirm 
'oaken', OE écen, ácen id., OFris ězen, ětzen 
id., MLG ěken id., OHG eihhín id. De- 
rived from *aikz. Holthausen AEE1T 8; 
Vries ANEW 96; Kobler 708. 

*aikwernón ~ *íkwernón sb.m.: ON 
íkorni 'squirrel', OE ácwern id. (neut.), 
MLG ekeren, ekhom id., OHG eihhurno id. 
A taboo transformation of the name 
attested in Lat uměna 'weasď, Bret gwiber 
'squirrď, Lith véveris, vaiveris id., Slav 
*věverica id., probably influenced by *aikz 
and formations in *-em-, cf. *pe3wemo(n). 
Torp-Falk 27 (to Skt éjati 'to stir, to 
move'); Much ZDADL XLII 166 (the first 
part to ON eikinn 'savage'); Schrader BB 
XV 134 (the first component to Skt ejati 
'to stir, to move'); Holthausen AEEW 1; 
Specht KZ LXII 253-254 (Lat uluerra < 
*m-uer-sa)\ Walde-Hofmann II 808; 
Pokorný I 14 (compound of *aik- con- 
nected with Skt éjati 'to move' and *wern- 
related to Lith vaiveris 'squirrel', Slav 
*věverica id.); Fraenkel 1233; Vries 
ANEW 284; Kluge-Seebold 207 (recon- 
structs *aikurnari). 

*aikz sb.f: Burg *aiks 'oak', ON eik id., 
OE ác id., OFris ek id., OS ěk id. (í-stem), 
OHG eih id. (z-stem). Compared with Gk 
aiy(Xco\)/ 'kind of oak', with the second 
component identified with Xáy xhcniix;, 
Hes., Xoiióq 'shell, bark', Lat aesculus 'kind 
of oak' (Kretschmer Glotta III 335). 
Schrader iC^X 461-462 (to Gk aiyavéri 
'hunting spear'); Kuhn KZ LXXI 151 (to 

*akranari); Torp-Falk 1; Holthausen 
^££11^ 2; Pokorný I 13; Vries ANEW 
96; Frisk I 31; Zalizniak II 205; Pisani 
St. balt. X 52 (to OPrus ansonis 'oak'); 
Onions 619; Bammesberger JVom. 195; 
Griepentrog I Vurzelnomina 21-32; Kob- 
ler 708; Kluge-Seebold 207. 

*ailan sb.n.: OE ál 'fláme'. Despite pho- 
netic difficulties, probably from *aíálan 
connected with *aiiaz (Sievers IF IV 
339). Derivationally close to Mír áel 
'lime' < *aidh-lo-. Fick KZ I (NF) 3-4 
(to Lat ad-oleo 'to burn'); Johansson ^dPh 
XXXI 285-288 (influenced by IE *alcto: 
Skt neut. alata- 'fire-brand, coal'); Wood 
JEGP XIII 500 (to OE ile 'hard skin'); 
Holthausen AEEW 3; Pokorný I 12; 
Vries ANEW 99-100. 

*ailidaz sb.m.: ON eldr 'fire', OE tekd 'fire, 
conflagration', OS Ěd 'fire'. Derived from 
*ailjanan. Torp-Falk 3-4 (to W ailuyd 
'hearth' < *aileta); Holthausen AEEW 
10; Pokorný I 12; Vrtes ANEW 99-1 00; 
Onions 38. 

*ailjanan wk.vb.: OE telan 'to kindle, to 
set on fire, to burn'. Derived from *ailan. 
Torp-Falk 3; Holthausen AEEW 10; 
Pokorný 112. 

*aimaz sb.m.: ON eimr 'reek, vapor', OE 
ám 'reed, slay of a weaver's loom', E dial. 
oam 'warm winď. Continues *ai-mo- or, 
better, *aidh-smo-, eventually related to 
*aidh- 'to burn', cf. in particular Av aesma- 
'firewood', Lith íesmé id. Bartholomae 
26-27; Holthausen AEE]V 3; Pokorný I 
11-12; Vries ANEW 96; Onions 308. 

*aimuzjon sb.f: ON eimyrja 'embers', OE 
émyrie, dmer^e id., MLG emere id., OHG 
eimuria 'pyre, hot ash'. Derived from 
*aimaz (Kluge KZ XXVI 84). Torp- 
Falk 32; Holthausen AEEW 11; Vries 
ANEW 96; Onions 308; Kluge-Seebold 
34 (compound of *aimaz and *usjon > ON 
poet. ysja 'fire'). 

*aina-au3Jaz adj.: ON ein-eygr 'one-eyeď, 
OE án-eá^e id., MLG ein-oge id., OHG 
ein-ougi id. Compound of *ainaz and 
*au$jaz. Carr Nom. comp. 64. 

* aina-buranaz ~ *aina-fourenaz adj.: 



ON ein-borinn 'ordy begotten', OE án-boren 
id., OHG ein-boran 'unique, sole'. Com- 
pound of *ainaz and participle of *tera- 
nan. Carr Mom. comp. 92 (calque of Lat 

*aina-áa3Ón sb.m.: ON ein-dagi 'term for 
pay', OE án-daja 'fixed day, time 
appointed, day appointed for hearing a 
cause', OS ěn-dago 'day of death'. Com- 
pound of *ainaz and *ia^az. Krogmann 
EngS LXX 40—43 (compares *ain- with 
Skt inóti 'to advance upon, to press upon'; 
cf. *ferino); Torp-Falk 199; Holthausen 
AEEW 4; Carr Mom. comp. 58; Pokorný 
I 241-242; Lehmann GED 86. 

*aina-faldaz adj.: Goth ain-falps 'in one 
piece, simple', ON ein-Jaldr id., OE án- 
feald 'simple, single, one, alone', OFris en- 
fald 'singulár, single', OS en-fald id., OHG 
ein-falt 'pure, single'. Compound of *ainaz 
and *faldaz. Feist 23; Carr Mom. comp. 
64-65; Lehmann GED 16; Heidermanns 
187-188; Rluge-Seebold 211; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*aina-f5tjaz adj.: ON ein-fíttr 'one- 
leggeď, OE án-Jéte id. Compound of 
*ainaz and *fótjaz (see *fotz ~ *fotuz). 
Carr Mom. comp. 65. 

*aina3az ~ *aine3az pron., adj.: Goth 
ainaha 'only, sole' (< *ainaxaz), ON einigr, 
eingi 'none, any', OE tenis ' an y ; anyone', 
OFris enich 'only', OS ěnig id., OHG sbst. 
einago 'hermit, monk'. Derived from 
*ainaz. Cf. a similar derivation in Lat 
umcus id. (Solmsen PBB XXVII 356). 
Torp-Falk 3, 557 (to Slav *inoki, 'monk' 
but *-ok r b < *ok*o-); Holthausen AEE]V 
11; Walde-Hofmann II 821; Feist 22; 
Pokorný I 286; Vries AMEW31; Onions 
41; Lehmann GED 16; Ross-Berns 
Mumerals 656-657; Fvluge-Seebold 211- 
212; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aina-xandjaz adj.: ON ein-hendr 'single - 
handeď, OE án-hende id., OHG ein-henti 
id. Compound of *ainaz and *xanďjaz (see 
*xanduz). Carr Mom. comp. 65. 

*aina-xarčtuz adj.: ON ein-hardr 'coura- 
geous, constanť, OS en-hard 'hostile, evil', 
OHG ein-harti 'courageous, constanť. 

Compound of *ainaz and *xariuz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 63. 

*aina-xlaupiz adj.: ON ein-hleypr 'single, 
unmarrieď, OE án-hlíepe id., latě OS en- 
lope 'alone, single'. Derived from *ainaz 
and *xlaupan. Holthausen AEE]V 163; 
Carr Mom. comp. 62; Seebold 260; 
Matzel Festschr. Schroder 259-261, ££ 
CV 129; Heidermanns 293. 

*ain(a)kai adv.: ON einka- 'only, speciál' 
(in compounds), Du ěnec 'alone'. Derived 
from *ainaz. Cf. a similar pattern in Slav 
*jbnog"h 'single' and Cypr íyyia. Vries 
AMEW 99; Trubachev ESSJa VIII 231; 
Lehmann GED 16. 

*ainak(i)laz adj.: Goth ainakls 'alone, 
standing alone', ON name of a sea-king 
Ekkill, OSwed sbst. icnkill 'widower', 
MLG enkel 'single'. Derived from *ain(a)kai. 
Grienberger Got. 14 (from *ain-ak-l-az, 
cf. *akanan); Feist 22-23; Vries AMEW 
99; Lehmann GED 16; Ross-Berns 
Mumerals 658. 

*aina-lifa ~ *aina-lifoa num.: Goth 
ainlif 'eleven', ON ellifu id., OE endleojan 
id., OFris andlova, elleva id., OS clleban id., 
OHG einlif id. Most of WGmc forms 
háve a secondary -(a)n. Compound of 
*ainaz and Hif- 'lefť (see Haibjancm). A sim- 
ilar structure is found in Lith vienuólika id. 
in which -lika is identical widr Gmc *lif- 
(Grimm Germania I 19, DG II 946-947). 
Meillet MSL XV 259; Zupitza Gutt. 12; 
Torp-Falk 3; Bezzenberger K^ XLIV 
133-135; Holthausen AEE]V 91; Feist 
23; Porzig Glieckrung 146; Pokorný I 
670; Chemodanov SGGJa I 74-75; 
Fraenkel 1239-1240; Vries AMEW 
101; Onions 306; Lehmann GED 17; 
Ross-Berns Mumerals 593—596 (*aini- in 
Goth); Kluge-Seebold 217; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*aina-lifton num.: ON ellepti 'eleventh', 
OE ellyfla, endlefta id., OFris andlofta id., 
OS ellifto id., OHG einlifto id. Derived 
from *aina-lifa ~ *aina-liia. Ross-Berns 
Mumerals 633-634; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aina-líkaz adj.: OSwed ěnlíker 'alone', 
OE énlíc 'singulár, incomparable, excel- 



lenť. Derived from *ainaz. Ross-Berns 
Numer ah 663. 

*aina-naxtjaz adj.: ON ein-náttr 'one 
night olď, OE adv. án-nihte id., MHG ein- 
nehte id. Gompound of *ainaz and *naxtjaz 
(see *naxtz). Carr Mom. comp. 65. 

*aina-rěďaz adj.: ON ein-rádr 'self-willeď, 
OE án-rdd 'one-minded, unanimous, 
agreeď, OHG ein-rati 'secreť. Com- 
pound of *ainaz and *retaz. Carr Mom. 
comp. 94—95 (parallel formations). 

*aina-stapón sb.m.: ON ein-stapi 'a kind 
of fern, Pteris aquilina', OE án-stapa 'lone 
wanderer'. Compound of *ainaz and 
*stapan. Carr Mom. comp. 87 (parallel 

*aina-walti6n sb.m.: ON ein-valdi 'mo- 
narch', OE án-wealda 'sovereign, gover- 
nor'. Compound of *ainaz and *walían. 
Carr Mom. comp. 87 (calque of Lat 
monarchus in OE). 

*aina-wÍ3Jan sb.n.: ON ein-vígi 'single 
combať, OE án-wíj id., OHG ein-wígi id. 
Compound of *ainaz and *wT^jan (see 
*wi3<zn). Carr Mom. comp. 58. 

*ainaz num.: Goth ains 'one', ON einn id., 
OE án id., OFris an, in, on id., OS en 
id., OHG ein id. Identical with Lat unus 
id., Olr óen id., OPrus ains id. further 
related to Skt éka- id., Av aivo id., Gk oíoq 
id. Bartholomae 22-24; Pedersen Kelt. 
Gr. I 57, 447; Torp-Falk 3; Holthausen 
AEEWA; Walde-Hofmann II 821; Feist 
24; Mayrhofer I 126; Pokorný I 
281-286; Vries AMEW 97; Frisk II 367; 
Onions 627; Toporov PJa I 63-64; 
Lehmann GED 17; Bammesberger Mom. 
227; Ross-Berns Mumerals 559-561; 
Kíuge-Seebold 210; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*airaz ~ *airuz sb.m.: Goth airus 'emis- 
sary, messenger', ON árr, qrr 'messenger', 
OE ar 'messenger, herald', OS er 'messen- 
ger' (< *airiz). Probably, a derivative of 
*airi. Grienberger Goten 15; Torp- 
Faek 3; Wiedemann BB XXVIII 46; 
Wood MLM XIII 82 (from *ei- 'to go'); 
Bugge PBB XXIV 430-433 (to *airo); 
Meringer IF XVIII 249-251 (to *aija- 
nan); Holthausen PBB LXVI 267 (to ON 

irask 'to be rumored abroaď), AEE\V 6; 
Feist 26-27; Vries AMEW 14; Zalizniak 
II 198; Lehmann GED 19; Bammesberger 
Mom. 66. 

*airi adv.: Goth air 'early', ON ar id., OE 
ér 'previously, before', OS «' id., OHG er 
id. Continues loc. *ai(e)ri. Related to Av 
ayara 'day', Gk riépio? 'early'. Cf. com- 
parative *airiz > Gotír airis 'before, ear- 
lier', ON ter id., OE ér 'early, former', 
OFris er 'before, earlier', OS er id., OHG 
er id. and superlative *airistaz > OE érest 
'firsť, OS erist id., OHG adv. ěrist id. 
Fick K^_ XXII 95-96; Bartholomae 
157; Torp-Falk 3; Holthausen AEE]V 
12; Feist 24-25; Sohulze Kl. Schr. 825, 
833; Pokorný I 12; Vries AMEW 12, 
681; Frisk I 624; Onions 323-324; 
Lehmann GED 1 8; Kluge-Seebold 
205-206; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*airi-ďa3az sb.m.: ON pl. ár-dagar 'days of 
yore', OE pl. ér-da^as id., OS pl. ěr-dagos 
id. Cf. also OHG adj. er-tagig 'of yester- 
day, before the dawn'. Compound of *airi 
and *da$az. Carr Mom. comp. 58. 

*airin5janan wk.vb.: Goth airinon 'to be 
an emissary, to be a messenger', ON árna 
'to intercede, to pray'. Derived from *airaz 
~ *airuz. Feist 25; Vries AMEW 14. 

*airi-wakraz adj.: ON ár-vakr 'early 
awake', OHG ěr-wackar id. Compound of 
*airi and *wakraz. Carr Mom. comp. 63. 

*airó sb.f: ON ár 'oar', OE ar id. Of 
unknown origin. Bugge PBB XXrV 
429 (to *roanan); Torp-Falk 3; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 7; Pokorný I 298 (to Gk 
ouxí; 'handle of rudder'); Vries AMEW 
12; Onions 619; Lehmann GED 19. 

*aisk5janan wk.vb.: OE ascian 'to 
inquire, to ask', OFris askia 'to demand, 
to claim', OS ěscon 'to promote, to fur- 
ther', OHG eiscon 'to search, to look for'. 
Related to Skt ésati 'to seek', iccháti, 'to 
seek, to wish' < *is-ske-, Av aeš- id., Arm 
hayc'em 'to beg', Lith ieškau, ieškóti 'to seek', 
Slav Hskah id. (Fick BB XVI 170-171). 
Bugge KZ III 40-41; Bartholomae 
28-31; Torp-Falk 4; Trautmann BSW 
67; Holthausen AEE]V 7; Mayrhofer I 




85; Pokorný I 16; Fraenkel 182; 
Onions 54; Trubachev ESSJa VIII 
238-239; Kluge-Seebold 366; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*aiskrójanan wk.vb.: ON eiskra 'to roar, 
to rage'. A denominative based on the 
unattested *aiskran. Related to Lith áiškus 
'clear' and derivationally close to Slav 
*jbskra 'sparkle' (< neut.). Persson Bei- 
fráge 950; Johansson /FXLX 112-114 (to 
Lat aestus 'heať); Fraenkel 3; Pokorný I 
16-17; Trubachev ESSJa VIII 239-240. 

*aitaz sb.m.: OHG eiz 'abscess'. Related 
to Arm aitnum 'to swell', Gk oíSréco id. 
(Fick K2^ I 5-6). Structurally close to 
Gk neut. 01805 'swelling, tumor'. Torp- 
Falk 2; Pokorný I 774; Frisk II 357- 
358; Keuge-Seebold 214. 

*aitilaz adj.: ON sbst. eitill 'nodule in 
stone', EFris eitel 'fast, raging', OHG sbst. 
eizzala 'gallnuť. Derived from *aitaz. 
Bezzenberger BB XXVII 172; Vries 
ANEJV98; Kluge-Seebold 214. 

*aitón sb.f.: OE éte 'oats', OS eriwit 'pea' 
(< *arwa-aito), OHG araweiz id. (< *arwa- 
aito). May be related to *aitaz (Wood 
JEGP XIII 500). For the semantic dev- 
elopment cf. Gk oíSaí; 'unripe fig'. 
Wiedemann BB XXVIII 46, 50 (recon- 
structs *araw-ait- with suff. *-ait-)\ 
Holthausen AEEJ\ t 7; Pokorný I 774; 
Onions 619; Iíluge-Seebold 228. 

*aitran sb.n.: ON eitr 'poison', OE étor id., 
OFris áter 'pus', atter id., OS ettor id., 
OHG eitar id. Derived from *aitaz. If 
originally from *'swelling', can be directiy 
compared with Slav *idro 'womb, lap'. 
Torp-Falk 2; Holthausen AEE]V 8; 
Pokorný I 774; Vries AMEW 98; 
Zalizniak I 138; Fvluge-Seebold 214 (to 
Slav *éďh 'poison'). 

*aipa-stabaz m: ON eiS-stajř 'wording of 
an oath', OE áo-sttef oath', OS ěd-staj id., 
MHG eit-stap id. Compound of *aipaz 
and *staiaz. Carr Mom. comp. 46. 

*aibaz sb.m.: Goth aips 'oath', ON eior id. 
(gen. sg. reflects *aipiz), OE ád id., OFris 
ěth, ěd id., OS ěth id., OHG eid id. 
Identical with Olr óeth id. and, probably, 

with Gk oítoi; 'fate', OPhryg oito- id. 
(Meringer IF XVIII 295; Grlenberger 
Goten 16). These forms could be (but not 
necessarily are) derived from *ei- 'to walk' 
(Brugmann IF XXXVII 241) or related 
to Hitt hni- 'to believe, to trust' (Puhvel 
III 9-10). Arbois de Jubainville MSL 
VII 292 (from Celtic, cf. Olr oeth 'oath'); 
Osthoff BB XXIV 208-209 (to Gk 
odvo<; 'consenť); Torp-Falk 2; Bartho- 
lomae /FXII 30 (compares oitoc; with Av 
aéta- 'punishment'); Merlmger IF XVIII 
295 (to *ei- 'to go'); Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 
58 (to Lat útor 'to neeď); Holthausen 
AEEW 8; Feist 29; Tucker Notes 36 (to 
Gk Ítt|Xo<; 'abiding'); Lané Language LX 
246 (from Celtic); Krahe Spr. Vorz- 134; 
Porzig Gliederung 121; Pokorný I 11, 
295; Chemodanov SGGJa I 96; Vries 
ANEU' 95; Zalizniak II 185; Onions 
619; Frisk II 370-371; Benveniste 393, 
433; Chantraine 788; Scardigli Goten 
53-54 (against the Celtic etymology); 
Polome JIES XI 281-298; Lehmann 
GED 20; Beekes Laryngeals 128; Bammes- 
berger ]\ r om. 78; Orel Phrygian 449; 
Kxuge-Seebold 207-208; Boutkan OFED 

*aij)ín sb.f: Goth aipei 'mother', OHG 
fuotar-eidi 'nanny'. Cf. also *aipon 'mother' 
> ON eiia. Derived from *aipaz (Mez- 
ger KZ LXXVI 85-86: a legally 
acknowledged mother as opposed to a 
concubine-mother). Uhlenbeck Btrg. 
Gesch. XXVII 115 (to Basque aita 
'fadrer'); Grienberger Goten 16 (to Gk 
fut. óíato 'to carry'); Torp-Falk 2; Feist 
28, PBB LIII 397-400 (from non-existent 
Blyr OH0H 'mater Dea'); ICrahe PBB 
LVU 426-428 (against Feist); Vries 
ANE1V 95; Zalizniak I 157; Lehmann 
GED 20. 

*aiwaz ~ *aiwiz sb.m.: Goth aiws 'age, 
eternity', OE dm, á 'law', OFris a- 'law' 
(in cmpn.), OS ěo id., OHG fem. ěwa id. 
Cf. also ON £vi 'time, eternity' < *aiwín. 
Acc. sg. *aiwin is ušed as an adverb 'ever': 
Goth aiw, ON <k, OE á, OS ěo, OHG io. 
Related to Skt ayu- 'vital power', Av ayíi 




'lifespan', Gk cxiróv 'vital power', Lat 
aeuus, aeuum 'age'. Vogt Btrg. Gesch. 
LVIII 1-66; Zupitza Gutt. 74 (to *ei- 'to 
go'); Bartholomae 333; Torp-Falk 4; 
Holthausen AEE]t r 8; Walde-Hofmann 
I 21; Benveniste BSL XXXVIII 
103-112; Feist 30-31; Tucker Notes 36 
(to Lat iús 'right, law'); Mayrhofer I 77; 
Pokorný I 17; Frisk I 49; Zalizniak II 
214; Onions 66; Lehmann GED 22; Beck 
Gedenkschr. Giintert 47-48, 53-54; Kluge- 
Seebold 238, 410; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aiwipó sb.f.: ON lang-ďd 'long lasting', 
OHG ewida 'eternity'. Derived from 
*aiwaz ~ *aiwiz. Vries ANEW 680. 

*aizan sb.n.: Goth aiz 'copper', ON eir 
'brass', OE ár 'ore, brass, copper', OS er 
'ore', OHG er 'ore, copper'. Related to 
Skt áyas- 'metal, iron', Av ayah- id., Lat 
aes 'ore' continuing IE *aios-. Bartho- 
lomae 159; Torp-Falk 4; Holthausen 
AEEW 7; Walde-Hofmann I 19-20 
Walde-Hofmann I 19-20; Feist 31 
Mayrhofer I 46; Pokorný I 15 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 90; Vries ANEW 
97; Zalizniak I 138; Lindeman Verschár- 
fung 11.4; Gamkrelidze-Ivanov 709-710; 
Lehmann GED 22; Bammesberger Nom. 
212; Kluge-Seebold 206. 

*aizó sb.f.: ON eir 'peace, clemency' (< 
*aizjo), OE ár 'honor, glory, kindness', 
OFris ere 'honor', OS er, ěra 'honor, help', 
OHG era 'honor'. Related to Osk abl. pl. 
aisusis 'sacrifice', Marruc dat. pl. aisos 
'gods', Umbr esono- 'divine, sacreď and 
probably to Gk oá'8o|jai 'to respecť < 
*aiz-d- (Bezzenberger BB IV 313). 
Perhaps, further connected with *aiskqjan. 
Torp-Falk 4; Holthausen AEEW 7; 
Feist 27-28; Pokorný I 16; Vries ANEW 
97; Frisk I 34-35; Zalizniak II 191; 
Peeters IF XCTV 295; Kluge-Seebold 
206; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*ajjaz sb.n.: Crim. Goth nom. pl. ada 
'egg', ON egg id., OE «3 id., OS ei id., 
OHG ei id. Related (without traces of *u 
and with Verschárfung) to OPers xaya id., 
Gk ipóv id. Arm ju id., W wy id., Slav 
*ajbce, *aje id. Molz Btrg. Gesch. XXXI 

324-325; Torp-Falk 1; Holthausen 
AEEW 9-10; Feist 2; Pokorný I 
783-784; Vries ANE1V 94-95; Frisk II 
1150; Zalizniak II 223; Schindler 
Sprache XV 144-167; Lindeman SL 
XrV/2 10-11, Verschárfung 10.2; Onions 
303; Trubaohev ESSJa I 61-62; 
Lehmann Fhon. 36-46, GED 2; Kluge- 
Seebold 206. 

*ajukaz adj.: Goth ajuk-dups 'eternity', OE 
éce 'eternal, perpetual'. Derived from 
*aiwaz ~ *aiwiz. Probably derivationally 
similar to Lat iugis 'permanent, perpetual' 
(Seebold Etym. 93-94). Torp-Falk 4; 
Bréal MSL IV 140-141 (Goth suffix < 
Lat); Feist 32; Holthausen AEE]V 8; 
Walde-Hofmann I 727; Pokorný I 17; 
Bammesberger AE 12, Nom. 262; Leh- 
mann GED 23; Heidermanns 97. 

*akanan str.vb.: ON aka 'to drive (in a 
vehicle)', OE acan 'to ache, to pain'. 
Despite the semantic discrepancy, these 
forms are historically identical (Seebold 
74—75). Cf. the meanings of Lat agitb 'to 
put in motion, to drive, to rouše up, to 
disturb'. Related to Toch B Sk- 'to lead, 
to guide, to drive', Skt ájati 'to drive', Av 
azaiti id., Arm acem 'to lead, to bring', Gk 
ayo) 'to lead', Lat ago 'to drive', OW agit 
'to go'. Zupitza Gutt. 195; Wood AJPhil 
XXVII 59 (OE to Skt agas- 'transgres- 
sion, faulť Gk ayoq 'pollution, guilt, expi- 
ation'); Loewe KZ XLVIII 99-1 00M 
(samé as Wood); Bartholomae 223-224; 
Torp-Falk 7; Holthausen AEE]V 2; 
Walde-Hofmann I 23-24; Porzig Glie- 
derung 120; Mayrhofer I 23; Pokorný I 
4; Vries ANEW 3; Frisk I 18; Onions 
8-9; Adams TB 36. 

*akaz sb.m.: Run prop. akaR, Identical 
with Gk ayóq 'leader, chief. Further 
related to *akanan. Frisk I 18; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 5 1 . 

*ake conj.: Goth ak 'but, however', OE ac 
id., OS ak id., OHG oh id. Related to Gk 
otye 'now, then', Lat age id. (Holthausen 
IF XVII 45 8-45 9) . Brugmann KVG 6 1 6 
(from *apa/ *api and particle *k(e) as in 
Goth mik); Holthausen AEE]\ 7 1; Feist 




32; Sturtevant GR XXVI 57 (to IE *ak- 
! sharp ! followed by a particle); Lehmann 
GED 23. 

*akra-karlaz sb.m.: ON akr-karl 'plow- 
man, reaper', OE ďcer-ceorl id. Compound 
of *akraz and *karlaz. Carr Mom. comp. 
80 (parallel formations). 

*akra-mannz sb.m.: ON akr-maor 'plow- 
man, farmer', OE tecer-man id., MLG 
acker-man id., OHG ackar-man id. Com- 
pound of *akraz and *mannz. Carr Mom. 
comp. 71 (parallel formations). 

*akranan sb.n.: Goth akran 'fruiť, ON 
akarn 'acorn', OE écern id., MLG eckeren 
id. Derived from *akraz (Torp-Falk 16). 
Zimmer apud Zupitza Gutt. 213 (deriva- 
tionally close to Celt *agrinia 'sloe': Ir 
áirne, W aeron 'fruiť MBret zraz, and other 
continuants of IE *og-); Lidén IF XVIII 
503—506 (to Lith úoga 'berry' Slav *agoda 
id.); Uhlenbeck TJVTL XXV 249; 
Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 103, 143; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 9; Feist 32-33; Pokorný 
I 773, iT ~ L 46-48; Vries AMEW 4; 
Zalizniak I 139; Lehmann GED 24; 
Bammesberger Mom. 83; Rluge-Seebold 

*akra-werkan sb.n.: ON akr-verk 'field- 
work', OE iccer-weorc id. MLG acker-werk 
id. Compound of *akraz and *werkan. 
Carr Mom. comp. 71 (parallel formations). 

*akraz sb.m.: Goth akrs 'fielď, ON akr id., 
OE tecer id., OFris ekker id., OS akkar id., 
OHG ackar id. Related to Skt ájra- 'plain, 
fielď, Gk aypóq 'fielď, Arm art id., Lat 
ager id. continuing IE *agros, a derivative 
of *ag- 'to drive' (see *akanan). Torp- 
Falk 7; Brugmann IF XVIII 1 32; Peder- 
sen R'Z XXXLX 352; Krause R'Z LV 
312-313; Holthausen AEEW 8; Walde- 
Hofmann I 22; Feist 33; Trier PBB 
LXVII 126; Mayrhofer I 23; Pokorný 
I 6; Vries AMEW 4; Frisk I 16; 
Zalizniak I 129; Seebold 74; Lehmann 
GED 24; Bammesberger Mom. 74; Lloyd- 
Springer I 40-42; Kxuge-Seebold 1 3; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*akusiz sb.f: OS akus 'axe', OHG ackus id. 
In dat. sg. WGmc keeps traces of a root 

stem. Probably related to Gk á^ívri id., 
Lat oseta 'axe of carpenters and masons' 
< *acsia (Janzén Bu^ 20: reconstructs IE 
*ag- parallel to *ak-). Zupitza Gzzřř. 89; 
Kretschmer Einleitung 164; Walde- 
Hofmann I 71-72; Pokorný I 9; Frisk I 
115-116; Zalizniak II 205; Onions 66; 
Lloyd-Springer I 44; Kluge-Seebold 
70 {*akwesjó). 

*akwesj6 ~ *akwezjo sb.f: Goth aqizi 
'axe', ON ox id. (*akusjo), OE tecs, cex id., 
OFris axa id. Derived from *akusiz. 
Zupitza Gutt. 89; Torp-Falk 7; Holt- 
hausen AEE1V 9; Feist 54; Porzig 
Gliederung 133; Pokorný I 9; Vries 
AMEW 683; Zalizniak II 205; Lehmann 
GED 40; Keuge-Seebold 70. 

*ala-xwítaz adj.: ON al-hvítr 'quite white', 
OE eal(l)-hwít id., OS ala-hwit id. Com- 
pound of *alaz and *xwltaz. Carr Mom. 
comp. 62. 

*ala-maxtÍ3az adj.: ON al-máttigr 'al- 
mighty', OE eall-mihtij id., OFris el- 
mechtich id., OS ala-mahtig id., OHG 
ala-mahtig id. Compound of *alaz and 
*maxti^az. Carr Mom. comp. 91—92 (cal- 
que of Lat omnipotens). 

*ala-mannz sb.m.: Goth ala-mans '(all) 
mankinď, ON al-manna- 'generál, com- 
mon' (in compounds), MLG al-man 
'mankinď, OHG ethn. Ala-man. Cf. 
'AXoc-|iavoí, Ala-manni = OHG Ala-man. 
Compound of *alaz and *mannz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 56-57; Schónfeld PVM 6—8; 
Feist 34; Lehmann GED 25. 

*alanan str.vb.: Goth alan 'to grow on, to 
feed on', ON ala 'to beget, to bear', OE 
alan 'to nourish, to grow, to produce'. 
Related to Lat alo 'to nourish', Olr alim 
id. Schweizer K£ I 558 (to Lat part. 
altus); Torp-Falk 20; Holthausen ^££1 1 ' 
3; Walde-Hofmann I 31-32; Feist 34: 
Jóhannesson IEW 37-38; Pokorný I 26 
Vries AMEW 4-5; Seebold 75-77 
Lehmann GED 25. 

*ala-{?eudo sb.f: ON al-pjóS 'the com- 
mons', OS ala-thioda 'mankinď. Com- 
pound of *alaz and *peuÍo. Carr Mom 
comp. 59. 




*ala-walďaz ~ *ala-walčlón sb.m.: ON 
al-valdr 'sovereign king', OE eal-wealda id., 
OS ala-waldo id., MHG al-walte id. Com- 
pound of *alaz and *walian. Lehmann 
GED 29 (calque of Gk jtavxoKpáxcop or 
Lat omnipotens). 

*alaz adj.: Goth ala-mans 'mankind', ON 
al-vitr 'all-wise', OE eal-mihtig 'almighty', 
OFris al-evna c in a similar way', OS ala- 
hwlt 'quite white', OHG ala-wári 'friendly, 
benign'. Usually compared with Toch B 
al 'entire, uncastrated (?)' and to Lat ollus 
'ille', Olr oll 'amplus'. However, more 
probably, immediately derived from 
*alanan with a semantic development sim- 
ilar to that of Lat tótus 'alf (to *teu- 'to 
swelT) and Lith visas 'alf, Slav *vhsh id. 
(to Lith véisti 'to breeď), see Mikkola St. 
Balt. III 132; Pisani Paideia VILI/ 4-5 292. 
Torp-Falk 20; Holthausen AEE\V 10; 
Walde-Hofmann II 206-207; Feist 33; 
Pokorný I 24-25; Seebold 75-76; 
Lehmann GED 24; Adams TB 53-54. 

*albatiz ~ *albetiz sb.f./m.: ON qlpt 
'swan' (traces of a root stem), OHG elbiz 
id. Cf. also OE Ujetu id. < *altet(j)o. 
Derivative of *albh- 'white' similar to Slav 
*olbqdb ~ *elb^db 'swan'. Pictet K£ IV 
124-126; Osthoff IF VIII 65-66; Torp- 
Falk 22 (adduce Gk ÉXetpiTÍg 'a kind of 
fish'); Holthausen AEEW 186; Porzig 
Gliederung 144; Pokorný I 30; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 80; Vries ANEW 101; 
Zalizniak II 205; Stang LS 31; 
Trubaohev ESSJa VI 19. 

*albaz sb.m.: Burg *alfs 'elf, ON aljr 
'nightmare, elf, OE mlj 'elf, genius, 
incubus', MLG alf 'evil spirit', OHG 
alb id. Of uncertain origin. Kuhn K? 
IV 110 (to Skt rbhú- 'clever, skilful'); 
Wadstein Festschr. Bugge 152—155 (to 
*albh- 'white'); Torp-Falk 21; Saus- 
sure apud Mastrelli StG XIII 5-13 (to 
the name of the Alps); Holthausen 
AEEW 186; Pokorný I 30; Vries ANEW 
5-6; Kobler 708; Kluge-Seebold 

*albiz sb.f: ON rvn. Elfr, Swed dial. álv 
'deep river-beď, OE rvn. lelf, MLG elve 

'river-beď, MHG rvn. Elbe. Usually con- 
nected with Lat albus 'white', Gk <i^.tpó<; 
'dull-white leprosy' (Schulze Kl. Schr. 
120). However, the meaning in Swed and 
MLG makes this etymology not very reli- 
able and implies the existence of a Gmc 
appellative *albiz 'river, river-beď hardly 
derived from a color adjective. Torp- 
Falk 21; Ekblom SSUF 1939/13 1-15 (to 
Swed dial. álv and Lat Alpes); Walde- 
Hofmann I 26-27; Rozwadowski Názvy 
1 74 (on hydronyms including that of the 
Elbe); Pokorný I 30-31; Vries ANEW 
100; Frisk I 81-82. 

*al<ta-doman sb.n.: Goth aldomo 'old 
age', OE eald-dóm 'age', OHG alt-tuom id. 
Derived from *aliaz (Johansson Festschr. 
Moreen 457); for the derivational pattern 
cf. *wísa-domaz. Grienberger Goten 18 
(reconstructs superl. *aldumin, to *alanan); 
Endzelin K'Z Lil 124; Feist 34-35; 
Kluge J\íom. Stamm. 81 (suffix *-oman 
identical with Lat -amen); Lehmann GED 

*aldaz adj.: Crim.-Goth alt 'old', OE eald 
id., OFris ald id., OS ald id., OHG alt id. 
Derived from *alanan. Derivationally sim- 
ilar to Gk avakxoq 'sateless', Lat altus 
'high' (Brugmann PBB XLIII 310-324). 
Brugmann PBB XLIII 310-324; Torp- 
Falk 20; Walde-Hofmann I 31-32; 
Feist 40; Holthausen AEEW 83-84; 
Hofmann IF XXXVIII 179-183 (seman- 
tic parallel in Lat decem annos natus); 
Walde-Hofmann I 31-32; Porzig 
Festschr. Debrunner 343—349; Pokorný I 
26; Frisk I 102; Onions 625; Lloyd- 
Springer I 171-173; Seebold 76; 
Lloyd-Springer I 171-173; Bammes- 
berger Nora. 250—251; Heidermanns 
97-98; Kluge-Seebold 30-31; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*aláiz sb.f: Goth aids 'generation, age, 
life-time', ON old 'age, time', OE pl. ilde 
'men', OS pl. eldi 'people'. Related to 
*aliaz, *aliran. Pokorný I 26-27 
Brugmann Btrg. Gesch. XLIII 310-324: 
Torp-Falk 20; Holthausen AEEW 186 
Feist 35; Vogt Btrg. Gesch. LVIII 11-18 




Vries ANEIV 686; Zalizniak I 150; See- 
bold 76; Lehmann GED 26; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 144. 

*alďín sb.f.: ON dli 'old age', OE ildu 'age, 
life', OFris dde id., OS eldi id., OHG elti 
id. Derived from *aldaz. Torp-Falk 20: 
Holthausen AEEW 186; Pokorný I 27 
Vries ANEW 100; Zalizniak I 157 
Heidermanns 98. 

*alčtjanan wk.vb.: ON eldask 'to grow olď, 
OE ildan 'to delay, to tarry, to defer', 
MHG elten 'to make olď. Derived from 
*aliaz. Holthausen AEE]V 186; Vries 
ANEW 99; Heidermanns 98. 

*ald5n sb.f.: ON alda 'wave', Norw dial. 
olda 'trough', Swed dial. alla 'long and 
narrow hollow'. Related to Slav *oldbja 
'boať, Lith aldijá, eldijá 'river boať (Lidén 
BSB 3-4, 9-10). Torp-Falk 21; Meil- 
let RES VII 7-8; Trautmann BSW 
6; Pokorný I 31-32; Fraenkel 120; 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 510. 

*aldra-ďa3az sb.m.: ON pl. aldr-dagar 
'everlasting life', OE ealdor-des 'day of 
life'. Compound of *aldran and *da^az. 
Carr Nom. comp. 80 (parallel formations). 

*aldra-la3an sb.n.: ON aldr-lag 'death, 
destruction', OE ealdorltss id., OS aldar- 
lagu id. Compound of *aldran and *lajan. 
Carr Nom. comp. 45. 

*alctran sb.n.: Goth adj. Jram-aldrs 'aged, 
advanced in age', ON aldr 'age, life, old 
age' (< *aldraz), OE ealdor 'age, life', OS 
aldar id., OHG altar id. Related to *aldaz. 
Continues IE *altrom, cf. Olr altrarn 'nour- 
ishmenť (cf. Olr altru 'foster-father' W 
athraw 'teacher'), or *altros as in áXxpóq' 
Hic9óq, Hes. (Brugmann BBB XLIII 317). 
Furťher connected with IE *al- 'to grow'. 
Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 137, II 45; Torp- 
Falk 20; Holthausen AEEW 84; Feist 
164; Vogt PBB LVIII 1 1-18; Pokorný I 
26-27; Vries ANEW 5; Zalizniak II 165; 
Lehmann GED 124; Lloyd-Springer 
I 173-174; Bammesberger Nom. 86; 
Kluge-Seebold 31. 

*al3Íz ~ *elxaz ~ *elxon sb.m.: ON elgr 
'elk', OE eolh id., OHG elaho id. Ac- 
centual variants continuing IE *olkis ~ 

*dkis (Gk cí^-KTi id., Lat alces id., Slav *olsb 
id.) (Much <UiDZ XXXLX 26; Osthoff 
Etym. 1318). Kirchhoff KZ I 39 (to IE 
*rkto- 'bear'); Forsterman KZ I 493 (samé 
as Kirchhoff); Torp-Falk 26; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 92; Walde-Hofmann I 28; 
Pokorný I 303; Vries ANEW 100; Frisk 
I 75; Onions 306; Stang LS 33-34; 
Kluge-Seebold 215. 

*alxz ~ *alxaz sb.f./m.: Goth alhs 'tem- 
ple', ON -áll (in cmpn.), OE ealh 
'residence, temple', OS alah 'temple'. The 
consonantal stem appears to be a sec- 
ondary modification of *alxaz. Identical 
with Lith alkas, alka 'holý grove' (Mik- 
kola BB XXII 241 Buga II 148-149). 
Cf. also Gk oXto] 'strength, defence', 
akooq 'gorve, sacred grove' (Hoffmann 
BB XXV 106)? Presumably further con- 
nected with Skt ráksati 'to protéct, to 
guard', Gk ukzt/si 'to ward off, to 
defend'. Kirchhoff K~^ I 39; Thumb 
K~ XVI 188-190; Meringer WuS LX 
108—109 (to Lat ulciscor 'to avenge, to 
punish'); Rooth }\ 7 ortst. 10-11 (derived 
from *alanari); ZuprrzA Gutt. 128; Torp- 
Falk 21 (to Gk ocXicri); Holthausen 
AEE]V 84; Feist 36-37; Porzig Gliederung 
97; Mayrhofer III 30; Pokorný I 32; 
Vrtes ANE]\ t 6-7; Frisk I 75; Fraenkel 
7; Zalizniak II 205; Stang LS 13; 
Lehmann GED 27; Bammesberger Nom. 
195; Griepentrog l^urzelnomina 33-40. 

*alina-bu3Ón sb.m.: ON oln-bogi 'elbow', 
OE eln-bosa id., MLG ellen-boge id., OHG 
elin-bogo id. Derived from *alino and 
*bu3b~n. Torp-Falk 273; Carr Nom. 
comp. 46; Vries ANEW 686; Onions 305; 
Kluge-Seebold 218. 

*alinó sb.f: Goth aleina 'cubiť (with *-i-), 
ON qln 'cubit, forearm' (partly *aliniz), 
OE eln 'elf, OFris ielne id., OS elina id., 
OHG elina id. Related to Gk ró^-Évri id., 
Lat ulna id., Olr uilenn 'angle', W din 
'elbow', OCorn din id., Bret ilin id. (< 
*oliná, cf. the Gothic form), Alb llerl ~ 
tom! id. < *olená. Kluge KZ XXVI 101 
(on -«'- in Goth); Roethe SAW [1919] 
793 (reconstructs *-i-)\ Pedersen Kelt. Gr. 




II 59, 111; Torp-Falk 2 1 ; Holthausen 
AEEW 90; Walde-Hofmann II 812; 
Feist 35; Pokorný I 307-308; Dybo VSJa 
25 (pretonic shortening of *o- in Gmc); 
Vries ANEW 686; Zalizniak II 192; 
Frisk II 1146; Onions 306; Orel AED 
238; Lehmann GED 26; Schrijver LL 
352 (follows Dybo); Kluge-Seebold 

*alizó ~ *alisó sb.f.: Goth *alisa 'alder' 
(> Sp aliso id.), OS elira id., elis- (in 
cmpn.), OHG elira, erila id. Cf. also ON 
elri < *alizjan, alri < *alizan. Identical with 
Maced cí^ii^a- fi tóJicri xňv SévSprav 
(Hes.), Slav *elbxa 'alder' Further con- 
nected with Lat alnus 'alder. Lith alksnis 
id. Persson Beitráge 893-895; Kret- 
sohmer CAotta XV 305-307; Torp-Falk 
26, 560; Gamillscheg 27 (reconstruc- 
tion of Goth); Walde-Hofmann I 31; 
Pokorný I 302-303; Ghemodanov SSGJa 
I 57; Fraenkel 8; Frisk I 73; Vries 
ANEW 101; Zalizniak II 214; Onions 
23; Trubachev ESSJa VI 23-24; Kluge- 
Seebold 230. 

*alja-likót adv.: Goth alja-leiko 'otherwise', 
ON el-liga, el-ligar id., OE comp. el-lícor, 
elcor id., OFris comp. ekkor 'apart from 
that, moreover', OS comp. elcor 'other- 
wise', OHG comp. elihhór 'further'. Based 
on the unattested adj. *alja-likaz, com- 
pound of *aljaz and *llkaz. Holthausen 
AEEW 89; Feist 37-38; Vries ANEW 
101; Lehmann GED 27-28; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*aljanan I wk.vb.: Goth aljan 'to fatten', 
Norw dial. elja id. Derived from *alanan. 
Feist 38; Pokorný I 26. 

*aljanan II sb.n.: Goth aljan 'avidity, 
eagerness, zeal', ON fem. eljan 'endu- 
rance', OE ellen 'strengui, power, vigor', 
OS ellean 'courage', OHG ellen 'zeal'. 
Derived from *aljaz with a semantic dev- 
elopment similar to that of Gk 8evvói; 
'fearful' ~ 8eí8(o 'to be afraiď going back 
to *dub~ 'two'. Fick Spracheinh. 302 (to 
Lat alacer 'lively, exciteď); Osthoff Nom. 
Stamm. I 63—66 (samé as Fick); Torp- 
Falk 20; Johansson ZJdtPh XXXI 285- 

289 (to IE *al- 'to burn'); Froehde BB 
XX 185 (to Gk kXáíň 'to drive, to drive 
on'); Collitz SSN VIII 1-13 (to Gk 
akxxo 'to be active'); Walde-Pokorny I 
156 (to Lat alacer 'lively, brisk, quick'); 
Holthausen AEE]V 89; Feist 38; 
Pokorný I 25, 28; Vries ANE]V 100; 
Frisk I 357-358; Zalizniak II 173; Leh- 
mann GED 28 (agrees with Johansson); 
Puhvel III 52 (to Hitt haluammar 'eager- 
ness, zeal'). 

*aljanojanan wk.vb.: ON elna 'to wax, to 
grow', OE elnian 'to make strong, to strive 
with zeal', OHG ellinon 'to strive with 
zeal'. Derived from *aljanan I. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 90; Vries ANEW 101. 

*al( j)a-wixtiz sb.f: ON al-vitr 'super- 
natural being, Valkyria', OE ďl-wiht 
'strange creature, monster'. Compound 
of *aljaz (with analogical influence of 
*alaz) and *wixtiz (Sievers PBB XII 488). 
Wessén Festschr. Bugge 175 (non-synco- 
pated form of ON elptr 'swan'); Ólsen 
ANF XXXLX 114-115 (ON from *alf- 
vitf)\ Carr Nom. comp. 32 (ON < OE); 
Vrtes zUVEIK 7. 

*aljaz adj.: Goth aljis 'other', OFris ili-, ele- 
id. (in compounds). In other Germanic 
languages gen. sg. (meaning 'otherwise, 
else') is preserved, cf. OSwed áljes, OE 
elles, OFris elles, MDu eis, OHG alles. 
Related to Arm ail id., Gk aXXoc, id., Lat 
alius id., Gaul alios id., Olr aile id. 
Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 32, 69; Torp-Falk 
22; Holthausen AEE1\' 90; Walde- 
Hofmann I 30-31; Feist 38-39; 
Pokorný I 25; Frisk I 76—77; Zalizniak 
II 173; Onions 307; Schmidt Studien 70; 
Lehmann GED 28-29; Kluge-Seebold 
216-217; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aljón I prep., adv.: Goth alja 'but, 
excepť, ON ella 'odierwise, else'. Derived 
from *aljaz. Similar with Gk á^Aá 'buť, 
Arm ail 'but (rauier)'. Feist 37; Frisk I 
76-77; Lehmann GED 27. 

*aljón II sb.f: ON elja 'concubine', MDu 
elle 'rival', OHG ella 'concubine'. Derived 
irom *alja Z . Vries ANEW 100. 

*alk6n sb.f: ON alka 'sea bird, alca, awk', 




OE ealce id. Of unknown origin. Lidén 
AMF XIII 30-31 (to Lat olor Wan'); 
Torp-Falk 22; Holthausen AEE]V 83; 
Vries ANE]V 6 (samé as Lidén). 

*alla-berxtaz adj.: ON all-bjartr 'very 
brighť, OE eall-beorht id. Compound of 
*allaz and *berxtaz. Carr JVom. cořn/f. 63. 

*alla-kaldaz adj.: ON all-kaldr 'very colď, 
OE eal-ceald id. Compound of *allaz and 
*kaliaz. Carr JVbm. com/i. 63. 

*al(l)a-walčtančlz sb.m.: Goth all-waldands 
'ruler, almighty', OS ala-waldand id., 
MHG al-waltende id. Participial form of a 
compound based on *alaz or *attaz and 
*waldanan. A calque from Lat omnipotens 
or Gk TtavTOKpáxtop cannot be excluded. 
Feist 40; Carr Mam. comp. 57; Seebold 
KZ LXXXII 79 (extension of *al(l)a- 
waliaz ~ *al(l)a-waldarí); Lehmann GED 

*al(l)a-wěrjaz adj.: ON ql-vierr 'friendly, 
hospitable', OE adv. eal-wer-líce 'liberally, 
freely', MLG al-wár 'foolish', OHG ala- 
wari 'friendly, hospitable, benign'. Cf. 
also Goth allawerei 'simplicity, sincerity, 
total gareemenť Compound of *alazor, 
*attaz and *wěrjaz. Carr JVom. comp. 62; 
Vries AJÍEW 687; Seebold IF LXXVIII 
146-162; Keuge-Seebold 25. 

*allaz adj.: Goth alb 'alf, ON allr id., 
OE eall id., OFris alle, al id., OS al id., 
OHG al id. Continues *alnaz derivation- 
ally close to Ose allo 'all', Olr uile id. 
(Untermann ZF LXIII 241-245). Further 
connected with *alaz. Kuhn K£ I 
516; Meillet RG XXI 38 (from *alos 
with a secondary geminate); Torp-Falk 
21; Holthausen AEEW 84; Walde- 
Hofmann II 206-207; Feist 40, 579; 
Martinet Gém. 176; Pokorný I 24-25; 
Vendryes 0-21; Fraenkel 7 (no connec- 
tion with Lidi aliái 'every, all'); Dzhau- 
kian SG 41 (to Arm amb-oij 'all' < *oli-); 
Vries ANEW 7; Vendryes U-17-18; 
Onions 25; Seebold 76; Lehmann GED 
29; Lloyd-Springer I 129-131; Bammes- 
berger JVom. 228, 246; Kluge-Seebold 
27; Ivanov Proč. IX UCLA 76; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*al(l)un3(5t) adv.: ON qllung-is 'alto- 
gether', OE eallun^a, eallin^a id., OS alung 
id., OHG adj. alang 'whole'. Derived 
from *alaz, *allaz (Hellouist AJVF XI 
348). Holthausen ^££11' 84; Vries 
ANEU 1 686. 

*albanaz ~ *aldenaz adj.: Goth us- 
alpans 'old, infirm', ON aldinn 'olď. 
Participle of the unattested strong vb. 
*alpanan (with analogical -/>- in Gothic). 
See *aljyjaz. Feist 529; Seebold 77—78. 

*albjaz adj.: Goth alfreis 'olď, ON comp. 
elhi 'older'. Identical with Olr altae 'adulť 
(Marstrander Corr. 47). Furdier related 
to *alanan. Schweizer K~^ I 558 (to Lat 
part. altus); Torp-Falk 20; Brugmann 
PBB XLIII 310-324; Karsten NB II 
330-331, 370; Torp-Falk 20; Feist 40; 
Pokorný I 27; Vries AME]\ 7 101; Mas- 
trelli AGIt XLVI 139-147 (Germanic 
tradition of killing the aged); Lehmann 
GED 29-30; Heidermanns 98-99. 

*alunčtaz sb.m.: ON qlnnn 'a kind of fish, 
mackeref, OS alund 'whitefish', OHG 
alunt id. Of unclear origin. Derived from 
*alanan? Loewe PBB LIX 254-255; 
Torp-Falk 558; Holthausen AWN 357 
(to *al3Íz ~ *elxaz ~ *elx5ri); Vries ANE]V 
686-687 (to *al- 'white'); Ktuge-Seebold 

*alub sb.n.: ON ql 'beer, ale' («M-stem with 
traces of a root stem), OE ealu, ealo id., 
OS alu- (in compounds). Connected with 
or borrowed to OPrus alu 'mead', Lith 
aliis id., Slav *oll> id. Scyth *alut- (cf. 
prop. 'AXoúOayOí; and Osset leluton 'beer') 
from Gmc, indicative of the early chron- 
ology of Germanic contacts wiuh East 
Iranian (from where NCauc *'VlVdwV 
'beer'). Grg ludi, dial. aludi id. is also 
from Gmc but hardly via Iranian. Kuhn 
K~ XV 313-314; Sie\tlrs PBB X 449; 
Torp-Falk 21; Hirt PBB XXIII 336; 
Bůga KS 64-66, 70 (Balt and Slav bor- 
rowed from Gmc); Kiparsky Lehnw. 
78—80; Holthausen AEE]V 84; Specht 
195-196; Abaev OJaF 338-339; Po- 
korný I 33-34 (related to Lat alúta 'a 
kind of soft leather'); Fraenkel 8—9; 




Vries ANEW 686; Zalizniak I 221; 
Onions 24; Stang LS 13; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 132^133; Bammesberger 
Nom. 215; Nikolayev-Starostin NCED 

*alub-foankiz sb.m./f.: ON ol-bekkr 'ale- 
bench', OE ealu-bem id. Compound of 
*«/h^ and *iankiz. Garr jVbm. comp. 55. 

*alub-xúsan sb.n.: ON ql-hús 'ale-house', 
OE ealu-hús id. Compound of *alup and 
*xúsan. Carr Nom. comp. 82 (parallel 

*aluz sb.m.: ON obr 'alder', OE alor id. 
Variant of *alizó ~ *alisd. Holthausen 
AEEW 3; Pokorný I 302; Vries ANEW 
686; Zalizniak II 214. 

*ammón sb.f: ON amma 'grandmother', 
MDu amme 'nanny', OHG amma id. A 
Lallwort typical of many otírer languages 
cf. Gk a\i\iá. 'mother'. Torp-Falk 16; 
Vries ANEW 8; Lloyd-Springer I 
205-206; Keuge-Seebold 33-34. 

*ampraz adj.: ON apr 'cold, sharp', MDu 
amper 'sour, sharp'. Probably from an ear- 
lier *amraz. Related to Skt amlá- 'sour' < 
*omiro- Lat amárus 'bitter'. Johansson IF 
III 240; Torp-Falk 16; Karsten NB II 
256-257; Walde-Hofmann I 35; Mayr- 
hofer I 46; Pokorný I 778; Vries 
ANEW 11; Lloyd-Springer I 207-209; 
Heidermanns 99—1 00; Kluge-Seebold 

*amsaz sb.m.: Goth ams 'shoulder'. 
Related to Hitt an(aš)ša 'part of the back', 
Toch A es, B antse 'shoulder', Skt ámsa- 
id., Arm us id., Gk mnó? id. (wiťh lengťh- 
ening of the root vowel), Lat umerus id., 
Slav *qst> 'mustache' continuing IE *omsos 
~ *omesos (Laohman apud Aufrecht K£ I 
283-4). Torp-Falk 16-17; Schrader- 
Nehring I 636; Walde-Hofmann II 815; 
Feist 40—41; Mayrhofer I 14; Pokorný 
I 778; Vries ANEW 16; Frisk II 1148; 
Zalizniak I 129; Trubaohev Etim. 1970 
13-14; Lehmann GED 30; Ad ams TB 

*amsl5n sb.f.: OE osle 'blackbirď, OHG 
amsla id. Usually connected with Lat 
menda id. and Celt *mesalka or *misalka > 

W mwyalch id. (Fick I 515). On the other 
hand, the Germanic word appears to be 
a transparent derivative of *amsaz (a bird 
with a distincdy colored back?). Peder- 
sen Kelt. Gr. I 73; Torp-Falk 16; Suo- 
lahti DVN 54-55; Holthausen AEEW 
243; Walde-Hofmann II 77-78; Po- 
korný I 35-36; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
101; Onions 636; Hamp IF LXXXVII 
77-79; Lloyd-Springer I 212-213; 
Kluge-Seebold 35. 

*an ptcl.: Goth an 'so, then'. Similar to Lat 
particle an 'or', Gk av. Torp-Falk 11; 
Walde-Hofmann I 44; Feist 41; Po- 
korný I 37; Lehmann GED 30 (unrelated 
to Gk civ). 

*ana(i) prep.: Gotíi ana 'on account of, ať, 
ON á 'on, upon', OE on id., OFris a 'to, 
in, ať, OS an id., OHG ana, an id. 
Related to Av ana 'through, along', Gk 
(Ion-Att) ava 'on' (Schmidt Studien 203— 
207). Bartholomae 112-114; Torp- 
Falk 11; Holthausen AEEW 4; Feist 
41; Pokorný I 39-40; Vries ANEW 1; 
Frisk I 100; Onions 627; Lehmann GED 
30; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*an(a)m5n sb.f: OFris omma 'breath'. 
Close to Gk av£|io<; 'winď, Lat animus 
'spirit, soul', Olr anim id. For further con- 
nections see *ananan. Pedersen Kelt. Gr. 
I 170, 240; Walde-Hofmann I 49-50; 
Pokorný I 38; Frisk I 105; Lehmann 
GED 388; Adams TB 40-42 (Toch A 
dňcdm, B áňme 'wish, šelf, soul' as a con- 
flation of *etmen and *ammo-); Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

* ananan str.vb.: Goth uz-anan 'to breatíre 
out, to expire'. Related to Toch B anask- 
'to inhale, to breathe', Skt ániti 'to 
breathe' and further to Toch AB áňm- 
'life, spirit', Gk aveiiog 'breath', Lat 
animus 'soul' anima 'air, winď, Slav *vonb 
'smell'. The participle in *-to- is reflected 
in OE neut. or-od 'breath, breathing' < 
*-anpan identical with Gk avxai' ave- 
HOi, ávxac; -nvoiág, Hes. Torp-Falk 10; 
Walde-Hofmann I 49-50; Feist 538; 
Holthausen AEE]V 242; Mayrhofer I 
33-34; Pokorný I 38-39; Frisk I 105; 



Seebold 78-79; Vasmer-Trubaohev I 
349; Lehmann GED 385; Bammesberger 
Mom. 77; Adams TB 12; Burlak IFTJa 

*anda prep.: Goth and 'throughout, from 
one side to the other', ON and- 'opposite, 
againsť, OE and- id., OS and- id., OHG 
ant- id. dosely related to Gk óívxa 'oppo- 
site', Lith aňt 'on, in order to'. Cf. comp. 
Goth andiz-uh 'either', ON endr, enn 'in 
times of yore, again', OE énd 'formerly, of 
olď, OS endi 'earlier', MHG end id. For 
further connections see *anijaz. Torp- 
Falk 13; Lindouist SMF rX/1 6; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 5, 90; Feist 46, 50; 
Pokorný I 49; Fraenkel 11, IF XL 
88-90; Vries AMEW 9, 102; Frisk I 
112-113; Schmidt Studiem 310- 315 (to 
*an followed by *-ta, *-ti); Lehmann GED 
34, 37. 

*andbaxtaz sb.m.: Goth andbahts 'serv- 
ant', ON ambátt 'bondwoman' (> *and- 
baxto), OE ambeht 'servant', OHG ambaht 
id. If Goth -nd- is due to analogy with the 
prefix and-, an alternativě reconstruction 
*ambaxtaz is more accep table. Borrowed 
from Celt *amb(i)-aktos: Gaul-Lat ambactus 
'servant' W amaeth 'servus arans' (Arbois 
de Jubainville MSL VII 289-290). 
Zeyss ZfceltPh III 353, 374 (on the substi- 
tution of Celt amb- with Gmc *and-)\ 
Brugmann IF XLX 390 (on the structure 
of the Celtic word); Torp-Falk 1 3; Hol- 
thausen AEE\V 3; Feist 48-49; Walde- 
Hofmann I 36-37; Vries ANEW 8; 
Benveniste IEL 110—111; Lehmann GED 
36; Lloyd-Springer I 195—196; Kluge- 
Seebold 35—36. 

*ančtfoaxt(j)an sb.n.: Goth andbahti 'serv- 
ice', ON embiétti id., OE ambiht 'ofFice, 
ministry, service', OS ambaht 'service', 
OHG ambaht id., ambahti id. Derived from 
*andbaxtaz. Torp-Falk 13; Holthausen 
AEEW 3; Feist 48-49; Vries AMEW 
102; Zalizniak II 214; FLluge- Seebold 

*andi conj.: ON en, enn 'and', OE and id., 
OFris and, anda id., MDu enn id. A full 
grade of the conjunction originally re- 

flecting *nte. Cf. Skt ánti 'before, near', 
átha 'then, now' (if from *nt-), Gk ávxí 
'over againsť. See *unpi. Torp-Falk 
13-14; Holthausen AEEW 5; May- 
rhofer I 28 (against the connection with 
Skt); Pokorný I 50; Vries AMEW 102; 
Frisk I 113-114; Onions 36; Kluge- 
Seebold 847; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*anái-lausaz adj.: Godr andi-laus 'end- 
less', ON enda-lauss id., OE ende-leás 'infi- 
nite, eternal', OS endi-los 'endless', MHG 
ende-los id. Compound of *andjaz and 
*lausaz. Feist 50; Carr Mom. comp. 88 
(parallel formations); Lehmann GED 229. 

*anájaz sb.m.: Goth andeis 'enď, ON endir 
id., OE ende id., OFris enda, ende id., OS 
endi id., OHG neut. enti id. Based on IE 
adv. *anti 'opposite' (Skt ánti 'before, 
near', Gk ávxí, see also *anda). Cf. in 
particular Skt antya- 'lasť, Gk ávxíoi; 
'opposite'. Cf. also *anpjan > ON enni 
'foreheaď with a different stress. Torp- 
Falk 13; Holthausen AEEW 90; Feist 
49; Walde-Hofmann I 54; Mayrhofer I 
35-36; Pokorný I 48-50; Vries AMEW 
102-103; Frisk I 113-114; Zalizniak II 
165; Onions 313; Lehmann GED 36; 
Bammesberger Mom. 66; Kíuge-Seebold 
220-221; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*andj5janan wk.vb.: ON enda 'to enď, 
OE endian id., OFris endia id., OS endion, 
endon id., OHG entón id. Derived from 
*anďjaz. Holthausen AEEW 91; Vries 
AMEW 102. 

*anáó sb.f: ON qnd 'porch'. Compared 
with Skt ata 'dooř frame', Lat antae 'pil- 
lars or pilasters on each side of doors' 
(Bugge A^XLX 401). Yet, a comparison 
with *anďjaz is not less attractive. Torp- 
Falk 13; Walde-Hofmann I 52; Mayr- 
hofer I 72; Vries AMEW 687. 

*andójanan wk.vb.: ON anda 'to breathe', 
OE ó&ian 'to blow strongly'. Derived 
from *andón. Holthausen AEEW 243; 
Pokorný I 38; Vries AMEW 9. 

*andón sb.m.: ON andi 'breath', OE anda 
'malice, envy, hatreď, OS ando 'breath', 
OHG anto 'zeal' . Cf. also ON qnd. 'breath' 
< *ando. Derived from *ananan. Structur- 



ally similar to Gk avxai' avejim, Hes. 
Torp-Falk 10—11; Holthausen AEEW 
6; Pokorný I 38; Vries ANEW 687; 
Frisk I 113; Zalizniak I 152; Seebold 

*an3araz sb.m.: OHG angar 'corn worm'. 
May be close to Gk í|ipr|ptc;- ŠY/č^vq, 
Me6u|jvaíoi, Hes. < *eng"(h)eri- and Lith 
ungurýs 'eel' (from *angurys, cf. Otrebski 
LP V 26), OPrus angurgis id., Slav *Qg"brb 
'pimple, maggot, eel' (Trautmann BB 
XXIX 307). Bezzenberger BB II 154; 
Zupitza Gutt. 128; Pokorný I 44; 
Fraenkel 1163; Frisk I 725; Stang LS 
40; Vasmer-Trubachev IV 146-147; 
Toporov PJa I 88-89. 

*an3az sb.m.: ON angr 'grief, sorrow'. 
Originally, a neut. j-stem identical with 
Skt ámhas- 'anxiety, trouble', Lat angor 
'strangling, anguish'. Fick III 12; Torp- 
Falk 12; Unwerth PBB XXXVI 7; 
Walde-Hofmann I 47; Mayrhofer 114; 
Pokorný I 43; Vries ANEIV 10. 

*an3(i)laz sb.m.: ON pl. Englar 'Angles', 
OE Engle id., OHG Angil- (in cmpn.). 
Rendered as Lat Anglii, Gk 'AyyeíXoi. 
Related to *an^on II, *an$ulaz (Lundahl 
Festschr. Sahlgren 2-3). Erdmann SVSU 
1/1 114 (to *an 3 ón); Vries ANEW 102. 

*an3(i)liskaz adj.: ON enskr 'Anglian', OE 
en^lisc id., OFrís engelsk id., MLG engelsch 
id. Derived from *an^(i)laz. Holthau- 
sen AEEW 91; Vries ANEW 103. 

*an3J5 sb.f.: ON eng 'meadow', MDu eng 
'farmlanď. Related to *anjraz. Vries 
ANEW 102; Kluge-Seebold 39. 

*an3Ďn I sb.m.: ON angi 'sweet odor'. 
Close to Arm anjn 'soul' < *anghen- (Lidén 
Arm. St. 38-39). Lagergrantz K£ 
XXXV 274 (to Gk ónqxx- óanr| AáKtůveq); 
Torp-Falk 557; Pokorný I 43; Vries 
ANEW 10. 

*an3Ón II sb.m.: ON angi 'spině, prickle', 
OE an$a 'thorn, sharp point', OHG ango 
'hook, hinge'. Related to Skt áňcati 'to 
bend, to curve', aňká- 'curve, hook', Lat 
uncus 'bent; hook', Gk áyKcóv 'bend of the 
arm, elbow'. Torp-Falk 12; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 6; Walde-Hofmann II 816; 

Mayrhofer I 19, 24; Pokorný I 45-46; 
Vries ANEW 10; Frisk I 11; Zalizniak I 

*an3raz sb.m.: ON angr 'bay', OS angar 
'meadow', OHG angar id. Derivationally 
close to Lat ancrae 'convalles vel arborum 
intervalla' . Further connected with *an^on 
II. Sutterlin IFXLV 307 (to Gk vréjtri 
'woodland vale'); Torp-Falk 1 2; Walde- 
Hofmann I 61; Pokorný I 46; Vries 
ANEW 10; Lloyd-Sprlnger I 247-249; 
Kluge-Seebold 39. 

*an3ulaz sb.m.: ON qngull 'angle, hook', 
OE an^el 'hook, fishing-hook', MLG angel 
'hinge', OHG angul 'hook, hinge'. Iden- 
tical with Gk (vjKÚXoq 'crookeď. Further 
connections see under *an^dn II. Zu- 
prrzA Gutt. 128; Torp-Falk 12; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 6; Pokorný I 46; Vries 
ANEW 687; Frisk I 11. 

*an3ustiz ~ *an3ustuz sb.f.: OFris 
mase. angst, ongost 'fear', MLG angest id., 
OHG angust id. Derived from *anjuz ~ 
*an3wjaz. Close to Slav *qzostb 'narrow- 
ness' < *anghosti-. Cf. also Lat angustus 
'narrow' < *anghosto-. For further connec- 
tions see *an^az. Schleicher K£ I 143; 
Torp-Falk 12; Walde-Hofmann I 49; 
Pokorný I 43; Lloyd-Springer I 253- 
255; Kluge-Seebold 40; Boutkan OFED 

*an3uz ~ *an3\vjaz adj.: Goth aggwus 
'narrow', ON qngr id. (am-stem), OE enge 
id., OS engi id., OHG engi id. Related to 
Skt amhú- id., Gk ctyx 1 'near', Arm anjuk 
'narrow', Lat *angu- (in angiportus), Slav 
*qz r bk r b id. (Feist Btrg. Gesch. XV 545). 
Karsten NB II 407-408; Zupitza Gutt. 
98; Torp-Falk 12; Feist 13-14; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 91; Walde-Hofmann I 
47; Mayrhofer I 14; Pokorný I 42; 
Vries ANEW 687; Frisk I 17-18; Hei- 
dermanns ££ XCLX 279-280; Vasmer- 
Trubachev IV 154; Lehmann GED 9; 
Bammesberger Nom. 262; Heidermanns 
100-101; Kxuge-Seebold 221. 

*an3\vib5 sb.f: Goth agewifea 'trouble, 
afHiction', OS engitha 'straits', OHG engida 
'oppression, fear'. Derived from *anjuz ~ 




*an3wjaz. Feist 13; Vries ANE]V 682; 
Bammesberger Nom. 117; Heidermanns 

*an3wjanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-aggwjan 'to 
oppress, to constrain', OHG engen 'to 
scare, to press'. Derived from *an^uz ~ 
*anjwjaz. Torp-Falk 12; Feist 174; 
Vries AJÍEW 682; Lehmann GED 9; 
Heidermanns 100. 

*an3w5n sb.m./f.: Goth bals-agga 'neck, 
narrow of the neck' (leg. hals-agga), OHG 
anka 'occipuť. Related to *an^uz ~ 
*an3wjaz. Cf. a similar formation in Gk 
a\iqr\v 'neck, throať. Schrader K£ X 
461 (to Gk čiyyo<; 'pitcher, bucket, vessel'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 89; Feist 242; Pokorný 
42-43; Lehmann GED 175. 

*anxtó sb.f.: OE óht 'fear, terror, hostile 
pursuiť, OFris acht, achte 'hostile pursuiť, 
OHG ahta 'persecution'. Close to Ir écht 
'manslaughter' < *anktu-. Further con- 
nected with *anjuz ~ *aii3wjaz. Torp- 
Falk 558; Holthausen AEESY 241; 
Pokorný I 45 (further to Gk áváyicri 
'force, constraint, necessity'); Lloyd- 
Springer I 118-120; Kluge-Seebold 

*anxulaz sb.m.: ON all 'seed, sprouť. An 
accentual variant of *anjulaz. Derivation- 
ally close to Skt aňkurá- 'sprout, shooť, 
Gk ayK-uAoi; 'crooked, curveď (Falk ANF 
VI 115). See *anxulo. Torp-Falk 12; 
Pokorný I 46; Vries ANEW 6; Frisk 
I 11. 

*anxul5 sb.f: ON ál 'strap, bridle'. De- 
spite a different stress pattern, identical 
with Gk áyKÚXri id. Further related to 
*an,3ulaz, *anxulaz. Torp-Falk 12; Po- 
korný I 46; Vries ANE]V 4; Frisk 111. 

*ankalaz ~ *ank(u)15(n) sb.m./f.: ON 
qkkla 'ankle', OFris onkel id., MDu ankel 
id., OHG ankala id. Cf. also MLG enkel 
id., OHG enkil id. < *ankilaz- Derived 
from *ankon. Structurally similar to Lat 
angulus 'angle' and, Slav *qglb id. Torp- 
Falk 1 1 ; Walde-Hofmann I 48-49; 
Pokorný I 47; Vries ANEW 686; Onions 
38; Vasmer-Trubachev IV 145; Lloyd- 

Springer I 258-261; Kluge-Seebold 
222; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*ankón sb.m.: MHG anke 'scruff, thigh, 
shank'. Related to Skt áňga- 'limb'. A 
further connection with Gk 8i0í>p-a|iPoi; 
'dithyramb' (Frohde BB XXI 195) is 
probable and would imply *ang"o- as a 
source. Mayrhofer I 21; Pokorný I 
46-47; Vries ANEW 99; Frisk I 8. 

*ankwón sb.m.: OHG anko 'butter'. Close 
to Lat unguen 'fatty substance, ointmenť, 
Umbr uměn 'fať, Olr imb 'butter' < 
*ng*en- (Szemerényi Scripta 872-874). 
Cf. also OPrus anctan 'butter' < *ong-- 
t-om. Further connected with Skt anákti 
'to anoinť, Lat unguo id. Torp-Falk 
11; Trautmann BSW 9-10; Walde- 
Hofmann II 819-820; Pokorný I 779; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 1 02; Toporov PJa 
I 91; Bammesberger Nom. 175; Lloyd- 
Springer I 263-265; Kluge-Seebold 41. 

*an5n sb.f: OHG ana 'grandmother'. Cf. 
also OHG ano 'grandfather'. A descrip- 
tive word similar with Hitt aram- 'mother', 
hanna- 'grandmother', Arm han id., Gk 
áwí? - UTlTpoq r\ naxpoc; ht|ttip, Hes., Lat 
anna 'foster-mother', Messap ana 'Ttóxvia', 
OPrus ane 'old woman' . Torp-Falk 1 1 ; 
Walde-Hofmann I 50; Abaev I 148; 
Pokorný I 36; Frisk I 112; Benveniste 
190; Puhvel III 84-86; Lloyd-Springer 
I 215-217; Kluge-Seebold 20. 

*ansaz sb.m.: Goth ans 'beam', ON áss 
'pole, rafter', MHG ans-boum 'beam of a 
bridge'. Related to Lat ansa 'handle', Mír 
pl. éisi 'rein', OPrus ansis 'hook', Lith qsá 
'handle, loop' (Grienberger Got. 27). 
Hoffmann BB XXV 108 (to Skt ána- 
'carť, Lat onus 'burden'); Torp-Falk 14 
(to Olr asna 'rib'); Uhlenbeok PBB XXX 
260-261 (samé as Hoffmann); Meringer 
IF XVIII 26 (to Gk véouai 'to go back, 
to retům'), XXI 302-303, WuS LX 115 
(to *ansiz ~ *ansuz); Torp-Falk 14 (to Lat 
asser 'beam'); Wood JEGP II 213 (to *nsis 
'sword'); Walde-Hofmann I 51—52; Feist 
52; Pokorný I 48; Toporov PJa I 92; 
Lehmann GED 38. 




*ansiz ~ *ansuz sb.m.: Goth-Lat pl. 
anses '(pagan) goď, ON áss id., OE ós id., 
OS as, ós in prop. (a-stem), OHG ansi- 
(in cmpn.). Identical with Skt ásu- 'life, 
vital strength', Av asýiu- id., Venet ahsu- 
'cult image' (Bradke ~DMG XL 347). 
Grimm DM 22 (to *ansaz, in view of wor- 
ship pillars erected to Germanic gods); 
Forsterman KZ I 243; Bartholomae 
283; Torp-Falk 14; Grienberger 
ZDADL XXXVI 313; Meringer IF XVII 
159-160, WuS IX 115 (to *ansaz) 
Gůntert >Veltkónig 102 (follows Bradke) 
Holthausen AEEW 242; Feist 52-53 
Mayrhofer I 65-66; Vries ANEW 16 
Polome EG VIII 36-44; Pokorný I 48 
Zaeizniak II 198; Lehmann GED 38-39. 

*ansjó sb.f.: ON es 'outer border, edge (of 
a shoe)', MLG ose 'loop, sling'. Derived 
from *ansaz. Identical with Gk fivía 
'bridle, reins' (Persson Beitrdge 5; Falk 
MVA 1919 131). Torp-Falk 14; Walde 
Festschr. Streitberg 153-154; Walde- 
Hofmann I 51-52; Pokorný I 48; 
Fraenkel 18; Vries ANEW 681; Frisk 
I 637. 

*anstiz sb.f.: Goth ansts 'beneficence, gra- 
ciousness, grace', ON ást 'love, affection', 
OE ést 'will, consent, fa vor, grace', OFris 
enst 'favor, grace', OS anst id., OHG anst 
id. Derived from *unnanan. Schweizer 
KZ I 143; Torp-Falk 14; Feist 53; 
Pokorný I 47; Vries ANEW 16; Zaliz- 
niak II 228; Seebold 79; Lehmann GED 
39; Bammesberger Nom. 144. 

*anstjanan wk.vb.: ON esta 'to demand, 
to ask', MHG ensten 'to be kinď. Derived 
from *anstiz. Vries ANEW 681. 

*anbera-líkaz adj.: Goth adv. anpar-leiko 
'differently, otherwise', OS óóar-lík id., 
OE adv. óůer-liee. Compound of *anperaz 
and *likaz. Feist 54; Lehmann GED 40. 

*anperaz adj.: Goth anpar 'other', ON 
annarr id., OE úder id., OFris other id., OS 
ódar id., OHG ander id. Identical with Skt 
ántara- 'other', Av antara- id., Ose anter id., 
OPrus antars 'other', Lith aňtras, aňtaras 
id., Slav *vbtorb 'seconď. Metllet Etudes 

407; Torp-Falk 13; Schulz Z mv í x 
157; Holthausen AEEW 243; Feist 53; 
Mayrhofer I 35; Pokorný I 37; 
Fraenkel 12; Vries ANEW 10; Lehmann 
GED 39; Lloyd-Springer I 241-242; 
Ross-Berns Mumerals 625; Kluge- 
Seebold 38; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*anucfiz ~ anidiz sb.f: ON qnd 'duck' 
(traces of a root stem), OE ened id., OS 
anud, anad id., OHG anut, enita id. Related 
to Skt dtí- 'aquatic birď, Gk víjesesa 
'duck', Lat anas id., Lith ántis id., Slav *qty 
id. Schmidt KZ XXIII 268-270; Suo- 
lahti DFV420; Torp-Falk 11; Meillet 
MSL VIII 236; Holthausen AEEW 91; 
Walde-Hofmann I 44—45; Mayrhofer I 
72-73; Pokorný I 41-42; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 59; Fraenkel 11-12; Vries 
ANEW 687; Frisk II 317-318; Zalizniak 
II 205; Onions 288; Vasmer-Trubaghev 
IV 174; Hamp KZ Cil 29-31; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 202-203 (reconstructs *anpz); 
Kluge-Seebold 222-223. 

*apalďraz ~ *apuldró sb.m./f: ON 
apaldr 'apple-tree' OE neut. (?) apulder, 
apuldor id. OS apuldra id., MHG apfalter 
id. Derived from *ap(u)laz with sufnx 
*-dhro-. Torp-Falk 14—15; Holthausen 
AEEU'6; Pokorný I 2; Zalizniak II 182; 
Vries ÁNE]V 1 1 ; Kluge-Seebold 17-18. 

*apón sb.m.: ON api 'ape', OE apa id., OS 
apo id., OHG ajfo id. Borrowed from 
Celtic, cf, áf5p'ívaq [se. áPfSívaq] ■ KeAxoi 
tovc, KepKOTuOfiKOUc;, Hes. Forsterman 
KZ I 496 (to Skt kápí- 'monkey', Gk kíjjioi; 
'long-tailed monkey'); Torp-Falk 14 (to 
Slav *opica 'ape' which, however, is from 
Gmc); Holthausen AEEW 6; Pokorný I 
2-3; Vries AMEJť 11; Zalizniak I 153; 
Onions 42; Lloyd-Springer I 58—59; 
Kluge-Seebold 17. 

*ap(u)laz sb.m.: Crim. Goth apel 'apple', 
ON apal-grár 'dapple-gray', OE tzppel 
'apple', OFris appel id., OS appul id., 
OHG apful id. (< *ap(u)liz). Related to 
Gaul avallo 'pomma', Olr ubull 'apple' < 
*ablu-, Lith obuolys id., Slav *abl"bko id. 
(Fick BB II 195). Torp-Falk 14; Feist 




54, 579; Hoops Waldbdume 477-479; 
Holthausen AEE1 V 11; Lané Language 
IX 251 (on Celtic words); Pokorný I 
1—2; Chemodanov SGGJa I 63-64; Vries 
AJfEW 103; Bůga I 433; Zalizniak II 
214; Fraenkel I 515; Onions 44; Hamp 
ZfceltPh XXXVII 164 (from non-IE 
*ablu); Adams IF XL 79-82 (against 
Hamp); Trubachev ESSJa I 44-47; 
Ivanov-Gamkrelidze 637-641 (to Hitt 
šamluuanza id.); Lloyd-Springer I 60-63, 
298-301; Lehmann GED 40; Kluge- 
Seebold 46—47. 

*arbai<tiz sb.f.: Goth arbaips 'work, labor', 
OFris arbě(i)d id., OS arběth id., OHG 
arbeit id. An unusual derivatíve of *arbaz. 
Probably, a compound of *arbaz and 
•ťítí. Kirchhoff KZ I 39; Grienber- 
ger Goten 27-28 (to *arjanan); Bezzen- 
berger BB XXVII 150; Pedersen KZ 
XXXVI 94; Brugmann IF XLX 384 
(deverbative from the unattested *arbějo)\ 
Torp-Falk 19; Uhlenbeck PBB XVI 
562; Meringer ZFXVII 128 (compound 
of *arbho- 'plow-animal' and *i-ti- 'walk, 
treaď); Feist 55; Kronasser HS 170 (to 
Lith dárbas 'work'); Pokorný I 782; 
Zalizniak II 214; Stang LS 44; Lehmann 
GED 40-41; Lloyd-Springer I 313-318; 
Kluge-Seebold 50. 

*arbaiďjan sb.n.: ON erfiSi 'toil, labor', 
OE earfoů 'hardship, trouble', OS arběthi 
'toil, labor', OHG fem. arbeiti id. Derived 
from *arbautiz. Holthausen AEEW 86; 
Pokorný I 782; Vries AMEW 103-104; 
Zalizniak II 214; Lehmann GED 40-41. 

*arbaidójanan wk.vb.: ON ejfiSa 'to toil, 
to labor', OE eatfodiaii 'to to trouble', 
OHG arbeiton 'to tormenť. Derived from 
*arbaidiz. Lorp-Falk 19. 

*arbaz sb.m.: ON arjř 'inheritance'. Re- 
lated to Olr orb(b)e id. Further connected 
with Skt arbha- 'littie, weak, young', Gk 
opepavóq 'orphaneď, Lat orbus 'bereaved, 
parendess', Slav *orb"b 'slavě'. Kirch- 
hoff K'Z I 39; Sievers PBB XII 1 76-177; 
Torp-Falk 19; Meringer IF XVII 128; 
Wood MLJV XXI 39 (to Skt arpáyati 'to 

put into, to fix'); Peterson PBB XL 
97-101; Walde-Hofmann II 219-220; 
Feist 56; Porzig Gliederung 121-122; 
Pokorný I 781; Vries AMEW 13; Frisk 

II 431; Zalizniak II 214; Benveniste 
68-70; Vasmer-Trubachev III 453; 
Gronvik Inheritance passim; Lehmann 
GED 41; Bammesberger Mom. 53. 

*arbjan sb.n.: Goth arbi 'inheritance, herit- 
age', ON erfi 'wake, funeral feasť, OE 
erfe 'inheritance', OFris erve id., OS erbi 
id., OHG erbi id. Close to Olr orbfbje id. 
Derived from *arbaz. Arbois de Jubain- 
ville MSL VII 286-288 (from Celtic); 
Torp-Falk 19; Meringer IF XVII 128 
(to *arjanan); Holthausen AEE]\ t 186; 
Feist 56; Porzig Gliederung 121-122 
(from Celtic); Pokorný I 781; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 96; Vries AMEW 12-13, 
103; Zalizniak II 214; Benveniste IEL 
68-70; Lehmann GED 41; Bammesberger 
Mom. 53, 66; Kluge-Seebold 227; Bout- 
kan OFED s.v. 

*arbjanan ~ *arbjójanan wk.vb.: ON 
erfa 'to honor with a funeral feasť, OE 
irfan 'to inheriť, OFris ervia id., OS gi- 
ervan id., OHG ir-erben id. Derived from 
*arbjan. Structurally close to Slav *orbiti 
'to work'. Holthausen AEE]\ r 186; 
Vries AME]V 103; Vasmer-Trubachev 

III 487; Boutkan OFED s.v. 
*arbja-wardaz sb.m.: ON erfi-vqrSr, arf- 

vqror 'heir', OE irfe-weard 'guardian of an 
inheritance, heir', OS erbi-ward 'heir'. 
Compound of *afb~jan and *wardaz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 47. 

*arbjón sb.m.: Goth arbja 'heir, inheritor', 
ON arfi id. (a-stem), OE ierja id., OFris 
ewa id., MLG erve id., OHG erbo id. 
Related to *arbjan. Structurally close to 
Gaul PN Orbms (Vendryes 0-27). 
Torp-Falk 19; Holthausen AEEW 186; 
Feist 56; Porzig Gliederung 121; Pokorný 
I 781; Vries AMEW 12-13; Zalizniak II 
214; Lehmann GED 41-42; Szemerényi 
Festschr. Meid 359-368; Kluge-Seebold 
227-228; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*arčtaz adj.: ON ein-arSr 'firm, single', OE 




sbst. eard 'statě, condition', MDu sbst. aert 
'kind, situation', MHG sbst. art 'kinď. 
Related to Skt rtá- 'right, true', Av aša- 
'truth, righť, Arm ard 'structure', Gk 
ánaptíj 'togedrer, at once', Lat artus 
'fitted, close, strait, narrow'. Bartho- 
lomae 229-238; Torp-Falk 17; Walde- 
Hofmann I 70; Mayrhofer I 122; 
Pokorný I 57; Frisk I 87; Kluge- 
Seebold 54. 

*arčtiz ~ *arbiz sb.f.: ON qrd 'crop, 
produce', OE ird 'plowing, tilling, crop, 
produce', OFris raef-erd 'plowing off 
boundaries', OHG art 'plowed land, 
yielď. Derivative of *arjanan. Torp-Falk 
18; Holthausen AEE]\ t 187; Pokorný I 
62; Vries ANE1V 688; Zalizniak I 150; 
Seebold 82; Lloyd-Sprtnger I 347-349; 
Bammesberger Nom. 144; Kluge-Seebold 

*ar3az adj.: Burg *args 'cowardly, mean', 
ON argr 'emasculate, effeminate', OE earj 
'inert, weak, timid, cowardly', OFris erch 
'evil, wrong', MLG arch 'angry, evil', 
OHG arg 'greedy, cowardly, worthless'. 
Related to Lith aržús, eržiis 'salacious, 
lecherous' (Buga Aist. st. 1 1 9), further to 
Hitt ark- 'to climb, to cover', Gk ópxéo- 
ucu 'to dance, to jump'. Karsten jVB I 
49; Weisweiler IF XLI 16-18; Sůtter- 
lin IF XLV 307 (to Skt rhánt- 'small'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 208; Torp-Falk 19; Holt- 
hausen AEE1V 85; Loewenthal PBB 
1AN 157 (to Gk ápxóq 'rectum, anus'); 
Pokorný I 339; Vries ANEW 13 (to 
Toch AB erkát 'depreciatory'); Fraenkel 
123-124; Frisk II 433; Krause SUR 58; 
Lloyd-Springer I 321-324; Puhvel 
Festschr. Risch 154—155; Heidermanns 
102-103; Kluge-Seebold 51 (to Gk 6p%\q 
'scrotum'); Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*ar3Ín sb.f.: ON ergi 'lewdness, lusť, OHG 
argl 'negligence, greeď. Derived from *ar- 
3az. Vries ANEW 104; Heidermanns 102. 

*ar3Janan wk.vb.: ON ergjask 'to become 
a cowarď, MHG gi-ergen 'to spoil, to 
destroy'. Derived from *ar$az. Heider- 
manns 103. 

*arxwo sb.f.: ON qr 'arrow', OE earh id., 
Cf. also Gouh artvaz-na id. based on an 
old í-stem. Close to Lat arcus 'arch, bow'. 
Torp-Falk 18-19; Holthausen AEEh' 
85; Walde-Hofmann I 64; Feist 56; 
Pokorný I 67; Chemodanov SGGJa I 87; 
Vries ANE]\ t 688; Lehmann GED 42; 
Bammesberger Nom. 115. 

*ar(i)baz sb.m.: OS erida id. Continues 
*ars-to- morphologically different from 
ťfie usual *ars-tro- id.: Arm araur, Gk apo- 
xpov, Lat aratrum (Kuhn Kž^ LXXI 141). 
See *arjanan. Mertnger IF XVII 121- 
122; Walde-Hofmann I 62; Pokorný I 
62; Vries AJÍEW 12; Frisk I 147. 

*arjanan str./wk.vb.: Goth arjan 'to plow', 
ON erja id., OE erian id., OFris era id., 
OS erian id., OHG erren id. Identical 
with Mír airim id., Lith ariu, árti id., Slav 
*orjq, *orati id. Further connected with Gk 
ápóco id., Lat aró id. Persson Beitrdge 
659, 669; Torp-Falk 18; Holthausen 
AEE]V 94; Walde-Hofmann I 69; Feist 
56-57; Specht KZ LVI 29; Belardi RL 
II 193-195; Jóhannesson IEW 34-35; 
Pokorný I 62-63; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
62; Fraenkel 17; Vries AMEW 104; 
Frisk I 147-148; Onions 297; Seebold 
81-83; Vasmer-Trubachev III 148-149; 
Lehmann GED 42; Matzel Festschr. 
Rosenfeld 455-468. 

*arjaz adj.: Run nom. pl. superl. atjosteR 
'noble'. Related to Skt aryá- 'lord, master 
of the house', Av airyo Aryan', Ir aire, 
airech 'swain, suitor' (Krause FF X 2 1 7— 
218; Run. 539). Bartholomae 198; 
Mayrhofer I 52; Pokorný I 67; Vries 
AME]V 13; Palmer Gedenkschr. Gůntert 
11-19; Heidermanns 103— 104. 

*arma-bau3az sb.m.: ON arm-baugr 'arm- 
leť, OE earm-béa3 id., MLG arm-bog id., 
OHG arm-boug id. Compound of *armaz 
and *bau3az. Carr Nom. comp. 46. 

*arma-tau3on sb.m.: ON alm-bogi 'elbow', 
Swed arm-bage id., OFris arm-boga. Com- 
pound of *armaz and *bu3ó~n. Probably, 
influenced by *alina-bu3on. Carr Nom. 
comp. 46. 




* arma-xertaz adj.: Goth arma-hairts 
'merciful, compassionate', OE earm-heort 
id., OHG arm-herz id. Calque of Lat 
misericors id. (Raumer Einwirk. 345). Com- 
pound of *armaz II and *xerton. Kluge 
Btrg. Gesch. XXXV 148-149, 159; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 86; Feist 57; Carr j\C 
3-4 (OHG < Goth); Beck ^dPh XCVIII 
109-129; Lehmann GED 42-43; Kluge- 
Seebold 82. 

*arma-xertibó sb.f.: Goth arma-hairtipa 
'mercy, charity', OHG arm-herzida id. 
Calque of Lat misericordia id. (Raumer 
Einwirk. 345). Gf. '"arma-xertaz. Feist 57; 
Lehmann GED 43. 

*arma-xertín sb.f.: Goth arma-hairtei 
'mercy, compassion', OHG arm-herzí id. 
Calque of Lat misericordia id. (Raumer 
Einwirk. 345). Gf. '"arma-xertaz. Feist 57; 
Lehmann GED 43. 

*arma-líkaz adj.: ON arm-ligr 'pitifuF, 
OE earm-líc 'miserable, wretcheď, OS 
arm-lik id., OHG armi-lih id. Derived 
from *armaz. Heidermanns 104. 

*armaz I sb.m.: Goth arms 'arm' (from 
*armiz), ON armr id., OE earm id., OFris 
erm, arm id., OS arm id., OHG arm id. 
Related to Skt Irma- id., Av anmo id., Lat 
armus 'upper part of the arm', Gaul arama 
'fork', OPrus irtno 'arm' and in particular, 
with the samé ablaut grade, Slav *ormi 
'shoulder' (Kirchhoff KZ I 39). Buga 
Aist. (adds Lith pl. armaí 'bars holding the 
front shaft of a carť which is, however, 
from dial. German); Bartholomae 197; 
Torp-Falk 18; Holthausen AEEW 86; 
Waede-Hofmann I 69; Feist 58; Mayr- 
hoeer I 96; Pokorný I 58; Fraenkel 
16; Vries ANEW 14; Zalizniak II 185; 
Onions 50; Vasmer-Trubaohev III 
440-441; Hamp JIES X 187-189; 
Lehmann GED 43; Lloyd-Springer I 
331-333; Kluge-Seebold 52; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*armaz II adj.: Goth arms 'poor, pitiable, 
miserable', ON armr id., OE earm id., 
OFris erm 'poor', OS arm id., OHG arm 
'poor, powerless'. Probably continues 
*arímaz derived from *artaz (Johansson 

PBB XV 223-224; Wood MiJVXXI 39). 
On the other hand, cf. Skt armaka- 'ruins' 
based on the unattested adj . *arma- (Hum- 
bach Festschr. Knobloch 189-193; Beck- 
Strunk Festschr. Eggers 40), Hitt arman- 
'sickness' (Ivanov Etimologija 1979 131). 
Fick III 24 (to Gk épřj|jo<; 'desolate, 
lonely'); Meillet MSL X 280 (to Arm 
ol-orm 'pity'); Lorp-Falk 19; Feist 57—58; 
Holthausen AEEW 86; Weisweiler IF 
XLI 304-329; Mezger KZ LXXVI 
178- 180 (to Hitt arahza- 'outside, all 
arounď); Specht 264 (samé as 
Johansson); Vries ANESV 14; Solta 
427-428 (follows Meillet); Beck-Strunk 
Festschr. Eggers 18—41 (to Lith irti 'to fall 
apart, to dissolve'); Reiter TjBalk XIII 
133-138; Puhvel 157-160; Lehmann 
GED 43; Lloyd-Springer I 333-335; 
Bammesberger Nom. 71 (to Gk rípGpov 
'joinť), 244; Kluge-Seebold 52—53; 
Heidermanns 104-105; Boutkan OFED 

*arměnan wk.vb.: Goth arman 'to háve 
mercy, to pity', OS part. gi-armod 'poor, 
needy', OHG arměn 'to become poor'. 
Derived from *armaz 'poor', probably a 
calque of Lat misemi (Kluge Btig. Gesch. 
XXXV 159). Feist 57; Lehmann GED 
43; Heidermanns 104. 

*armjanan wk.vb.: ON erma 'to keep 
unhappy', OE irman 'to make miserable, 
to aínicť. Derived from *armaz II. 
Holthausen AEEW 186; Vries ANEW 
104; Heidermanns 104. 

*arniz adj.: Goth adv. arniba 'certainly', 
ON ern 'brisk, vigorous'. Related to Skt 
árna- 'undulating, surging' and further to 
máti 'to arise, to move', Gk opvujn 'to set 
into motion' (Bartholomae Z^Kf VI 
355). Torp-Falk 17; Brugmann IF 
XLX 384; Feist 58; Pokorný I 328 
Vries ANEW 105; Frisk II 422-424: 
Onions 297; Lehmann GED 43-44: 
Heidermanns 105. 

*arnuz ~ arnaz sb.m.: ON qrn 'eagle', 
OE earn id., OS aru id. (in prop.), OHG 
arn id. (f-stem). Based on *aron. Struc- 
turally similar to Gk opvit; 'birď, opveov 




id. Holthausen AEE] V 86; Pokorný I 
326; Frisk II 421-422; Vries ANEW 
688; Zalizniak II 220; Onions 324. 

*aron sb.m.: Goth ara 'eagle', ON ari id., 
OS aro id., OHG aro id. Related to Hitt 
harafn)- id., Gk opvii; 'birď, Bret er 
'eagle', cf. also Lith erělis, arelis id., Slav 
*orbl"b id. Meillet Etudes 418; Torp- 
Falk 17; Suolahti DVN 345-352; 
Trautmann BSW 13; Feist 54-55; Po- 
korný I 325-326; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
111; Fraenkel 122, R'Z LVIII 285-287; 
Vries AMEW 13; Frisk II 421-422; 
Zalizniak II 220; Onions 324; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 150-151; Lehmann GED 
40; Bammesberger Nom. 1 76; Puhvel III 
137-139; Lloyd-Springer I 341-344; 
Kluge-Seebold 2. 

*arsaz sb.m.: ON ars 'behind, backside', 
OE ears id., OS ars id., OHG ars id. 
Related to Gk oppoq id., Arm oř, pl. ořk', 
continuing IE *orsos, cf. also Olr err 'tail' 
< *ersa. Pedersen Kelt. Gr. II 101; 
Torp-Falk 20; Holthausen AEE]V 86; 
Pokorný I 340; Vries ANE][ t 14; Frisk 
II 427; Zalizniak I 129; Lloyd-Springer 
I 345-346; Bammesberger Nom. 54; 
Kluge-Seebold 54. 

*artjanan wk.vb.: ON erta 'to taunt, to 
tease'. Identical widi Skt ardáyati 'to make 
flow' (causative of árdati, rdáti 'to flow, 
to dissolve'), Lith ardýti 'to untie, to 
unstitch'. Torp-Falk 19; Marstrander 
apud Vries ANEW 105 (to *ar^az)\ 
Mayrhofer 151; Pokorný I 63 (to Olr 
aird 'point, top'), 329-330; Fraenkel 
15-16; Vries ANEl\ r 105. 

*art5n sb.f.: ON arta 'teal, Anas quer- 
quedula', OE earte 'wagtail'. Probably 
connected with *artjanan. Similarity with 
Lat ardea 'heron', Gk épq)8ióg, ptoSiót; 
id. may be deceptive. Torp-Falk 19; 
Holthausen AEE]V 86; Walde-Hof- 
mann I 64; Pokorný I 68; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 59; Vries ANEW 15; Frisk I 

*arbraz sb.m.: ON aršr 'plow', Close to 
Gk apoxpov id., Olr arathar id., Lat ará- 
trum id. Further connected with *aijanan. 

Torp-Falk 18; Walde-Hofmann I 62; 
Frisk I 147; Bammesberger Nom. 86. 

*arutaz sb.m.: OS arut 'piece of ore', 
OHG aruz 'ore, piece of ore, lump of 
clay'. OHG meanings indicate an origi- 
nál word for marsh iron and contradict 
the popular hypothesis of an old borrow- 
ing going back to Sum urudu 'copper' 
(despite Karsten Germanen 196). Probably 
related to *erwon, cf. Slav *želězo '(marsh) 
iron' ~ *žel(e)za 'glanď. Torp-Falk 18; 
Ipsen IF XLI 1 74-1 75; Lloyd-Springer 
I 355-358; Kluge-Seebold 232; Truba- 
ghev VJa XXXIII/5 7-8. 

*arfon sb.m.: ON aifi 'chickweeď, OE earje 
'tare', EFris alf, arve 'vetch'. Borrowed 
from an unknown source as well as Lat 
eruutn 'vetch, pea', Gk opo(3o<; 'bitter 
vetch' (Hoops Waldbáume 463). Walde- 
Hofmann I 419- 420; Vries AMEW 13. 

*arwaz adj.: ON qrr 'swift, ready', OS aru 
'ready for harvesting'. Identical with 
Toch A arwar, B arwer 'ready', Av aurva- 
'quick, brave'. Bugge A"^XI (1870) 403 
(to Skt árvant- 'courser, horše'); Bartho- 
lomae 200; Torp-Falk 17; Holthausen 
AEE]Vm; Karsten MB II 194, 412-414; 
Fraenkel ~fslavPh XXI 138-140; Po- 
korný I 331; Vries ANEW 688; Lloyd- 
Springer I 311-312; Sanders Festschr. 
Kolb 558-568; Bammesberger Nom. 243; 
Heidermanns 106. 

*arwaz ~ *arwez sb.n.: ON grr 'scar', 
MLG are id. Close to Skt neut. árus- 
'wounď. (Torp-Falk 19). Pokorný I 
338; Chemodanov SGGJa I 107. 

*arwít5 sb.f: ON pl. ertr 'pea', OS erit 
id., MLG erwete id., OHG arawiz id. 
See *arfarS Torp-Falk 19-20 (non-IE); 
Btnz Z dFh XXXVIII 371 (OHG araweiz 
< *arwa-aita-); Ipsen Festschr. Streitberg 
230-232; Walde-Hofmann I 419-420; 
Vries ANEW 105; Frisk II 424. 

*aseluz ~ *aselaz sb.m.: Goth asilus 
'donkey, ass', OE eosul id., OS esil id., 
OHG esil id. An early borrowing (with 
*-/- < -n-Tj from Lat asinus id. (Kluge 
Urgerm. 68) or a later loan from Rom 
*áselus < Lat asellus id. (Luft 7DADL XLI 




241-242). Forsterman KZ I 495 
Schwentner PBB XLIV 497-498 
Holthausen AEE]V 93; Feist 59-60 
Schulze Kl. Schr. 507 (follows Luft) 
Lehmann GED 45; Kluge-Seebold 

*asjó(n) sb.f.: ON esja 'a kind of clay', 
OHG essa 'chimney'. Related to *azenaz 
~ *azenan. Torp-Faek 22; Pokorný 
I 68; Vries ANEW 105-106; Kluge- 
Seebold 234. 

*askaz sb.m.: Burg *asks 'ash-tree', ON 
askr id., OE ďsc id., OS ask id. (< *askiz), 
OHG asc id. (< *askiz). Close to Arm 
haň id., Alb ah 'beech' < PAlb *aska, cf. 
also Gk ói;úa 'beech'. Hoops JValdbáume 
121; ZuprrzA Gutt. 159; Torp-Falk 23; 
Holthausen AEE]V 12; Pokorný I 782; 
Vries AME]\ t 15; Frisk II 400; Zalizniak 
I 185; Onions 54; Normier Sprache 
XXVII 22-29 (Indo-Iranian paraUels); 
Lloyd-Springer I 360-363; Kluge- 
Seebold 233; Orel AED 2. 

*askjan sb.n.: ON eski 'ashen box', MDu 
esch id., esche 'ash'. Derived from *askaz. 
Schulze A'~ LXI 136; Vries ANEW 106. 

*askón sb.f.: Goth azgo 'ashes' (with voiced 
inlaut), ON aska id., OE esce id., MLG 
asche id., OHG asca id. Connected with 
Arm ačiun id. < *azg-. Cf., on the other 
hand, *as- in Hitt hašša- 'ashes, hearth', 
Skt asa- 'ashes, dusť and *azd- in Gk áLfx 
'dry dirť (Walde KZ XXXI 290). 
Meillet Esquisse 29; Osthoff PBB XIII 
396-399 (from *ast-k-ón, to Gk c^ro 'to 
dry up, to parch'); Zupitza Gutt. 96; 
Grienberger Goten 41 (Goth suffix *-j- 
vs. other Gmc *-k); Torp-Falk 22; 
Kretschmer KZ XXXI 452; Holt- 
hausen AEE\V 12; Feist 72; Specht 69; 
Mayrhofer I 83; Pokorný I 69; 
Chemodanov SGGJa 1110; Vries ANEW 
15; Frisk I 25-26; Zalizniak I 155; 
Onions 54; Lehmann GED 54; Kluge- 
Seebold 56. 

*asnjaz sb.m.: Goth asneis 'day-laborer, 
hired man', OE esne 'servant', OHG asni, 
esni id. Derived from *az(a)niz ~ *asaniz. 
Holthausen AEEW 94; Feist 60; Onions 

297; Lehmann GED 45; Bammesberger 
Nom. 66—67. 

*aspiz ~ *asp5(n) sb.f: ON qsp 'asp', 
OE ď,sp id., tespe id., OHG aspa id., Cf. 
also MLG espe id. < *aspjon. Connected 
with Latv apse id., OPrus abse id., Slav 
*osa id. Torp-Falk 23; Trautmann 
BSW 11-13; Holthausen AEEW 13; 
Thieme KZ LXLX 175 (on Skt sphyá- id. 
< *aspi-); Pokorný I 55; Fraenkel 14; 
Vries ANEW 688; Zalizniak II 214; 
Janert KZ LXXIX 89-91, XCVII 
202-203; Onions 54; Stang LS 13; 
Vasmer-Trubachev III 156; Lloyd- 
Springer I 370—372; Kluge-Seebold 

*astaz I sb.m.: Godr asts 'branch, bough', 
OS ast id., OHG ast id. Notě a derivative 
with a long grade *5staz 'knot, knob': OE 
úst, MLG ost. Identical with Gk oi^oq 
'branch', Arm ost 'twig'. Further cf. Hitt 
haštuer- 'twigs, stick'. Bloomfleld Lan- 
guage III 213-214 (*o Z do- < *o-s(ejdo-); 
Sturtevant Language IV 163; Torp-Falk 
559 (to Gk 00x05 'shooť); Holthausen 
AEEW 243; Feist 60; Pokorný I 280; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 110; Frisk II 353; 
Darms Vrddhi 236-238; Lehmann GED 
45; Knobloch IF XCII 29-32; Puhvel 
III 339-340; Lloyd-Springer I 373-375; 
Kluge-Seebold 58. 

*astaz II sb.m.: OE ast 'kiln', MDu ast id. 
Identical with Gk oti^a 'dryness, heať, 
Slav *ozďb 'malt-kiln, oasť. Frisk I 
25-26; Pokorný I 68-69; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 88 (to Lat aestus 'heať); Onions 
619; Dybo BSA 229-230. 

*at prep.: Goth at 'from, at, with', ON at 
'at, to', OE tet id., OFris et id., OS at id., 
OHG az id. Related to Phryg ad-, Lat ad 
id., Umbr ař-, Ose az id., Olr ad-. 
Torp-Falk 9-10; Holthausen AEEW 
13; Walde-Hofmann I 11-12; Feist 
60-61; Pokorný I 3; Vries ANEW 16; 
Onions 58; Lehmann GED 45; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*atiskaz sb.m.: Goth atisk 'standing grain, 
grainfielď (mase. or neut.), MLG esch id., 
OHG ezzisca 'seeď. Derived from *atjanan 




(Diefenbaoh V\V I 78; Grienberger Got. 
31). Grimm DG I 47; Lottner KZ VII 
180 (from *ades-ko-, to Lat ador 'spelť); 
Fick I 351 (to Gk á9r|p 'awn'); Torp- 
Falk 24; Schrader-Nehring II 648 (fol- 
low Lottner); Feist 61; Lané Language 
XIV 25 (to Toch A čiti, B acc. atiyai 
'grass'); Pedersen Toch. 64 (against Lané); 
Pokorný I 3 (follows Lottner); Ramat 
Gedenkschr. Gúntert 11-18 (follows Grien- 
berger); Lehmann GED 46; Kluge- 
Seebold 233. 

*atjanan wk.vb.: Goth fra-atjan 'to give 
away (to be eaten)', ON etja 'to fodder', 
OE ettan id., OFris etta id., MLG etten id., 
OHG ezzen id. Causative of *etanan. 
Holthausen AEEW 94; Feist 61; Vries 
ANEW 106; Seebold 180; Lehmann GED 
208; Fvluge-Seebold 61. 

*attón sb.m.: Goth atta 'father', ON atti 
id., OFris aththa id., OHG atto 'ancestor'. 
A nursery word (Meielet BSL XXXIV/ 
101 1-2), cf. Gk axxa id., Lat atta id. 
and the like. Torp-Falk 10; Friedrich 
ZDMG I (NF) 159 (from one of the lan- 
guages of Asia Minor), Glotta XXIII 
207-210; Feist 62; Martinet Gem. 56, 
64-65, 161-162; Porzig Gliederung 129; 
Pokorný I 70; Vries ANE]V 17; 
Zalizniak I 153; Benveniste IEL 169, 
370; Lůhr Expr. 254-255; Lloyd- 
Springer I 385-388; Lehmann GED 46; 
Ktuge-Seebold 60-61. 

*atu3az adj.: Crim.-Goth atochta 'baď (leg. 
atocha?). Identical with Hitt hatug(a)i- 
'horrible, frightening' < *oduko- (Tisch- 
ler KZ XCII 108-111), further to Lat 
odi 'to hatě', Gk óóiJaaoiiai id., Arm 
ateam id. (Grienberger Z^Ph XXX 127; 
Tischler KZ XLII 108-111). Walde- 
Hofmann II 202-203; Feist 61; Pokorný 
I 773; Lehmann GED 46; Puhvel III 
375-376; Heidermanns 106-107. 

*atulaz adj.: ON atall 'fierce', OE atol 
'dire, terrific, terrible', MDu atel 'terrible'. 
Cf. also ON etja 'to fight, to contenď < 
*atjanan. Related to Lat odi 'to hatě', Gk 
(j8í)aao|iai id., Arm ateam id. (Fick BB I 
334, II 195). See *atu$az. Torp-Falk 

10; Feist 61; Holthausen AEEW 8; 
Karsten MB II 274, 283; Walde- 
Hofmann II 202-203; Pokorný I 773; 
Vries ANEW 17; Frisk II 351; Heider- 
manns 107. 

*abalan sb.n.: OSwed adal 'nature, dispo- 
sition', OHG adal 'descent, lineage'. Cf. 
also OFris edila 'grandfather'. Identical 
with Toch A atál 'man'. Cf. also Gk 
átaXóq 'tender, delicate'. Grienberger 
Got. 104 (prefix *a-/ *oj; Torp-Falk 10; 
Holthausen AEEW 13; Neckel PBB 
XLI 385-436; Leumann Glotta XV 154 
(against comparison with axakóq); F\AR- 
sten NB II 274- 275, 370; Szemerényi 
Word VIII 42-50 (to Lat indoles 'inborn 
quality, nature'); Pokorný 171 (to *attori); 
Mezger KZ LXXII 114; Vries ANEW 
1-2; Frisk I 176; Zalizniak II 214: 
Benveniste 370; Van Wlndekens 171 
Darms Vrddhi 192-207; Palmer Denkschr. 
Gúntert 15; Lloyd-Springer I 44-46 
Hefdermanns 109; Fvluge-Seebold 14: 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*ajíal(j)az adj.: Burg *apals 'noble', OESc 
apul, apal- 'marital', OE tedele 'noble, 
eminenť, OFris ethele 'having free citizen- 
ship', OS ethili 'of good origin', OHG adal 
'noble', edili 'noble, distinguisheď. De- 
rived from *apalan. Holthausen AEE]\ j 
13; Kobler 708; Heidermanns 107-109; 
Kluge-Seebold 14, 204; Boutkan OFED 

*abalin3az sb.m.: Burg *apalings 'noble- 
man', ON qdlingr 'prince', OE ledelins 
'king's son, man', OFris etheling 'free citi- 
zen', MLG edelinc 'nobleman', OHG 
ediling id. Derived from *apalan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 13; Vries ANEW 685; 
Kobler 708; Heidermanns 108; Bout- 
kan OFED s.v. 

*abaljan sb.n.: ON eSli, edli 'patrimony, 
origin', OE eoelo 'nobility', OS adali 
'noble origin', OHG edili 'clan, nobility' 
Derived from *apalan. Torp-Falk 10 
Holthausen AEE]V 13; Pokorný I 71 
Vries ANEW 93-94; Zalizniak II 214: 
Hefdermanns 108. 

*abalojanan wk.vb.: ON qdlask 'to gain, 



aii3j az 

to win', OE 3e-iedelian 'to render cele- 
brateď. Derived from *apalan. Heider- 

MANNS 108. 

*ab(i) ptcl: Goth ap-pan 'but then, buť. 
Related to Toch A atas, B ate 'away', Skt 
áti 'beyond, very', Av aiti id., Olr aith- 
'againsť, Slav *oťb 'from'. Bartho- 
lomae 54; Torp-Falk 10; Feist 63; 
Pokorný I 70; Vasmer-Trubachev III 
168; Adams TB 10. 

*abnaz sb.n.: Goth apn 'year'. Identical 
with Lat annus id. < *atnos, Ose akeneí 'in 
the year', Umbr acc. pl. acnu 'year'. 
Meyer A"^ XXVIII 164 (further to Skt 
átati 'to go, to walk'); Froehde BB XVI 
196-197; Torp-Falk 10; Strachan BB 
XX 8; Brugmann IF XVII 492; Walde- 
Hofmann I 51; Feist 62-63; Szemerényi 
TPS 172-175 (Lat annus < *asnos); 
Pokorný I 69; Chemodanov SGGJa I 90; 
Lehmann GED 47. 

*a{5njan sb.n.: Gouh at-apni 'year'. Struc- 
turally close to Lat bi-ennium. Derived 
from *apnaz. Walde-Hofmann 151. 

*auda-fundiz ~ *auda-fundjaz adj.: 
ON aud-Jyndr 'easily perceived, clear', OE 
eáb-fynde 'easy to be founď. Compound of 
*auiaz ~ *auian and *fundiz II. Carr 
Mom. comp. 92 (parallel formations); 
Matzel KZGV 105. 

*auda3az ~ *audÍ3az adj.: Goth audags 
'blessed, fortunate', ON audigr 'rich, opu- 
lenť, OE eádÍ3 'happy, blessed, prosper- 
ous', OS odag 'rich, opulenť, OHG otag 
id. Derived from *audaz ~ *audan. 
Zimmermann BB XXIII 275-276 (to Lat 
autumnus 'autumn'); Torp-Falk 6; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 83; Feist 63; Porzig 
Gliederung 130; Vries ANEIV 18; Lehmann 
GED 47. 

*auda-3Ótiz ~ *auda-3Ótjaz adj.: ON 
auů-^att 'easily goť, OE eád-^ete 'easily 
got, prepareď. Compound of *audaz ~ 
*auian and a derivative of *3etanan. 
Carr Nom. comp. 92 (parallel formations). 

*audanaz ~ *audenaz sb.m.: ON audinn 
'lenť, OE eáden 'given', OS odan 'given as 
a gifť. Participle of the unattested verb 
*audanan. See *auiaz ~ *auian. Torp- 

Falk 6 (to Lith áusti 'to weave'); Holt- 
hausen AEE1\ t 83; Lfnoouist Festschr. 
Pipping 354; Jóhannesson IEW 7-8; 
Krahe SuV 105; Pokorný I 76; Vries 
ANEW 18; Seebold 83-84. 

*audaz ~ *audan sb.m./n.: Burg *aud(s) 
'wealth', ON auór 'fate, destiny, wealth' 
(partly < *audiz), OE edd 'possession, 
riches, prosperity, happiness', OS od 
'happiness'. Cf. Goth auda-hafts 'fortu- 
nate, blessed', MHG klein-ot 'treasure'. 
Probably, connected with W udd < *audos 
'lord, master', Bret ozac'h < *udakkos 
'home owner'. Also compared with Lat 
uber 'rich, fertile' < *oudh-ero- (Szemerényi 
IBK XV 207). Loth RC XLI 234; Torp 
SHS 172 (to Lith áudžu, áusti 'to weave'); 
Fowkes Goth. 5-6 (to IE *au(s)- 'to 
inerease'); Torp-Falk 6 (samé as Torp); 
Holthausen AEEU 7 83; Walde- 
Hofmann II 738-739; Porzig Gliederung 
130; Pokorný I 62-76; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 72; Vries ANEW 18 (separates 
ON audr 'riches, wealth' from audr 'fate, 
destiny'); Zalizniak I 185; Mezger K^ 
LXXXII 288-297 (to Gk avxúq 'šelf'); 
Seebold 83; Lehmann GED 47; Kobler 
708; Bammesberger Mom. 54. 

*au3a-duran ~ *au3a-duró(n) sb.n./f: 
Goth auga-dauro 'window', OE 
id., OHG ouga-tora id. Compound of 
*au3on and *duran, *duro. Carr Mom. 
comp. 44. 

*au3(a)njanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. iiygna 
'to show', MLG t-onen id., OHG ougenen 
id. Derived from *au3on. Torp-Falk 5. 

*au3Ídaz adj.: latě ON eygor 'having eyes', 
OE 'blear-eyeď. Derived from 
*au3Janan. Torp-Falk 5; Vries AME]\ t 

*au3Janan wk.vb.: Goth augjan 'to show', 
ON eygja 'to furnish with an eye', OE 
eáwan 'to show, to manifest', OS ógan 'to 
show', OHG ougen id. Derived from 
*au 3 dn. Osthoff PBB VIII 261-262; 
Torp-Falk 5; Holthausen AEE\V 87; 
Feist 64; Vrtes ANEW 107; Lehmann 
GED 48. 

*au3Jaz adj.: ON eygr 'having eyes', OE 

au3j az 



súr-i^e 'blear-eyeď, OHG sur-ougi 'with 
watery eyes'. Derived from *au^on. 
Torp-Falk 5; Vries ANEW 107. 

*au3on sb.n.: Goth augo 'eye', ON auga id., 
OE eáj« id., OFris age id., OS oga id., 
OHG ouga id. From *as(w)dn influenced 
by *auzon. Further to IE *ok'- id.: Toch 
A ak, B ek, Skt áksi, Av duál aii, Gk oaae, 
Alb jji, Lith ate, Slav *oko (Schmidt K~^ 
II 381—382). A consonantal stem *a^wz 
and an í-stem *a^wiz can be recon- 
structed on the basis of compounds 
(Schmidt Plur. 106-108, 388-405). Goth 
aha 'mind, understanding' hardly belongs 
here (despite Fick I 13; Zupitza Gutt. 72; 
Osthoff IF XXVII 175). Meillet 
LHLG I 289-290 (taboo); Zupitza Gutt. 
Ti— H (to Slav *aviti 'to show'); Torp- 
Falk 5; Stokes K~ XXXV 151-152 
(to Mír uag 'den, cave'); Holthausen 
AEEW 83; Speoht KZ LXH 211; Feist 
64-65; Mayrhofer I 16; Pokorný I 
775-777; Fraenkel 5; Vries ANEW 19; 
Frisk II 436; Zalizniak I 157; Onions 
340; Vasmer-Trubachev III 128-129; 
Lehmann GED 48; Bammesberger Nom. 
173-174; Kluge-Seebold 65; Huld 
Festschr. Puhvel I 85; Adams TB 74-75; 
Orel AED 405; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*aujan sb.n.: Run auja 'good fortuně'. 
Related to Skt máti 'to be pleased, to 
strive, to promote', Av avaiti 'to help', Gk 
rtixrn; 'friend, beloveď. Bartholomae 
162; Mayrhofer I 57; Pokorný I 683; 
Vries ANEW 19; Frisk I 47; Krause 
Run. I 241-244, 261-263; Lehmann GED 

•aukanan str.vb.: Goth aukan 'to increase, 
to augment', ON auka id., OFris aha id., 
OHG auhhan id. Connected with Toch B 
atik- 'to grow, to increase', Lat augeo id., 
Lith áugu, áugti 'to grow', Latv augt id. 
Zupitza Gutt. 160; Torp-Falk 5; Walde- 
Hofmann I 82-83; Feist 67; Jóhannes- 
son IE\Y 10; Pokorný I 85; Fraenkel 
24; Vries ANEW 19; Anttila Schw. 
91; Onions 304; Seebold 84-85; Leh- 
mann GED 50; Adams TB 130; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*auke conj.: Goth auk 'but, also, further- 
more', ON auk 'also', OE eác 'also, how- 
ever', OFris ak 'also', OS ok id., OHG 
ouh id. Identical with Gk av-ye 'again'. A 
compound of *au (Gk av 'again') and 
particle *ge. Cf. also Toch A -ok, B -uk < 
*u-ge (Van Windekens I 329-330). 
Torp-Falk 5; Holthausen AEEW 82; 
Feist 67; Pokorný I 74; Vries ANEW 
19; Frisk I 183; Onions 304; Seebold 84 
(to *aukan); Lehmann GED 50; Kluge- 
Seebold 61-62; Adams TB 109; Bout- 
kan OFED s.v. 

*aukojanan wk.vb.: ON auka 'to increase' 
(weak forms, cf. *aukanan), OE ókian id., 
MLG oken id., OHG ouhhon id. Derived 
from *aukón. Pokorný I 85; Vries 
AAEir 19; Seebold 84. 

*aukón sb.m.: ON auki 'increase', OE eáca 
'addition, increase, advantage', OFris áka 
'increase', MLG oke id. Derived from 
*aukanan. Holthausen AEE] V 83; Vrtes 
ANEW 19; Seebold 84. 

*aulaz sb.m.: Norw dial. aul 'pipe'. Iden- 
tical with Gk avXóq id., Lith aulas 'boot- 
leg'. Further related to Toch B pl. auloň 
'blood vessels', Lith aulys 'beehive', 
Slav *ulb(jb) id. Torp-Falk 6; Pokorný 
I 88-89; Frisk I 186-187; Adams TB 

*aumaz adj.: ON aumr 'poorly, miserable'. 
Identical with Toch B aume 'misery, 
poverty' (Krause GGA 1958/1-3 54; 
Strunk Festschr. Eggers 31-35). Karsten 
NB II 244, 247; Vries ANEW 19; 
Heidermanns 109-110; Adams TB 132; 
Burlak IFTJa 240. 

*auraz sb.m.: ON aurr 'wet clay, mud, wet 
soil', OE ear 'sea, oceán'. Related to Gk 
avavjpoc; 'without water', Thrac rvn. 
Aípai; (Kretschmer Glotta X 51, XIV 
93), Latv rvn. Auře. See *úran. Gering 
Komm. I 24 (reconstructs *auza- = Lat 
aurum 'gold'); Torp-Falk 6 (separate ON 
aiar 'clay, soil' to be compared with 
*uran); Persson IF XXXV 199-200; 
Endzelin A"^ Lil 116-117; Janzén NB 
XXIV 247-253; Feist 67-68; Holt- 
hausen AEE] V 85; Detschew Thr. 39; 

au raz 



Pokorný I 80; Vries ANEW 20; Frisk I 
103; Vendryes W-26 (to Olr úr 'soil, 
earth'); Lehmann GED 50; Dybo BSA 33. 

*ausanan str.vb.: ON ausa 'to sprinkle', 
MLG oseň 'to scoop', MHG oseň id. 
Identical with Gk aiíco 'to get a light, to 
light a fire' (with a secondary semantic 
development, see Fick BB II 187), cf. fur- 
ther Lat haurio 'to draw' < earlier *aurio. 
Torp-Falk 6; Walde-Hofmann I 637; 
Vries ANEW 21; Schwyzer I 644; 
Schulze Kl. Schr. 190-191; Pokorný I 
90; Frisk I 193; Seebold 85. 

*ausón sb.f.: ON ausa 'ladle', OE ease 
'glass, tumbler'. Derived from *ausanan. 
Holthausen AEE] ť 86; Vries ANE] V 2 1 . 

*austaně adv.: ON austan 'from the Easť, 
OE eástan id., OS ostana id., OHG ostana 
'eastwarď. Derived from *austaz. Torp- 
Falk 6; Holthausen AEE]V 86; Vries 
ANEW '21; Onions 298; Kluge-Seebold 

*austaz sb.m.: OE eást 'Easť, latě MHG 
ost id. Related to Skt usá 'morning lighť, 
Gk Hom ř]áq 'dawn', Lat aurora 'day- 
break, dawn', Lith aušra id. Torp-Falk 
6; Holthausen AEEW 86; Walde- 
Hofmann I 86; Pokorný I 86-87; 
Fraenkel 27; Frisk I 605—606; Onions 
298; Kluge-Seebold 605. 

*austraz sb.m.: ON austr 'drawing water'. 
Derived from *ausanan. Structurally close 
to Gk éi;cu)aTT|p- Kpeáypa, ai)axT|p- \iít- 
pou ovona. Pokorný I 90; Frisk I 529. 

*austraz ~ *austran sb.m./n.: Burg adj. 
*austr 'Northern', ON austr 'Easť, OE 
eáster, eástre 'Easter', OHG pl. ostara id. 
(fem.). Related to *austaz. Continues 
*ausro-, cf, Lat auster 'South winď (< 
*aus-tero-), Lith aušra 'dawn', Latv austrá 
id., austra vejš 'Eastern winď. Torp- 
Falk 6; Holthausen AEE]V 87; Walde- 
Hofmann I 87; Pokorný I 87; Vries 
ANEW 21; Onions 298; Lehmann GED 
270 (on Goth ostro- in Ostrogothaé); Kobler 
708; Kluge-Seebold 605-606. 

*austronjaz adj.: ON austmnn 'eastern', 
OE eastern id. OS ostrou id. OHG sund- 
ostroni 'south-eastern'. Derived from 

*austraz ~ *austran. Holthausen AEE] i' 
87; Vries ANEW 21. 

*aubaz ~ *aubón adj.: ON auS-fengr 'easy 
to geť, OE íde 'easy, pleasanť, OS othi, 
otho 'light, easy', OHG ódi, ódo id. Close 
to Lat otium 'leisure', further cf. Skt ávati 
'to be pleased, to strive, to promote'. See 
*aujan. Torp-Falk 5; Falk-Torp 1407; 
Holthausen AEE]V 87, 187; Fíarsten 
NB II 390-391; Walde-Hofmann II 
228-229; Pokorný I 77; Vries ANEW 
18; Mezger KZ LXXXII 288-297; 
Hetdermanns 110. 

*aubjanan wk.vb.: ON eyia 'to waste, to 
destroy', OE íban 'to lay waste, to de- 
stroy', OHG fir- oděn 'to waste, to desert'. 
Derived from *autpjaz. Torp-Falk 5; 
Mezger KZ LXXXII 288-297; Heider- 

MANNS 111. 

*aubjaz adj.: Godr aupeis 'barren, desolate, 
deserteď, ON auor 'desert, empty', OE 
íede 'desert, forlorn', OHG Bdi 'desert, 
empty'. Identical with Gk aiSaioq 'empty, 
vain' (Schulze Kl. Schr. 71), thus histo- 
rically may be related to *au\>az ~ *aupon. 
Thurneysen 01 41 (to Olr úathad 'small 
number'); Torp-Falk 4—5; Feist 69—70; 
Holthausen AEEW 187; Karsten NB II 
387-389; Mezger Word II 229, R'Z 
LXXXII 288 (to Gk avxóq); Pokorný I 
73; Vries ANEW 18; Frisk I 191; 
Lehmann GED 52 (identical with *aupaz 
~ *aupón); Heidermanns 111; Keuge- 
Seebold 597. 

*auz5n sb.n.: Goth auso 'ear' (*-s-), ON 
eyra id., OE eáre id., OFris are id., OS dra 
id., OHG dra id. Related to Av uš- id., 
Arm unkn id., Gk Dor mq id., Alb vesh id., 
Lat auris id., Olr áu id., Lith ausis id., Slav 
*uxo id. Kuhn I 377; Schmidt Plur. 109, 
406-407; Bartholomae 414; Torp-Falk 
7; Meringer SBAW CXXV/2 12-13 (to 
*5us- 'mouth'); Holthausen AEEW 85; 
Walde-Hofmann I 85-86; Feist 69; 
Pokorný I 785; Fraenkel 26; Vries 
ANEW 107-108; Zalizniak I 157; Frisk 
II 448-449; Onions 297; Vasmer- 
Trubachev IV 179; Lehmann GED 51; 
Bammesberger Nom. 1 74; Orel AED 




501; Kluge-Seebold 599; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*awidjan sb.n.: Goth awepi 'herd of sheep' 
(-/>- < *-d-, irreg. -e-), OE eówd(e) id., 
OHG ouwiti id. Derived from *awiz. 
Bremer Btrg. Gesch. XI 32 (reconstructs 
Goth *aweipi); Holthausen AEEW 93; 
Feist 70; Onions 332; Benveniste 48; 
Lehmann GED 52. 

*awistran sb.n.: Goth awistr 'sheepfolď, 
OE éwestre id. (mase). Derived from 
*awi z . Osthoff KZ XXIII 316 (from 
*awi-wistraz); Meillet MSL XII 218-219 
(from *oui-sth(e)-ro-)\ Bezzenberger KZ 
XXII 267-269; Kluge Nom. Stamm. 
51-52; Holthausen AEEW 93; Feist 
70-71; Onions 332; Ltndeman Verschár- 
fung 16.4; Lehmann GED 53; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 88. 

*awiz sb.f: ON ter 'ewe' (root stem), OE 
eówu id. (< *awjo), OFris ei id., OS ewi 
'lamb', OHG ouwi, ou 'sheep'. Identical 
wiťh Hitt haiú- 'sheep', Toch B a()w id., 
Skt ávi- id., Gk oic, id., Lat ovis id., Olr 
ói id., Lith avis id., Slav *ovb-ca id. 
(Forsterman KZ I 493). Torp-Falk 22; 
Trautmann BSW 20-21; Mikkola 
Festschr. Streitberg 269; Holthausen AEEW 
93; Walde-Hofmann II 229; Mayrhofer 

I 59; Pokorný I 784; Fraenkel 28; Frisk 

II 367-368; Vries ANEW 681; Zaliz- 
niak II 206; Onions 332; Trubachev 
Zhiv. 69—71; Vasmer-Trubachev III 116; 
Puhvel III 379-380; Adams TB 35. 

*awon sb.m.: ON ái 'great-grandfaťher'. 
Cf. also Goth awo 'grandmother' . Related 
to Hitt huhha- 'grandfather', Toch awe 
id., Arm hav id., Lat auus id., OPrus awis 
'uncle', Slav *ujb id. Uhlenbeck FBB 
XXX 263 (Lallwort); Torp-Falk 22; 
Walde-Hofmann I 88-89; Feist 71; 

Pokorný I 89; Benveniste IEL 181; 
Toporov PJa I 179-180; Adams TB 56. 

*az(a)niz ~ *asaniz sb.f: Goth asans 
'harvest, harvest time', ON qnn 'working 
season', OE mase. ern 'harvest', OFris ern 
id., OS aran-fimba 'mow, rick', asna 'tax, 
levý' (< *asno), OHG am 'harvest'. Re- 
lated to OPrus assanis 'harvest', Slav 
*esenb 'autumn'. Cf. verbal derivatives in 
OE earnian 'to earn', MLG amen 'to reap', 
OHG arnon id. Wetnhold KZ I 247; 
Froehde BB I 32 (to Lat annona 'annual 
yielď < *ann-osna); Bezzenberger BB V 
176 (to Skt neut. vasná- 'price, value'); 
Torp-Falk 18, 22; Pedersen IF V 44; 
Schulze Qy. 475 (to Gk cópa 'spring'); 
Grienberger Got. 30 (to *askón); Hol- 
thausen AEEW 86, 94; Feist 58-59 
Walde-Hofmann I 50; Pokorný I 343 
Vries AMEW 687-688; Zalizniak II 192 
Martynov Slav.-germ. 133 (from Slavic) 
Onions 297; Stang LS 25; Trubachev 
ESSJa VI 28-29; Ramat Gedenkschr. 
Giintert 71; Lehmann GED 44; Lloyd- 
Springer I 304-307; Wagner KZ CV 
273-275; Kluge-Seebold 231. 

*azenaz ~ *azenan sb.m./n.: ON arinn 
'hearth', OHG erin 'floor, floorboarď. 
Related to Hitt loc. hašši 'herd', Toch AB 
as- 'to dry', Skt asa- 'ashes, dusť, Lat Bra 
'altar', Ose loc. aasaí id. Torp-Falk 18 
(to Lat area 'ground, vacant space, uhresh- 
ing floor'); Schroder Festschr. Streitberg 
340-343 (to Skt irina- 'hole in the 
grounď); Reichelt KZ XLVI 315-316; 
Holthausen KZ LXXI 55 (to Gk 
ápapíaKto 'to fit together, to equip') 
Walde-Hofmann I 61; Mayrhofer I 83 
Pokorný I 68; Chemodanov SGGJa I 66 
Vries AMEW 13; Knobloch Festschr. 
Folomé 347-352 (to Lat area). 

*hačtjan sb.n.: Goth hadi 'beď, ON bedr 
id. (< *badjaz ~ *badiz), OE bedd id., 
OFris bed id., OS bed, beddi id., OHG betli 
id. Probably connected with W bedd, 
Corn bedh, Bret béz 'grave' (Meringer IF 
XLX 448; further see Posch). Dubious. 
Fick I, 491; Posoh WuS XVI 4-16 (to 
*bhedh- 'to dig, to pierce'); Braune PBB 
XXIII 250; Bugge PB5XIII 176 (to Slav 
*podb 'base, bottom support'); Torp-Falk 
258; Holthausen AEEW 18; Feist 73; 
Pokorný I 114; Vries ANEW 29 (to 
*bapan); Zalizniak II 212; Onions 84; 
Lehmann GED 55; Lloyd-Springer I 
572—574; Bammesberger Nora. 65; Rluge- 
Seebold 104; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*badjón sb.m./f.: ON bedja 'wife, bed- 
fellow', OE y-bedda id., OFris bedda 'hus- 
banď, OS gi-beddio id., MHG ge-bette 
'wife, bed-fellow'. Derived from *badjan. 
Vries ANEW 29. 

*hadwó sb.f.: ON bqb 'batde', OE beadu 
'battie, war', OS hadu- (in cmpn.), OHG 
batu- (in cmpn.). Cf. Burg *badus id. 
Related to Olr bodb 'crow, image of the 
battie goddess'. Further cf. a semantic- 
ally distant but formally similar Slav 
*body, gen. *bodbVe 'fish-spear, harpoon'. 
Grimm KZ I 437; Torp-Falk 256; 
Torp-Falk 256; Holthausen AEEJ\ t 
17; Pokorný I 114; Chemodanov SGGJa 
I 96; Vries ANEW 69; Zalizniak I 
149; Trubachev ESSJa II 155; Kobler 

*ha3maz ~ *ba3naz sb.m.: Goth bagms 
'tree', ON badmr, barmr id. (with assimila- 
tion), OSwed bagn id. An irregular phone- 
tic transformation of *baumaz (Johansson 
PBB XV 224-225; Uhlenbeck PBB 
XXX 263-264). Schweizer KZ I 159; 
Mertnger ZFXVI 158 (to *bapan, isolates 
*bajmaz from *baumaz)\ Grienberger 
Got. 42 (to Skt bahú- 'arm'); Torp-Falk 
257-258; Feist 73-74; Pokorný I 149; 
Vries AMEW 22; Zalizniak II 226; 

Peeters KZ LXXXVIII 129-133; Leh- 
mann GED 55-56. 

*haidjanan wk.vb.: Goth baidjan 'to com- 
pel, to force', ON bába 'to request, to 
ask', OE bddan 'to constrain, to compel', 
OS bědian 'to compel', OHG beiten 'to 
compel, to tirge'. Causative of *bidanan 
(Wood MP rV 489-490). Structurally 
similar to Lith baidýti 'to frighten' and 
Slav *běditi 'to constrain, to persuade, 
to cause evil' (Vasmer-Trubachev I 142) 
unless the latter is a denominative. 
Torp-Falk 270-271; Zimmer KZ XXX 
43-45; Sommer ff XI 79 (to Lat boiae 
'collar'); Holthausen AEEW 14; Feist 
74; Pokorný I 117; Vries ANEW 30 
Stang LS 14-15; Benveniste IEL 95, 99 
Peeters A^XCrV 206-207; Seebold 95 
Trubachev ESSJa II 56-57 (Slavic verb 
as denominative); Lehmann GED 56. 

*bainan sb.n.: ON bán 'bone', OE bán id., 
OFris hen id., OS ben id., OHG bein id. 
Gontinues *bhoino- based on IE *bhei- 'to 
strike' (Bugge PBB XXIV 459; Wood 
MZJVXXLX 69). For the semantic deve- 
lopment cf. Slav *bedro 'hip' < *bhedh- 'to 
strike, to prick'. Doederleto LS VI 125 
(to Lat femur 'hip' < *bhedh-); Hellouist 
ANF VII 7 (to ON beinn 'straighť); Wad- 
stetn Z dph XXVIII 529 (samé as Hell- 
ouist); Breal MSL V 158; Torp-Falk 
257 (samé as Doederlein); Hirt Idg. Gr. 
I 312 (from *bhonio-)\ Holthausen AEE] I" 
16; Pokorný I 117-118; Vries ANEW 
30; Zalizniak I 139; Onions 106; Lloyd- 
Springer I 515—516; Bammesberger KZ 
CIII 264-268 (to Lat finis 'boundary'); 
Hetdermanns 1 1 3; Kluge-Seebold 94; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*baitan ~ *foaitaz sb.n./m.: ON beit 
'ship', OE bát 'boat, ship, vessel', OFris 
bát 'boať. Probably related to *bítanan 
(Lidén Festschr. Bugge 85-86, HVSUVI/l 
34). Torp-Falk 270; Holthausen 
AEEW 16; Vries ANEW 30 (to *baitja- 




nan); Onions 103; Seebold 97; Kluge- 
Seebold 125-126. 

*baitilaz sb.m.: Norw beitel 'chisď, MLG 
beitel, betel id., MHG beizel 'stylus, prick'. 
Derived from *bítanan. Torp-Falk 270. 

*baitjanan wk.vb.: ON beita 'to yoke', OE 
bietan 'to bridle, to rein in, to restrain', 
OS und-bětian 'to dismounť, OHG beizen 
'to spurn on'. Gausative of *bitanan. 
Torp-Falk 270; Holthausen AEE]V 15; 
Pokorný I 116; Vries ANEW 30-31; 
Seebold 97. 

*baitjan sb.n.: ON beiti 'pasturage, alum', 
OE 3e-bďte 'bit (of a bridle)', MLG betě 
'biť, MHG ge-beize 'falconry'. Cf. OHG 
beiza 'alum' < *baito. Derived from *bíta- 
nan. Vries ANEW 31; Seebold 97. 

*baitraz adj.: Goth baitrs 'bitter', ON 
prop. Beitr. An ablaut variant of *bitraz. 
Derived from *bltanan. Niedermann IF 
XXXVII 145-147 (to Slav *bridbkb 
'sharp'); Wood MLN XX 41-42; Torp- 
Falk 270; Feist 77; Vries ANEW 31; 
Onions 97; Seebold 97; Lehmann GED 
58-59; Heidermanns 115. 

*baizaz sb.m.: Burg *bairs 'boar', OE bár 
id., OS běr-swin id., OHG ber id. Identical 
with Lith baísas 'terrible apparition', 
Slav *běsb 'démon' < *bhoiclh-s-o- (Kluge- 
Seebold 80). Torp-Falk 257 (reconstruct 
*bairaz); Wissman Posto. 78; Holthausen 
AEEW 16; Onions 103; Kobler 708; 
Lloyd-Springer I 542. 

*bakan ~ *bakaz sb.n./m.: ON bak 
'back', OE biec id., OFris bek id., OS bak 
id., OHG bahho id. (<*bakon). Of un- 
known origin. The similarity with Slav 
*bokb 'side' (Mladenov 40), itself unclear, 
is semantically attractive but phonetically 
difficult. Zupitza Gutt. 160; Torp-Falk 
259; Holthausen AEEW 14; Vries 
ANEW 23; Zalizniak II 227; Onions 68; 
Kluge-Seebold 72; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*bakanan str.vb.: OE bacán 'to bake', 
MLG backen id., OHG backan, bahhan id. 
( % -kk-). With its pret. *boka, related to Gk 
cpráyto 'to roasť. Persson I Vurzelerw. 190 
Zupitza Gutt. 213; Torp-Falk 257 
Holthausen AEE]V 14; Pokorný I 113 

Frisk II 1057; Onions 69; Seebold 87— 
88; Lloyd-Springer I 419-421; Kluge- 
Seebold 72 (to Skt bhjáti 'to roasť); 
Peeters IFUÍXXl 30-31. 

*bakiz sb.m.: ON bekkr 'brook, rivuleť (< 
*bakjaz), OE beče id., OFris -bitze (in com- 
pounds), OS beki id., OHG bah id. Of 
uncertain origin. Cf. *pankdri? Zupitza 
Gutt. 160; Mikkola BB XXI 218 (to Slav 
*bagno 'marsh'); van Wijk IF XXIV 233 
(to Mír búal 'flowing water' < *bhoglo- 
and further to *bheg"- 'to run', or to 
Slav *bagno 'marsh'); Torp-Falk 257; 
Holthausen AEE]V 18; Pokorný I 161; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 54; Vries ANEW 
31; Zalizniak II 212; Onions 84; 
Peeters IF 212-214; Lloyd-Springer I 
427-429; Kluge-Seebold 71. 

*bakójanan wk.vb.: ON baka 'to bake', 
OHG bachón 'to bake'. Derived from 
*bakanan 'to bake'. Seebold 87. 

*baldraz sb.m.: ON mann-baldr 'great 
man', theon. Baldr, OE bealdor 'prince, 
hero'. Derived from *bal\>az. Grimm 
DM I 202; Schroder Z dadl XXXV 
241 (to Lith báltas 'white'); Mertnger IF 
XVIII 282-285 (to *bulaz ~ *buló); Kuhn 
Festschr. Helm 37-45; Schroder GRM 
XXXIV 168; Holthausen AEEW 17; 
Pokorný I 121; Vries ANEW 24; Leh- 
mann GED 60. 

*bal3Íz sb.m.: Goth balgs 'bag made of 
skin, wine-skin', ON belgr 'skin, bellows', 
OE bels 'bulge, bag, purse', NFris balge 
'bag', MLG balch id., OHG balg id. 
Related to Ir bolg 'sack', OPrus balsinis 
'pillow', Slav *bolzina 'pillow, beam' con- 
tinuing *bhelgh- 'to swell'. See *tel^anan. 
Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 105 (to Lat follis 
'hoše' < *bholghnis); Zupitza Gutt. 26, 204; 
Torp-Falk 268; Feist 78; Lané Language 
LX 255; Vendryes BSL XLI 134-139; 
Pokorný I 125-126; Vries ANEW 32; 
Zalizniak I 149; Onions 87-88; Stang 
LS 14; Seebold 99; Trubaohev ESSJa II 
183-184; Van Windekens I 371 (to Toch 
B pelke 'solemn but joyous utterance'); 
Lehmann GED 59; Lloyd-Springer I 
438-440; Bammesberger Nom. 133 (to 




OE belhán 'to make oneself angry, to swell 
with anger'); Kluge-Seebold 75; Adams 
TB 399 (against Van Windekens). 
*hal3Janan wk.vb.: ON belgja 'to inflate', 
OE a-bel^an 'to anger, to irritate', OS 
ar-belgid 'incenseď, OHG gi-belgen 'to 
irritate'. Derived from *tel^anan. See- 

BOLD 99. 

*balixón sb.f.: OHG belihha 'cooť. Close 
to Lat fulica id. < Hholiká (Sommer HL 
66; Vaniček Lat. 181). Suolahti VDN 
302 (to *bhel- 'white' because of a white 
spot on the birďs forehead); Walde-Hof- 
mann I 559-560; Pokorný I 119; Lloyd- 
Springer I 431-434; Kluge-Seebold 96. 

*balkón ~ *belkon sb.m.: ON bjálki 
'beam', OE balca 'beam, bank, ridge', 
OFris balka 'beam', MLG balke id., OHG 
balco id. Related to Gk (pá^ayi; 'line 
of battie, phalanx, beam'. Torp-Falk 
267-268; Pokorný I 123; Vries AMEW 
70; Frisk II 985-986; Onions 70. 

*balluz sb.m.: ON bqllr 'balí', OHG bal id. 
Related to Lat follis 'bellows, balí', Gk 
cpa^Aóc; 'penis', Thrac ethn. Tpi-paXXoí, 
Olr balí 'membrtim'. Torp-Falk 267; 
Kerényi Glotta XXII 41; Walde- 
Hofmann I 524-525; Schulze Kl. Schr. 
308; Detschew Thr. 523-526; Pokorný I 
120; Vries AMEW 70; Frisk II 987-988; 
Onions 70; Lerchner 54; Lloyd- 
Springer I 430-431; Kluge-Seebold 76. 

*balbaz adj.: Goth adv. balpaba 'boldly, 
openly', ON ballr 'hard, stubborn', OE 
beald 'bold, brave, confidenť, OS bald 
'valiant, bolď, OHG bald 'brave, coura- 
geous'. The old comparison with Lith 
báltas 'white' based on the semantic 
development into 'strong' or 'shining' 
(Grimm DM I 202) could be tenable. 
Schweizer KZ I 479; Uhlenbeck PBB 
XXXV 161-180; Torp-Falk 267; 
Osthoff PBB XVIII 255-256 (prefix 
b-, -alpaz to *aljanan II); Feist 78—79; 
Holthausen AEE]\' 17; Pokorný I 121; 
Vries AMEW 24 (to *bheh- 'to sweU', 
cf. Norw bála 'to ruť); Onions 105; 
Lehmann GED 60 (samé as Vries); 
Lloyd-Springer I 434-436; Matzel KZ 

CV 121 (< *bhoh-to-, to *bheb- 'to swell'); 
Heidermanns 1 1 5—1 1 6; Kluge-Seebold 

*bal{?janan wk.vb.: Goth baljyjan 'to be 
bold, to dare', ON bella 'to deal with', 
OE byldan 'to make bold, to encourage', 
OS beldian 'to make valianť, MHG balden 
'to hurry'. Derived from *balpaz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 22; Feist 78-79; Vries 
AMEW 32; Lehmann GED 60. 

*bal]3Ín sb.f: Goth prasa-balfrei 'quarrel- 
someness', OE beldo 'boldness, rashness', 
OHG baldi 'courage, boldness'. Derived 
from *balpaz. Holthausen AEE]V 22; 
Feist 78; Onions 94; Heidermanns 115. 

*balwan sb.n.: Goth balwa-wesei 'malice, 
wickedness', ON bol 'misfortune, bale', 
OE bealu 'woe, harm, wickedness, de- 
pravity', OFris balu-mon 'unfaithful guar- 
dian', OS halu 'wickedness, misfortune', 
OHG bálo 'disease, sickness' (mase). 
Gonnected with OCorn bal 'illness' < 
Halu- (Pigtet KZ V 351: also adds Slav 
*bol'b 'pain, illness'). Kuhn KZ I 516 (to 
Gk <paí)A.oc; 'weak, litde'); Berneker I 71 
(against the comparison with Slav *bol'b 
reflecting no traces of *-»-); Torp-Falk 
268-269; Schmidt KZ XXXII 342; 
Meringer IF XXI 296 (to Slav *tbhartb 
'idol'); Schrader KZ XXX 466 (to Lat 
fallo 'to deceive'); Kretschmer KZ XXXI 
449 (samé as Kuhn); Schmidt KZ 
XXXIV 342; Bugge PBB XIII 182 
(prefix *-); Osthoff PBB XVIII 256 
(samé as Bugge, -alwan to Gk Hom ÓA-oóc 
'destructive, deadly'); Feist 79; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 17; Weisweiler IF XU 70- 
77; Karsten M II 195-196; Pokorný I 
125; Chemodanov SGGJa I 80; Vries 
AJ\EW 70; Zalizniak II 165; Onions 70; 
Stang LS 15; Seebold LuE 482-483 (from 
*ghuel- 'to exchange'); Lehmann GED 60; 
Lloyd-Sprtnger I 444-445; Bammes- 
berger Nora. 243; Trubachev ESSJa II 
188 (agrees with Berneker); Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*balwa-wísaz adj.: ON bql-víss 'detes- 
table', OS sbst. bala-wiso 'malice' (mase. 
n-stem). Cf. also Goth balwa-wesei 'malice, 



bary o 

wickedness' for which *b alwa-wísín may 
be conjectured (Schubert Erw. 69). 
Compound of *talwan and *wuaz. Feist 
79; Lehmann GED 60. 

*foančtan sb.n.: ON band 'bond, band', 
OFris band id., OS hobid-band 'crown', 
OHG bant 'priesťs band, band'. Identical 
with Skt bandhá- 'bond, fetter', Av banda- 
id. Cf. also Toch B panto 'support, aiď. 
Derived from *bendanan. Bartholomae 
926-927; Torp-Falk 259; Mayrhofer II 
407; Pokorný I 127; Zalizniak II 216; 
Vries ANEW 25; Onions 72; Seebold 
103; Kluge-Seebold 77; Adams TB 

*foančtilaz sb.m.: ON bendili 'small cord, 
string', ME bendel id., MLG bendel id., 
OHG bentil 'band'. Derived from *bandj6. 
Vries ANEW 32; Seebold 103; Kluge- 
Seebold 97. 

*bandislan sb.n.: ON benzl 'bow in a bent 
statě', MLG bendsel 'association'. Derived 
from *bandjo. Vries ANEW 32. 

*bandjan sb.n.: ON bendi 'corď, MLG 
bendě id., MHG bendě id. Derived from 
*bendanan. Vries ANEW 32. 

*foančtjanan wk.vb.: ON benda 'to bend 
(a bow), to join', OE bendan 'to bend', 
MHG benden id. Derived from *bendanan. 
Torp-Falk 259; Holthausen AEE]V 19; 
Vrles ANEW 32; Onions 88; Seebold 

*bandjó sb.f: Goth bandi 'bond, fetter'. 
Identical with Mír buinne 'band' < 
*bhondhia. Derived from *benianan. Cf. 
WGmc *bandiz: OE bend 'band, bond, 
ribbon', OFris bend 'bond, tie', bendě id., 
OS bendi id. Torp-Falk 259; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 19; Feist 79; Pokorný 1127; 
Zalizniak II 216; Seebold 103; Leh- 
mann GED 60-61; Bammesberger Nom. 

*foandsaz sb.m.: ON báss 'stali in a cow- 
house', LG banes 'interior of a barn' 
(fem.), G Banse 'bay in a barn'. Cf. also 
OE bós-Í3 'winter cow-stalT. Derived 
from *bendanan (Johansson iFXLX 116). 
Goriaev 9 (to Russ baz 'cowsheď); Torp- 
Falk 259; Uhlenbeck PBB XXX 264; 

Holthausen AEEW 31; Feist 80-81; 
Vries ANEW 28; Seebold 103; Lehmann 
GED 61-62; Hessmann Festschr. de Smet 
185-193; Bammesberger Nom. 77. 

*banďstiz ~ *bandstó sb.m.: Goťh 
bansts 'barn', OFris běste 'marital tie'. 
Derived from *bandan (Diefenbach VW 
274) or *bandsaz. Grienberger Got. 43; 
Torp-Falk 259; Uhlenbeck PBB XXX 
264; Schrader A^XXX 483-484 (to Gk 
cru-tpeóq 'pigsty'); Johansson IF XIX 
114-116; Wiedemann BB XXVIII 61; 
Feist 80-81, PBBXV 546; Seebold 103; 
Lehmann GED 61-63; Kluge-Seebold 

*bandwjanan wk.vb.: Goth bandwjan 'to 
mark, to make a sign', ON benda 'to give 
a sign, to beckon'. Derived from *banÍwo. 
Torp-Falk 256; Feist 79; Pokorný I 
104; Vries A7VEII r 32; Lehmann GED 61. 

*foanďw5 sb.f: Godr bandwa 'sign'. Prob- 
ably related to the isolated Lith bandy ti 'to 
try', OPrus per-bandan 'trial'. Meyer Goth. 
59 (to IE *bha- 'to shine'); Diefenbach 
VW 296-297 (to *bendanan); Wood MP II 
471 (samé as Diefenbach; semantically 
*'knotted cloth'); Torp-Falk 256; Feist 
79-80; Pokorný I 104; Fraenkel 34; 
Lehmann GED 61 (follows Meyer). 

*foan3Ójanan wk.vb.: Icel banga 'to ham- 
mer', E bang, G dial. bangen 'to knock'. If 
not of imitative origin, probably related 
to Skt bhanákti 'to break', Arm bek 'bro- 
ken', Lith beňgti 'to finish' (Vries ANEW 
25). Torp-Falk 256 (to *banon); Traut- 
mann BSW 26; Mayrhofer II 469; 
Pokorný I 114-115; Fraenkel 34. 

*banibo sb.f: ON bend 'wounď, OFris 
benethe id., OS banedi id. Related to *banjd. 
Vries ANEW 32. 

*banjó sb.f: Goth banja 'wounď, ON ben 
id., OE ben id., OS beni-wunda id. Derived 
from *banón. Grimm K^ I 82; Schade 
AWl 39 (to IE *g»hen- 'to strike'); Torp- 
Falk 256 (to *badwo); Scheftelowitz BB 
XXLX 37 (to Arm banam 'to open'); 
Torp-Falk 256; Holthausen AEEW 19; 
Feist 80-81 (to Av banta- 'sick'); Pokorný 
I 126; Vries ANEW 32; Zaliznlak II 

bary o 



173; Onions 72; Seebold KZ LXXXI 
1 1 3 (follows Sohade); Vendryes B-32-34 
(to Olr benaid 'to beat, to strike'); Leh- 
mann GED 61; Bammesberger Mom. 112. 

*banjójanan vvk.vb.: ON benja 'to wound 
mortally', OE bennian 'to wounď. De- 
rived from *banjb~. Holthausen AEE] i' 
19; Vries AMEW 32. 

*banki-beljan sb.n.: ON bekk-pili 'wain- 
scotted walls of a halí', OE benc-óel 
'bench-floor'. Compound of *bankiz and 
*peljan. Carr Mom. comp. 80 (parallel 

*bankiz sb.m.: Burg *banki 'bench', ON 
bekkr id., OE bene id., OFris benk, bank id. 
(fem.), OS bank id. (fem.), OHG banc id. 
(mase, fem.). See *bankon. Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXXV 171; Torp-Falk 259; 
Holthausen AEE] I ' 1 9; Vries AME]\ t 3 1 ; 
Zalizniak II 176; Onions 88; Kobler 
709; Lloyd-Springer I 456-458; Kluge- 
Seebold 78 (from *branka-). 

*bankón sb.m.: ON bakki 'bank, ridge', 
OE banca 'lair, beď, LG bank 'bank, 
shore'. Of uncertain origin. Wood MLN 
XV 95 (to Skt bhanákti 'to break, to shat- 
ter'); Torp-Falk 259 (to Lith bangá 'wave'); 
Holthausen AEEW 1 6; Vries AMEW 23. 

*bannan sb.n.: ON bann 'prohibition, 
ban', OE se-bann id., OFris ban(n) 'order', 
OS ban(n) id. (mase), OHG ban 'or- 
der, ban' (mase). Related to *bannanan. 
Craigie AMF X 158 (from Olr); Torp- 
Falk 256; Holthausen AEE]V 16 
Wiessner TuB 19-28; Pokorný I 106 
Seebold 89; Lloyd-Springer I 454-456 
Kluge-Seebold 79. 

*bannanan str.vb.: OE bannan 'to sum- 
mon', OFris banna id., OS bannan 'to 
precharge', OHG bannan 'to precharge, 
to order'. Cf. Skt bhánati 'to speak, to 
sounď, and further probably to Gk <pr||ií 
'to say', Lat farí 'to speak', Arm ban 
'worď < IE *bha- 'to speak'. Torp- 
Falk 256; Holthausen AEE]V 16; 
Walde-Hofmann I 525-526; Mayrho- 
fer II 469-470; Pokorný I 106; Frisk II 
1009-1010; Onions 71-72; Seebold 88- 
90; Kluge-Seebold 79. 

*bannojanan wk.vb.: ON banna 'to hinder, 
to forbiď, OHG bannon 'to call upon'. 
Derived from *bannan. Seebold 89. 

*banójanan wk.vb.: ON baňa 'to kilT, 
OFris bonia id. Derived from *banon. 
Vries AMEW 25. 

*banón sb.m.: ON bani 'death, baně', OE 
baňa 'killer, murderer', OFris bona id., OS 
baňo id., MHG baně 'death'. Of uncer- 
tain origin. Persson UUÁ 1891 73 (to 
*badwó); Zupitza Gutt. 30; Torp-Falk 
256; Holthausen AEE]V 16; Pokorný I 
126 (to Av bqnaym 'they make 31'); Vries 
AMEW 25; Zalizniak I 153; Onions 72; 
Meid Germ. Rek. 109 (to IE *g«hen- 'to 
kill'); Bammesberger JVom. 1 76. 

*baraz sb.m.: Crim. Goth baar 'boy', 
MHG bar 'son, man'. Derived from 
*beranan (Host Z dadl cxiv 44-45). 
Schroder JVGTKG [1910] 15 (mistaken 
for *barn); Feist 73; Seebold 105 (from 
Goth *bam); Hamp JEGP LXXII 60-61 
(continues Goth *bam); Lehmann GED 

*baraz ~ *bariz sb.n./m.: ON ban 'bar- 
ley', OE bere id., OFris ber- id. (in empn.). 
Related to Lat far 'spelť, Ose far id., 
Umbr far id., Alb bar 'grass'. Hol- 
thausen AEE] V 21; Walde-Hofmann I 
455-456; Feist 81; Porzig Gliederung 109 
Pokorný I 111; Lehmann GED 62 
Bammesberger Mom. 2 1 1 (old i-stem) 
OrelAED 16-17. 

*baráaz sb.m.: Crim. Goth bars 'bearď, 
OE beard id., OFris berd id., MDu baert 
id., OHG bart id. Related to Lat barba id., 
Lith barzdá id. (with a secondary -zd-), 
Slav *borda id. (Solmsen KZ XXXrV 21). 
Pedersen IF V 73 (Slav, Lat < Gmc); 
Torp-Falk 262; Holthausen AEEJ\ t 
17; Walde-Hofmann I 96; Feist 82; 
Pokorný I 111; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
61; Trier Venus 188-191; Fraenkel 36; 
Vries AMEW 26 (ON baro id. < MLG 
bard); Zalizniak II 166; Onions 83; 
Lehmann GED 62-63; Lloyd-Springer I 
488-490; Trubachev ESSJa II 197-198; 
Kluge-Seebold 83. 

*bardón sb.f: Burg *bardo 'axe', ON baria 




'a kind of axe', OHG barta id. Derived 
from *bardaz. Cf. ON skegg-qx id. with 
a similar semantic motivation. Torp- 
Falk 262; Kobler 709. 

*bar3Janan wk.vb.: ON bergja 'to taste', 
OE ber^an 'to taste'. Probably derived 
from *ber^anan. On the ouher hand, the 
comparison with l^aXfragró 'to smelT can- 
not be completely ruled out. Holthau- 
sen IF XXXII 340; Zupitza Gutt, 208; 
Holthausen AEEW 23; Vries ANEW 33 
(to Gk tpéppco 'to feed, to nourish'). 

*barizinaz adj.: Goth barizeins 'of barley'. 
Structurally close to Lat faňna 'flour' < 
*farslna, cf. also Slav *boršbno 'dish, rye 
flour' < *bharsinom. Derived from *baraz 
~ *bariz. Hoops ]Valdbáume 362-363; 
Walde-Hofmann I 455; Feist 81; Porzig 
Gliederung 109; Chemodanov SGGJa I 63; 
Trubaohev ESSJa II 212-213; Lehmann 
GED 62. 

*barjanan wk.vb.: ON berja 'to strike', OE 
berian 'to také away, to withdraw', OHG 
berren 'to treat cruelly'. Identical with 
Slav *boriti 'to fighť, *boijq, *borti id. 
and further with Alb bie 'to fall, to hit' < 
PAlb *berja, Lat ferio 'to bore, to drill', 
Lith barii, bárti 'to scolď. Torp-Falk 
261; Holthausen AEEW 21; Walde- 
Hofmann I 481-482; Porzig Gliederung 
204; Pokorný I 134; Lerohner 22; 
Fraenkel 35-36; Vries ANEW 33; 
Trubaohev ESSJa II 203-204, 213-214; 
Orel AED 24. 

*barkaz sb.m.: Swed bark 'stubborn and 
unfriendly man'. Identical with Arm bark 
'harsh, sharp', Olr borb 'foolish, silly', 
Latv bargs 'stern, grim'. Bezzenberger 
BB XXVI 167 (to OE beorcan 'to make 
a sharp explosive sound, to bark'); 
Pokorný I 138-139. 

*barkuz sb.m.: ON bqrkr 'bark', MLG borke 
id. (fem.). Related to *berko. Petersson 
IF XXIII 403 (to *bher- 'to cuť); Torp- 
Falk 263; Pokorný I 166; Vries ANEW 
70; Kluge-Seebold 126-127. 

*barmaz sb.m.: Goth barms 'lap, bosom' 
(i-stem), ON barmr 'brim', OE bearm 
'bosom, lap', WFris berm 'latus sinuatum 

viae, aggeris', OS barm 'bosom, lap', 
OHG barm id. Identical with Skt bhárman- 
'support, nourishmenť, Gk (pop|ió<; 'bas- 
ket for carrying' (Hirt IF XXXII 287). 
Wood MP XI 326; Gúntert WuS XI 
139; Torp-Falk 260-262; Holthausen 
AEEW 18; Feist 81-82; Detschew Thr. 
53 (to Thrac mtn. Báp|iiov opoq); May- 
rhofer II 481; Pokorný I 131, 137, 142 
(to *brumari); Vries ANEW 27; Zalizniak 
II 185; Frisk II 1037; Onions 75; See- 
bold 105; Anttila Schw. 91; Lehmann 
GED 62; Bammesberger Nom. 71. 

*barna-lausaz adj.: ON barn-lauss 'child- 
less', OE bearn-leás id., OFris bern-las 
id. Compound of *barnan and Hausaz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 60. 

*barnan sb.n.: Goth barn 'chilď, ON barn 
id., OE bearn id., OFris bern id., OS barn 
id., OHG barn id. Related to Lith bérnas 
'boy', Latv berns 'chilď, Alb barre 'foetus' 
< Hamá (Bezzenberger BB XVII 21). A 
participle in *-no- of *beranan (Meillet 
MSL XXI 47) in its meaning 'to give 
birth'. Torp-Falk 260; Holthausen 
AEEW 18; Feist 82; Pokorný I 131; 
Trubaohev Rod. 44; Fraenkel 40; Vries 
ANEW 27; Zalizniak I 139; Onions 69; 
Seebold 105; Martynov BSI 12 (adds 
dubious Slav fem. *berna 'pregnanť); Leh- 
mann GED 62; Bammesberger Nom. 73; 
Orel AED 19. 

*barniskaz adj.: Godi bamisks 'childish, 
childlike', ON bernskr 'childish'. Deriva- 
tionally identical widi Lith bérniškas 'of 
servant'. See *tarnan. Feist 82; Vries 
ANEW 34; Lehmann GED 62. 

*baró sb.f: E bar 'beam, barrier', MHG 
bar id. Related to *batjanan. Deriva- 
tionally close to Lat forus 'open space, 
public pláce', forum id., Lith baras 'swath, 
row of mowed corn' (Fick I 191). 
Torp-Falk 261; Walde-Hofmann I 537; 
Pokorný I 134. 

*baru3az sb.m.: ON bqrgr 'barrow-hog', 
OE bears id., OFris barg id., OS barug id., 
OHG barug id. Derivationally identical 
with Alb baruM 'fleece' < *bhoru-k-o-, 
based on IE *bhoru- attested in another 




derivative as *bhoruos in Alb ben 'sheep, 
goať, Slav *borub 'sheep, barrow' (Orel 
Linguistica XXVI 172-173). Weinhold 
KZ I 247; Forsterman KZ I 497 (related 
to Lat porcus 'hog, pig'); Torp-Falk 263; 
Matzenauer LFXW 81 (to Slav *porzb 
'bull, hog'); Trautmann BS1V 27 (on sin- 
gulative -k- as in Av pasu- 'cattle' ~ 
pošuka- '(one) animal'); Kiparsky Lehnw. 
61 (Slav < Gmc); Holthausen AEEW 
17; Trier Holz 87-88; Machek KZ 
LXrV 263 (further to Skt bhároati 'to 
chew'); Pokorný I 135; Vries ANEW 70; 
Zaeizniak I 129; Onions 76; Stang LS 
15; Trubaohev ESSJa II 214-215; 
Lloyd-Spremger I 493-495; Kluge- 
Seebold 81; Orel AEW 18, 21-22. 

*barwaz sb.m.: ON bqrr 'a kind of tree', 
OE bearu 'wood, grove'. Related to Slav 
a-stem *borb 'pine, pine foresť (Lowe 
PBB LX 162; Schrader BB XV 287- 
288). Schrader BB XV 287; Hirt PBB 
XXIII 331 (Slav < Gmc); Meillet Etudes 
II 234 (samé as Hirt); Persson Beitráge 22 
(against Hirt); Berneker I 76; Torp- 
Falk 260; Holthausen AEE]\ t 18; 
Porzig Gliederung 144; Pokorný I 109; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 79; Vries ANEW 
70; Zalizniak I 138; Martynov Slav- 
germ. 108 (from Slavic); Stang LS 15; 
Trubachev ESSJa III 216-217. 

*foarw5n sb.f.: ON pl. hárat 'hand-bier', 
OE bearwe 'basket, bier', EFris harwe 
'hand-barrow'. Cf. also WGmc *bero > 
OE bér 'bier', OS bara id., OHG bara id. 
Derived from *beranan. Cf. also *běro. 
Torp-Falk 260; Holthausen AEE]V 15, 
18; Vries ANEW 25; Pokorný I 131; 
Zalizniak II 219; Onions 94; Lloyd- 
Springer I 469-470; Kluge-Seebold 74. 

*barzan ~ *barsan sb.n.: ON barr 'nee- 
dles of a fir-tree', OE bears 'coniferous 
tree, foliage, tree', OHG bars id. Closely 
related to Olr barr 'mop of hair, top'. W 
bar id., Corn bar id. Substantivized *har- 
zaz- Torp-Falk 265—266; Holthausen 
AEEW 18; Pokorný I 109; Vrtes ANEW 
27; Heidermanns 117. 

*barzaz adj.: ON barr 'ready, strong, 

vigorous', OHG bar 'uprighť. Identical 
with Mír bon 'thick, large, strong' < 
*bhorso-. Torp-Falk 265-266; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 18; Pokorný I 108-109; 
Lloyd-Springer I 466-467; Heider- 
manns 117; Fvluge-Seebold 83. 

*bastan ~ *bastaz sb.n.: ON bašt 
'inner bark of a tree', OE biest id., MLG 
bašt id. (mase), OHG bašt id. (mase). 
Continues *bh-sto- or *bhss-to- related to 
*bha- 'to shine', *bhas-\ Skt bháti 'to 
shine', bhas- 'lighť, Gk (poívco 'to appear', 
(práoKEi' 8ia<pávei and the like. Seman- 
tically similar to Slav *lyko 'basť < IE 
*leuk- 'to shine' (Trubachev Bern. 165— 
166). Johansson IF XLX 121 (from 
*bhad-stu-); Abegg IF XLVI 267; 
Jacobsohn ZDADL LXVI 238-240 (from 
Scytiiian, cf. Av bašta 'bundle, bunch', 
Osset bašt id.); Torp-Falk 269; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 15; Mayrhofer II 
493-494, 499; Pokorný I 104-105; 
Szemerényi KZ LXXI 211-213 (from 
Illyrian *bast- < *bhndh-t-); Vries ANEW 
28; Zalizniak II 166; Frisk II 982-984; 
Onions 78; Darms Vrddhi 257-264; 
KorvuLEHTO Festschr. Schmitt 246-258 (to 
bábhasti 'to chew, to masticate, to de- 
vour'); Lloyd-Springer I 500-502; 
Kluge-Seebold 84. 

*batiz comp. adv.: ON betr 'better', OE bet 
id., OFris bet id., OS bet, bat id., OHG 
baz id. (< *bataz). See *batizon. Cf. superl. 
Goth batista 'besť, ON beztr id., OE betst 
id., OFris betst id., OHG bezzisto id. 
Grimm DG II 43 (reconstructs *batanan 
'vigere, valere'); Osthoff Morph. Unt. VI 
286-288; Torp-Falk 258; Holthausen 
^££11' 21-22; Feist 83; Pokorný I 106; 
Vries ANE]V 34-35; Onions 90-91; 
Lehmann GED 63; Bammesberger Nom. 
235; Kluge-Seebold 84, 102. 

*batizón comp. adj.: Godr batiza 'better', 
ON betri id., OE betre id., OFris betere id., 
OS betaro id., OHG bezziro id. May be 
related to the isolated Skt bhadrá- 'blessed, 
delightful, fortunate', Av hu-ba8ra 'happy, 
lucky' (Bopp Glossarium 269) if those are 
not from *bhndró-. Bartholomae 1828; 




Torp-Falk 258; Stokes KZ XL 245 
(to Mír baid 'durable'); Feist 83; 
Holthausen AEE1 \ r 21-22; Wissmann 
MP 14-16; Mayrhofer II 467-468; 
Pokorný I 106; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
107; Vries AMEW 34; Onions 91; 
Lehmann GED 63; Hamp IIJ XXX 1 75 
(together with MW bodd 'good wiU' from 
*bhod-); Lloyd-Springer I 503-505, 
577-578; Bammesberger Mom. 235; 
Kluge-Seebold 102. 

*batn5janan wk.vb.: Goth ga-batnan 'to 
benefit, to profit', ON batna 'to improve, 
to get better'. Related to *baton. Feist 
174; Pokorný I lo6; Vries AMEW 28; 
Heidermanns 118. 

*batón sb.m.: ON bati 'improvement, 
advantage', OFris bata 'advantage, gain', 
MLG bate 'improvement'. See *batiz. 
Torp-Falk 258; Pokorný I 106; Vries 
AVE II 7 28; Lehmann GED 63; Heider- 
manns 1 1 9. 

*baj5a-xúsan sb.n.. 1 ON baS-hús 'badiing- 
house', OE bted-hús id., OHG bada-hús id. 
Compound of *bapan and *xusan. Carr 
Mom. comp. 71 (parallel formations). 

*bajían sb.n.: ON bad 'bath, bathing', OE 
bei 'bath, font', OFris beftjth 'bath', OS 
bath id., OHG bad id. Derived from 
*bejanan. Torp-Falk 256; Holthausen 
AEEW 15; Pokorný 1113; Vrtes AMEW 
22; Zalizniak I 139; Onions 79; Kluge- 
Seebold 72. 

*baj5a-stufón sb.f: ON baS-stofa 'bath- 
room', MLG bade-stove 'bathroom', OHG 
bada-stuba id. Compound of *bapan 
and *stufon. Carr Mom. comp. 83 (paral- 
lel formations). 

*baf)5janan wk.vb.: ON rare baoast 'to 
bathe', OE badian 'to wash, to bathe', Du 
baden 'to bathe', OHG badán id. Derived 
from *bapan. Holthausen AEEW 17; 
Vries AMEW 22; Onions 79. 

*bau3az sb.m.: ON baugr 'ring', OE bec'13 
'ring, crown', OFris bag 'ring', OS bog- 
gebo 'one presenting a ring', MLG hoch 
'ring', OHG boug id. Derived from *beu- 
3anan. Together with Skt bhogá- id., con- 
tinues a noun *bhoueho- derived from 

*bheugh- 'to benď. Reflected in Slav rvn. 
*Bugr> (West Bug, right tributary of Wisla) 
also known in the XII century as Armilla 
(Tomaschek ^OG XXVI 523; Bruckner 
47). Torp-Falk 274; Holthausen 
AEEJV 17; Mayrhofer II 504; Pokorný 
I 152-153; Vries AMEW 29; Zalizniak I 
129; Benveniste 111; Seebold 110; 
Trubachev ESSJa III 78 (OCS bougb 
'armillar' as a parallel to rather than a 
borrowing from Gmc); Lehmann GED 
73; Bammesberger Mom. 52. 

*bau3Janan wk.vb.: Goth us-baugjan 'to 
sweep ouť, ON beygja 'to bow, to benď, 
OE bí^an id., OFris beia id., OS bogian id., 
OHG bougen id. Causative of *beu^anan. 
Grienberger Got. 230-231; Torp-Falk 
273; Holthausen AEEW 22; Feist 529; 
Pokorný I 153 (to Av bunjainti 'to liber- 
ate'); Vries AMEW 34; Seebold 111; 
Lehmann GED 73, 380; Kluge-Seebold 

*bauknan sb.n.: ON bákn 'beacon', OE 
beácen id., OFris bsken id., OS bokan id., 
OHG bouhhan id. Related to *iukjanan. 
Torp-Falk 257; Holthausen AEE]V 17; 
Pokorný I 105 (to IE *bha- 'to shine'); 
Zalizniak I 139; Onions 82; Kluge- 
Seebold 74. 

*b(a)ukójanan wk.vb.: ON bauka 'to dig', 
MLG boken 'to knock, to beať, MHG 
buchen id. Of imitative origin. Pokorný 
I 97-98; Vries AMEW 29. 

*baumaz sb.m.: OE beám 'tree', OFris 
bam id., OS bom id., OHG houm id. 
Continues *bhou-mo- derived from IE 
*bheu- 'to grow', see *bewwanan. Cf. *bheu- 
men- in Gk cpíjia 'growth', Skt bhuman- 
'being, world, earth' (Johansson Btrg. 
Gesch. XV 224-225). Torp-Falk 258; 
Holthausen AEEh r 17; Speght 54 
(reconstructs *haum-na-); Mayrhofer II 
512-513; Pokorný I 149; Zalizniak II 
226; Frisk II 1052-1053; Onions 82-83; 
Peeters K~ LXXXVIII 129-133 (sec- 
ondary form of *ba^maz)\ Lehmann GED 
55-56; Bammesberger Mom. 71; Kluge- 
Seebold 86; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*baunó sb.f: ON baun 'beán' (i-stem), OE 




beán id., OS bona id., OHG bona id. (5- 
and on-stem). Of uncertain origin. May 
be close to Slav *buna 'swelling, tuber' 
< *bhouná, further related to *bewwanan. 
Petersson IF XXIII 390 (to *bheu- 'to 
swell'); Torp-Falk 257 (to Lat faba id., 
Slav *bobt> id.); Holthausen AEEW 17; 
Pokorný I 106 (from *babno related to 
OPrus babo id., Slav *bob~b id.); Vries 
AMEW 29; Zalizniak II 192; Onions 83; 
Trubachev ESSJa III 95-96; Kluge- 
Seebold 123. 

*bausaz adj.: Burg *bausiz 'wickeď, Nor\v 
baus 'proud, bumptious', OFris basa-feng, 
bás-Jeng 'obscene touch', MLG bose, bos 
'unclean', OHG bosi 'worthless'. Prob- 
ably, continues *baud-s-az, to *beudanan 
(Heidermanns 120—121). Torp-Falk 
276; Kobler 709. 

*bautanan str.vb.: ON bauta 'to beat, to 
hunť (secondary wk.), OE beátan 'to beať, 
MHG bózen id. (some forms are wk.). Of 
unknown origin. Torp-Falk 274 (to Lat 'to repress, to diminish, to put to 
silence'); Feist 74; Holthausen AEEW 
18; Jóhannesson IE] V 596— 597; Pokorný 
I 112 (to Lat fústis 'knobbed stick, 
cudgel'); Vries AMEW 29; Onions 83; 
Seebold 90-91. 

*bautilaz sb.m.: ON beytill 'Equisetum 
hiemale', OE bíetel 'hammer', MLG bdtel 
'beating iniplemenť, OHG stein-bózil 
'cudgel'. Derived from *bautanan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 23; Pokorný 1112; Vrles 
AMW 35; Onions 85; Seebold 90; 
Kluge-Seebold 95. 

*baubaz adj.: Goth baups 'deaf, dumb'. 
Probably related to Slav sbst. *buta 'stu- 
pid person; haughtiness, pride'. Grien- 
berger Got. 45; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. 1111 
(to Olr bodar 'deaf'); Uhlenbeok PBB 
XXX 265-266; Petersson IF XXIII 395 
(to *beudaz); Meillet MSL X 282 (to Lith 
bukús 'blunt, duli'); Feist 86; Fraenkel 
63; Trubachev ESSJa III 101-102; Leh- 
mann GED 65. 

*bazaz adj.: ON berr 'naked, bare', OE ber 
id., OFris ber-fot 'barefooť, OS bar 'naked, 
bare', OHG bar 'uncovered, naked, bare'. 

Identical with Arm bok' 'barefooť, Lith 
basas id., Slav *bos~b id. Verner K£ 
XXIII 113; Pedersen IF V 46; Hubsch- 
mann AG 430; Karsten MB I 42-43; 
Persson UUÁ 1891 115 (to *bhes- 'to 
scrape'); Kretschmer K£ XXXI 414; 
Torp-Falk 269; Trautmann BSW 28; 
Holthausen AEE]V 15; Fraenkel 36, 
Glotta XXXV 87; Pokorný I 163; Vries 
AMEW 3,^; Onions 75; Trubachev ESSJa 
II 223-224; Lloyd-Springer I 465- 
466; Bammesberger Mom. 239; Kluge- 
Seebold 79; Heidermanns 121. 

*bazjan sb.n.: Goth weina-basi 'wine-berry, 
grape' (< *basjan), ON ber 'berry', OE 
beri^e 'berry, grape' (fem.), OS beri 'berry', 
OHG beri id. Connected with Skt bábhasti 
'to chew, to masticate, to devour'. For 
the semantic development cf. Slav *gruša 
'pear' < *grušiti 'to break, to destroy', Lat 
pirum 'pear' < *pisom, to *peis- 'to stick, to 
pounď. Bugge PBB XXI 421 (to Norw 
dial. bas, base 'shrub'); Lidén IF XVIII 
415—416 (to OE basu 'crimson, purple'); 
Torp-Falk 269; Holthausen AEEW 
21; Walde-Hofmann II 309-310; Feist 
559; Mayrhofer II 409; Pokorný I 105 
(to Skt bhás- 'light, splendour'), 145; 
Vries AMEW 32-33; Onions 90; Zaliz- 
niak II 182; Lehmann GED 400; Lloyd- 
Springer I 560-561; Kluge-Seebold 89 
(to Lith itoga 'berry' < *og"ha). 

*bazójanan wk.vb.: ON bera 'to make 
bare', OFris baria 'to reveal', OS baron id., 
OHG gi-baron 'to lay bare'. Derived from 
*bazaz. Vrdís AMEW 33; Heidermanns 

*bebruz sb.m.: ON bjórr 'beaver, beaver's 
skin', OE beofor 'beaver', MLG bever 
id., OHG bibar id. Originally, a color 
adjective. Related to Skt babhrú- 'reddish- 
brown, brown', Av bawra-, bawri- 
'beaver', Lat fiber id., Lith bebras id., 
OPrus bebrus id., Slav *bebrb id. ON 
bjórr 'triangular cut off piece of meať is 
a metaphoric usage of the above and 
has nothing to do with Lat fibra 'fiber' 
< *g'hisra (despite Noreen Abrifi 228). 
Fórsterman K£ I 497 (related to l^aX fibra 




'fibre, filamenť); Bartholomae 925; 
Torp-Falk 264; Trautmann BSlWb 
28-29; Holthausen AEEW 20; Walde- 
Hofmann I 490-492; Mayrhofer II 
409-410; Pokorný I 136; Fraenkel 38; 
Vries ANEW 40; Zalizniak II 227; 
Onions 83; Hamp IF LXX 162 (to 
*beranan); Trubaohev ESSJa I 174-175; 
Kluge-Seebold 107. 

*bekwjanan wk.vb.: ON bikkja 'to plunge 
into water', MHG bicken 'to punch, to 
kick'. Probably related to Gk <péponoa 
'to be put to flight, to fiee', Lith bégu, begti 
'to run', Slav *bégti id. Pokorný I 116; 
Vries ANEW 36. 

*bekwjón sb.f.: ON bikkja 'bitch', OE bicce 
id. Unclear. Perhaps based on *bekwjanan. 
Zupitza Gutt. 96; Torp-Falk 259 (to 
*bakan ~ *bakaz); Vries ANEW 36 (to Skt 
bhaga- 'vulva'). 

*bel3anan str.vb.: ON part. bolginn 'to 
swelT, OE belhán 'to swell widr anger', 
OFris part. ovir-bulgen 'to incense', OS bel- 
gan id., OHG belgan 'to get angry'. Re- 
lated to *bal3iz. Zupitza Gutt. 26, 204; 
Torp-Falk 268; Holthausen AEE]V 19; 
Jóhannesson IEW 629-630; Pokorný I 
126; Vries ANEW 49; Seebold 99-101; 
Ktuge-Seebold 640. 

*bellanan I str.vb.: OHG widar-bellan 'to 
rebounď. Probably connected with Slav 
*bel'ati 'to swing, to limp'. Holthausen 
AEEW 19; Jóhannesson IEW 629; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa I 185; Seebold 101. 

*bellanan II str.vb.: OE bellan 'to bellow, 
to roar', MHG bellen 'to bay, to bark'. 
Related to Toch AB pal-, pal- 'to praise', 
OPrus billit 'to say, to speak', Lith bilstu, 
bilti 'to start speaking'. Torp-Falk 266; 
Pokorný I 123-124. 

*bell5n sb.f.: ON bjalla 'beU', OE belle id., 
MLG belle id. Derived from *b~ellanan II. 
Torp-Falk 266; Holthausen AEE] V 19; 
Pokorný I 1 23 (to *bullojanan); Lerchner 

*belnón sb.f.: OE belone, belene 'hen-bane', 
MLG billen id. Close to Slav *belm> ~ 
*belna id. Further cf. Gaul pe^-évíov id., 
W béla id. Piotet KZ IV 361-362 (to 

Olr béal 'sun'); Kretschmer Glotta XIV 
96-97 (a IVanderwori); Torp-Falk 267 
(reconstruct *belunon < Celtic, cf. Gaul 
bilinuntia id.); Trubaohev ESSJa I 185 
187 (to *bhel- 'to speak'); Kluge-Seebold 

*bendanan str.vb.: Goth bindan 'to binď, 
ON binda id., OE bindan id., OFris binda 
id., OS bindan id., OHG bintan id. Re- 
lated to Skt badhnati id., Av bandayeiti id. 
Bartholomae 926; Torp-Falk 259; 
Meillet A«£ XVII 194; Feist 93; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 23; Jóhannesson IEW 
61 1-612; Mayrhofer II 406; Pokorný I 
127; Vries ANEW 37; Mayrhofer II 
406, 408; Onions 95; Seebold 102 
104; Lehmann GED 71; Kluge-Seebold 

*ben3az sb.m.: ON bingr 'bolster, bed, a 
heap of corn', MLG binge 'ketde-shaped 
deepening'. Related to Skt bahií- 'much, 
abundant, large', Gk na%vq 'ťhick', Latv 
biezs id. Zupitza Gutt. 177; Mayrhofer 
II 424-425; Pokorný I 127-128; Vries 
ANEW 37; Frisk II 484-485. 

*benutaz sb.m.: Norw dial. bunt 'Aira cae- 
spitosa' (< *bunut-), OE bionot 'dry blade 
of grass', OS binet 'bulrush', OHG binuz 
id. ff originally stood for *'dead grass', 
could be compared with *banon. Torp- 
Falk 271; Onions 89. 

*beranan str.vb.: Goth bairan 'to bear, to 
carry; to give birth', ON bera id., OE 
beran id., OFris bera id, OS beran id, OHG 
beran id. Cf. also *$a-beranan 'to give 
birth': Goth ga-bairan, OE je-beran, OS gi- 
beran, OHG gi-beran. Continues IE *bher- 
'to bear': Toch AB par-, Skt bhárati, Gk 
<pépra, Arm bérem, Lat fero, Olr berid 
merged with *bher- 'to give birth'. 
Prefřxed *at-beranan > Goth at-bairan 'to 
bring, to offer' is identical with Phryg 
impf. aPPepex, Lat adfero 'to bring'. 
Torp-Falk 260-261; Holthausen 
AEEW 21; Walde-Hofmann I 483-485; 
Feist 75; Jóhannesson IEW 612-613; 
Mayrhofer II 473-476; Pokorný I 
128-131; Vries ANEW 33; Frisk II 
1003-1004; Illich-Svitych Opyt I 195 




(on the contamination of IE *bher- 'to 
bear' and *bher- 'child; to give birth'); 
Onions 83; Seebold 104-106; Lehmann 
GED 57; Kluge-Seebold 303; Orel 
Phrygian 409; Adams TB 371; Burlak 
IFTJa 248. 
*foer3an ~ *ber3az sb.n./m.: ON bjarg 
'rock', OE beors 'hill, mountain', OFris 
berch id., OS berg id., OHG berg id. 
Closely related to Av banzah- 'heighť, 
Arm barjr 'high', Thrac pln. Bépya, Olr 
brí 'hill', W bera 'heap', Slav *bergb 'shore, 
mountain'. Further connected with IE 
*bhergh- 'high'. Zupitza Gutt. 204; Bar- 
tholomae 950; Torp-Falk 265; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 20; Feist 75-76 (on 
Goth bairgahei 'hill country, mountainous 
region'); Detschew Thr. 51-52; Pokorný 

I 140-141; Vries ANEW 39; Zalizniak 

II 166; Onions 76; Trubaohev ESSJa 
191-193; Lehmann GED 57-58; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 60; Lloyd-Springer I 
553-554; Kxuge-Seebold 98-99. 

*ber3anan str.vb.: Goth baírgan 'to pre- 
serve, to keep', ON bjarga 'to savé, to 
help', OE beorgan 'to savé, to protéct, to 
defenď, WFris bergje 'to keep', OS bergan 
id., OHG bergan id. Identical with Slav 
*bergti id., cf. also Lith birginti 'not to 
spend much', Osset em-barzyn 'to cover'. 
Kirchhoff KZ I 39; Zupitza Gutt. 177; 
Persson Beitrdge 927; Meringer IF 
XVIII 262; Torp-Falk 265; Traut- 
mann BSW 31; Holthausen AEE]V 20; 
Feist 76; Jóhannesson IEW 624; 
Pokorný I 145; Chemodanov SGGJa 
I 81; Fraenkel 44; Abaev AION-L IV 
33; Vries ANEW 39; Onions 108; 
Benveniste 152; Seebold 106-107; Leh- 
mann GED 58; Trubachev ESSJa I 
189-191 (follows Mikugkij in comparing 
these forms with Lith gefbti 'to praise'); 
Lloyd-Springer I 554-556; Kluge- 
Seebold 99. 

*foer35 sb.f.: ON bjqrg 'help, deliverance', 
OE heáfod-beorj 'head-shelter, helmeť, 
OFris here-berge 'inn', OS heri-berga id., 
OHG her-berga id. Derived from *ber%a- 
nan. Holthausen AEE]V 20; Vries 

ANEW 41; Seebold 107; Bammesberger 
Nom. 109. 

*berxta-líkaz adj.: ON bjart-ligr 'clear', 
OE beorht-líc 'bright, light, clear', OS 
berht-lik 'bright'. Derived from *berxtaz. 
Heidermanns 124. 

*berxtaz adj.: Goth bairhts 'bright, clear, 
manifest', ON bjartr 'bright', OE beorht 
'bright, light, clear', OS berht id., OHG 
beraht id. Identical with W berth 'beautiful' 
< *bherg-t-, Slav sbst. *berstb 'elm'. Fur- 
ther related to Skt bhrajate 'to shine, to 
beam', Av brazaiti id., Alb bardhe 'white'. 
Forsterman K£l 104; Zupitza Gutt. 188 
Bartholomae 972; Torp-Falk 264-265 
Feist 76-77; Holthausen AEEW 20 
Karsten VB II 324; Mayrhofer II 
529-530; Pokorný I 139; Vries ANEW 
39; Onions 118; Lehmann GED 58; 
Lloyd-Springer I 545-546; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 256; Heidermanns 1 23 — 
124; Orel AĚ» 17. 

*berxtín sb.f.: Goth bairhtei 'brightness, 
clarity', ON birti id., OE birhtu id., OHG 
berahtT 'clarity'. Derived from *berxtaz. 
Holthausen AEE]V 23; Feist 76; Vries 
ANE][ T 37; Lehmann GED 58; Heider- 
manns 124. 

*berxtjanan wk.vb.: Goth bairhtjan 'to ex- 
hibit, to show, to disclose', ON birta 'to 
illuminate, to brighten', OE ^e-birhtan 'to 
make bright', OHG part. gi-beraht 'bright- 
eneď. Derived from *f>erxtaz. Torp- 
Falk 263-264; Holthausen AEEW 2"í; 
Feist 76; Vries ANE]V 37; Lehmann 
GED 58; Heidermanns 124. 

*berilaz sb.m.: Burg *berils 'bearer', ON 
berill 'barrel (for fluids)', OS biril 'basket', 
OHG biril 'big poť. Derived from *bera- 
nan (Schulze K£ LXX 258). Vries 
ANEW 33, 68 (altematively, from MLat 
barillus 'keg'); Seebold 105; Kobler 709. 

*berkinaz adj.: ON birkinn 'related to 
birch', OE bircen, beorcen id., OHG birkin 
id. Derived from *berko. Vries ANE]V 

*berkjon sb.n./f.: ON coll. birki 'birch', 
OE birce 'birch', OS birka id., OHG birca 
id. Derived from *berko. Zupitza Gutt. 




196; Torp-Falk 263; Holthausen 
AEEW1Z; Pokorný I 139; Vries ANEW 
37; Zalizniak II 216. 

*foerkó sb.f.: ON bjqrk 'birch', OE beorc id., 
OS herka id. Related to Skt bhurjá- 'kind 
of birch', Lat fraxinus 'ash', and especially 
to Lith béržas 'birch', OPrus berse id., 
Slav *berza id. Cf. also Dac pln. Bers-ovia. 
Wiedemann IF I 512; Hirt IF X 53; 
Torp-Falk 263; Kretschmer Festschr. 
Bezzenberger 94; Holthausen AEEW 20; 
Walde-Hofmann I 544; Feist 87 (on 
Goth bercna 'A-rune of the Gothic Runic 
alphabeť < *berkno); Pokorný I 139; 
Fraenkel 40-41; Vries ANEW 41; 
Zalizniak II 216; Onions 96; Truba- 
chev ESSJa I 201-203; Lehmann GED 
66; Kluge-Seebold 112. 

*foernjó(n) sb.f.: ON bima 'she-bear', OE 
byrene id., OHG birin id. Derived direcdy 
from *beron I or from *bernuz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 24; Vries ANEW 37. 

*foernuz sb.m.: ON bjorn 'bear', OE beorn 
'man, prince, nobleman'. Derived from 
*beron I. Torp-Falk 263; Holthausen 
AFFW 'l\\ Specht 120; Pokorný I 136; 
Vries ANE1V 4-1; Zalizniak II 220. 

*ber5n I sb.m.: Burg *bers 'bear', OSwed 
prop. Biari, OE bera 'bear', OS bero id. 
(in prop.), OHG bero id. Close to Lith 
béras 'brown' (with a long grade), Toch 
A parno, B perné 'radiant, luminous'. 
Fórsterman K£ I 497; Zupitza Gutt. 31 
Torp-Falk 263; Gottlieb Anim. 39-41 
Holthausen AEEW 21; Pokorný I 136 
Fraenkel 39; Zalizniak II 220; Onions 
83; Stang LS 15; Lloyd-Springer I 
563-565; Bammesberger jYom. 176 (to 
Gk 9r|p 'animal', Lith žveris id., Slav 
*zvěrb id.); Kóbler 709; Kluge-Seebold 

*foerón II sb.m.: ON á-beri 'accuser', OE 
-bera 'porter, bearer', OFris -bera id., OS 
-bero id., OHG -bero id. Derived from 
*beranan. Holthausen AEE]V 21; Vrtes 
ANEW 33. 

*ber|5ran sb.n.: OE beorúor 'child birth'. 
Close to Gk tpáperpov 'stretcher', see 
*beranan (Bammesberger Nom. 85). Holt- 

hausen AEEW 21; Pokorný I 129; Frisk 
II 1003-1004. 

*foeučtanan str.vb.: Goth ana-biudan 'to 
bid, to commanď, ON bjóda 'to offer', 
OE beódan 'to command, to order, to 
announce', OFris biada id., OS biodan id., 
OHG biotan id. Related to Skt bódhati 'to 
wake, to be awake', Av baoSmt- 'becom- 
ing aware', Gk 7ieĎ9o|iai 'to give notice', 
Slav *bl'udq, *bl'usti 'to observe, to keep, 
to protéct', and, with nasalization, Olr 
ad-bond- 'to announce' and the like 
(Meyer Goth. 61). Bugge KZ XIX 
(1870) 441; Bartholomae 917-918; 
Torp-Falk 274; Holthausen AEE]V 
19-20; Lané Language XIV 27 (adds 
Toch A pot-, B paut- 'to honor, to flatter'); 
Feist 41; Jóhannesson IEW 607-608; 
Porzig Gliederung 122; Mayrhofer II 
449-450; Pokorný I 150-151; Fraen- 
kel 62; Frisk II 625-626, GHÁ XLIV 
21-23; Vries ANEW 40; Onions 93; 
Seebold 108-110; Trubachev ESSJa II 
136-137; Lehmann GED 30; Kluge- 
Seebold 109. 

*foeučtaz sb.m.: Goth biups 'table', ON 
bjódr id., OE beód id., OS biod id., OHG 
biet id. Derived from *beudanan (Uhlen- 
beck PBB XXX 268). Grienberger 
Got. 50 (to *budmaz ~ *butmaž); Brug- 
mann Grundrifi 11/ 1 155; Petersson IF 
XXIII 395 (to *baupaz); Stroh DWG 15; 
Torp-Falk 275; Holthausen AEE]V 19; 
Feist 97; Pokorný I 151; Vries ANEW 
40; Zalizniak I 129; Seebold 109 
(against Uhlenbeok); Lehmann GED 74; 
Bammesberger Nom. 60; Kluge-Seebold 

*beu3anan ~ *foÚ3anan str.vb.: Goth 
biugan 'to bow, to benď, ON pret. pl. bugu 
id., OE bú^an id., OS pret. bog id., pres. 
bugan, OHG bíogan id. Related to Skt bhu- 
játi id., Ir jid-bocc 'wooden bow' (Uhlen- 
beck PBB XXX 268; Thurneysen K'Z 
XLVIII 65), Lidr bugti 'to frighten', Slav 
*brbgati 'to benď (Il'inskh RFV LXII 
253-259). Zupitza Gutt. 218; Torp- 
Falk 273; Berneker I 366 (Slav *b~bgaú 
may be a metathesis of *gr>bati id.); Wood 




MPV 270 (from IE *bheuk-); Trautmann 
BSW 39; Holthausen AEEW 38; Feist 
96; Jóhannesson IEW 606-607; Mayr- 
hofer II 504-506; Pokorný I 152-153; 
Fraenkel 37; Vries ANEW 40; Onions 
111; Seebold 110—111; Benveniste IEL 
111; Trubachev ESSJa 115; Lehmann 
GED 73; Kluge-Seebold 108. 

*beu3az ~ *beu3Ón adj.: ON bjúgr 
'bowed, benť, OHG sbst. biogo 'bend, 
curve'. Derived from *beu^anan ~ *bú3a- 
nan. Torp-Falk 273; Pokorný I 151; 
Vries ANEW 41. 

*beura-saliz sb.m.: ON bjór-salr 'beer- 
hall', OE beór-sele id. Compound of neu- 
raz ~ *beuran and *saliz. Carr Nom. 
comp. 80 (parallel formations). 

*beuran sb.n.: ON bjórr 'beer' (mase), OE 
beór id., OFris biar id., MLG ber id., OHG 
bior id. Borrowed from Rom *biw(e)r < 
*biber 'wine, drink' ~ LLat biber id. (Lind- 
ouist DK 29-30). Zupitza Gutt. 15; 
Kluge PBB XXXV 570 (ON < OE); 
Torp-Falk 276 (from *beuzan); Holt- 
hausen IF LX 280 (< *brm-ra-); AEEW 
20; Vries ANEW 40; Zalizniak II 166; 
Onions 85; Kluge-Seebold 108 (to 

*bewwanan str.vb.: OE 1 sg. beó, bíom 'to 
be', OFris 1 sg. bim id., OS 1 sg. bium id., 
OHG 1 sg. bim id. Related to Skt bhávati 
'to become, to be', Av bavaiti id., Gk ipíxo 
'to bring fordr, to produce, to begeť, Lat 
perf. Jut 'I was', OLat fui id., Lith búti 
'to be', Slav *byti id. OE beó '(I) am' is a 
relic of an old paradigm also reflected 
in Lat_/zo < *Jío, pass. of facio, Olr -biu, 
both from *bhuiio (Osthoff Perf. 426). 
Bartholomae 927-933; Torp-Falk 272; 
Holthausen AEE]V 20; Walde-Hofmann 
I 504-505, 557-558; Mayrhofer II 
485-487; Pokorný I 149; Fraenkel 68; 
Frisk II 1052-1054; Seebold 112-115; 
Trubachev ESSJa III 155. 

*bewwu sb.n.: ON bygg 'barley', OE béow 
id., OS bewo 'seeď. Related to *bow- 
(w)anan. Torp-Falk 273; Holthausen 
AEEW 21; Vries ANEW 66; Pokorný 
I 149. 

*bě3anan str.vb.: OHG bagan 'to scold, to 
háve a row'. Close to Olr bágaíd 'to fighť 
(Zimmer KZ XXXVI 447-454). Torp- 
Falk 257; Seebold 93-94. 

*bě3az sb.m.: ON bag)' 'contest, strife', OE 
ba3 'bragging, boasting', OS bag 'praise', 
OHG bag 'quarrel'. Derived from *iěsa- 
nan. Torp-Falk 257; Jóhannesson IEW 
598-599; Pokorný I 115; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 96; Vries ANEW 22-23, See- 
bold 93-94. 

*bě3ěnan wk.vb.: ON baga 'to quarrel', 
OFris baga 'to boasť, OHG bagen 'to 
quarrel'. Derived from *be^az. Torp- 
Falk 257; Vries ANEW 69; Seebold 94. 

*bějanan wk.vb.: OHG baen 'to warm 
(with a compress)'. A parallel derivational 
variant of *bakanarit Torp-Falk 256; 
Pokorný I 113; Kluge-Seebold 73 (to 
Slav *grěti 'to warm', supposedly from 
*g'hrě- > *trejanan > *bejanan). 

*bělan sb.n.: ON bál 'fláme, fire', OE běl 
id. Related to *bhel- 'white': Gk tpa^.- 
[^.]ói;' ^.eukÓi; (Hes.), Lith balas, cf. in par- 
ticular Skt bhála- 'light, shine, foreheaď, 
Slav *běh> 'white'. Persson Beitráge 
28-30; Torp-Falk 267; Holthausen 
AEEW 15; Mayrhofer II 496-497; 
Pokorný I 119; Fraenkel 32; Vries 
ANEW 23; Frisk II 988; Onions 70; 
Trubachev ESSJa III 79-81. 

*běriz adj.: ON bierr 'due, entitíed to', OE 
wiestm-bdre 'fruitful, fertile', OFris a-bar 
'obvious', MDu open-baer id., OHG danc- 
bari 'grateful'. Derived from *beranan. 
Karsten NB I 94-95; Torp-Falk 260- 
261; Pokorný I 131; Vries ANEW 69; 
Seebold 106; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 
100, 117, KZ CV 108; Heidermanns 

*běrón sb.f: ON bára 'wave', ME bare id., 
MLG bare id. Derived from *beranan. 
Torp-Falk 260; Vries ANEW 25; 
Pokorný 1131. 

*bi prep.: Goth bi 'by, about, over', OE be, 
bí 'by', OFris be, bi id., OS be, bi id., 
OHG bi id. Secondary lengthening of the 
stressed auslaut vowel in WGmc. Prob- 
ably connected with *umbi. Brugmann 




Grundrifi II/2 820-821; Torp-Falk 270; 
Holthausen AEEW 22; Feist 88; 
Pokorný I 34; Sohmidt Studien 225-227 
(from IE */«'); Onions 131; Lehmann GED 
67; Griepentrog KZ CIV 122; Kluge- 
Seebold 92. 

*bibójanan ~ *biběnan wk.vb.: ON 
bifask 'to shake', OE beqfian 'to tremble, to 
quake', OFris beva 'to shake', OS bibon 
id., OHG biběn id. Reduplication related 
to Skt bháyate 'to fear, to be afraiď, Skt 
bibhéti id., Av ní-wyeiti id., OPras biatwei 
id., Slav *bojati s( id. (Meillet MSL 
XIV 346). Kluge KZ XXVI 85-86; 
Wackernagel KZ XLI 305-309 (against 
the above etymology); Bartholomae 
927; Torp-Falk 271; Holthausen 
AEEW 23; Mezger K'Z LXXII 127; 
Mayrhofer II 431, 471-472; Pokorný I 
162; Vries AMEW 35; Trubaohev ESSJa 
II 163-164; Kluge-Seebold 88. 

*bidan sb.n.: ON bii 'biding, waiting, 
delay', OE bíd 'delay, abiding'. Derived 
from *bidanan. Holthausen AEEW 22; 
Bammesberger Mom. 56. 

*bidilaz sb.m.: ON biňill 'wooer, suitor', OE 
adj. bédul 'prayerful, supplianť (< *biiu- 
laz), OHG bitil 'swain, suitor, solicitor. 
Derived from *biďjanan. Holthausen 
AEE1\'9; Vries AMEW 35; Seebold 92. 

*bidjanan str.vb.: Goth bidjan 'to ask, to 
pray', ON bidja 'to beg, to pray', OE bid- 
dan 'to ask, to pray', OFris bidda id., OS 
biddian id., OHG bitten id. Derived from 
*bldanan (Osthoff PBB VIII 140-143). 
Schweizer KZ I 561 (to Skt badhate 'to 
press, to force'); Cuny REA 1910 10-13 
(from Celtic); Bezzenberger BB XVI 252 
(with doubts, to * g u hedh-); Zupitza Gutt. 
31 (samé as Bezzenberger); Osten- 
Sacken IF XXIII 377; Kern TNTL I 
32-37 (to IE *bhedh- 'to bow'); Meillet 
BSLXKW 23-24 (to IE * g»hedh-); Torp- 
Falk 258; Holthausen AEE]V 22; Feist 
89; Pokorný I 114; Vries AMEW 35; 
Seebold 91-93; Onions 93; Benveniste 
IEL 500; Meid Germ. Rek. 109; Lehmann 
GED 67-68; Kluge-Seebold 114. 

*bidó sb.f: Goth bida 'request, prayer, 

beaď, OE běd 'prayer, supplication' 
(neut.), OFris bede id., OS běda id., OHG 
beta id. Derived from *biďjanan or direcdy 
from *bidanan. Holthausen AEE]V 19; 
Feist 88-89 (to Skt badhate 'to press, to 
force'); Pokorný I 114; Seebold 93; 
Benveniste IEL 501; Lehmann GED 
67; Bammesberger Mom. 110; Kluge- 
Seebold 104; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*bidójanan wk.vb.: ON bioa 'to bide a 
biť, OE on-bídian 'to waiť, OFris bidia 
id., OS bidon 'to remain'. Derived from 
*bidanan. Holthausen AEE]V 22; Vrtes 
AMEW 35; Seebold 95. 

*bilan ~ *bilaz sb.n./m.: ON bil 'mo- 
ment', OHG bil 'a moment when the 
hunted game stands on guarď. If derived 
from *bhei- 'to cut, to strike' (Lidén KZ 
LXI 13), identical with Slav *bilo 'beater'. 
Noreen Abrijt 227 (to Lidr bailús 'fearful'); 
Torp Festschr. Unger 172—172 (to *bhi as in 
Gk á|i(pí 'about, on both sides of '); Vries 
AMEW 36. 

*bilaz adj.: OE bile-wit 'merciful, mild, 
gentle', MHG bil-wiz 'cobolď. Close to 
Mír bil 'gooď < *bhili- and probably Gk 
cpíXoq 'beloved, dear'. Meringer IF 
XVIII 284-286; Holthausen AEEW 23; 
Pokorný I 153-154; Frisk II 1018-1020. 

*bitan sb.n.: ON bit 'bite', OHG gi-biz 
'rein, biť. Derived from *bítanan. Vries 
AMEWS&; Seebold 97. 

*bitójanan wk.vb.: ON bita 'to divide 
with cross-beams, to cut into bits', OE 
grist-bitian 'to gnash', OHG bizzon 'to 
crunch, to gnash'. Derived from *biton. 
Holthausen AEEW 25; Vries AME]V 38; 
Seebold 97. 

*bitón sb.m.: ON biti 'bit, cross-beam, 
girder', OE bita id., OFris kor-bita 'conse- 
crated piece', MDu bite 'morsel, biť, 
OHG bizzo 'bit, wedge'. Derived from 
*bítanan. Torp-Falk 270; Holthausen 
AEEW 24; Pokorný 1116; Vries AMEW 
38; Onions 97; Seebold 97. 

*bitraz adj.: ON bitr 'biting, sharp', OE 
biter 'bitter, sharp, severe', OS bittar 'bit- 
ter', OHG bittar 'sharp, bitter'. Derived 
from *bitanan. Marstrander MTS III 




312; Karsten NB II 254; Niedermann IF 
XXXVII 145-147 (to Slav •bridbkb 
'sharp, bitter'); Torp-Falk 270; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 25; Pokorný 1116; Vries 
ANEW 38; Onions 97; Seebold 97; 
Lehmann GED 58-59; Bammesberger 
Nom. 247; Hefdermanns 126-127; Kluge- 
Seebold 114. 

*bitulaz sb.m.: ON bitull 'biť, OE bitol, 
bytol 'rein', MHG bizzel Tittle biť. De- 
rived from *bitan. Holthausen AEEW 
25; Vries ANEW 38; Seebold 97. 

*bituliz ~ *bitulaz sb.m.: Dan bille 'bee- 
tle', OE bítel 'beede, biting'. Derived from 
*bitan or direcdy from *bitanan. Cf. *bitu- 
laz. Torp-Falk 270. 

*foíčtanan str.vb.: Goth bádán 'to waiť, 
ON bída id., OE bídan 'to bide, to abide, 
to continue, to waiť, OFris bída 'to waiť 
(usually wk.), OS bidan id., OHG bitan id. 
Related to Gk jteí0O|iai 'to be persuaded, 
to obey', Lat fído 'to trusť. Wood MP 
IV 489-490; Torp-Falk 270; Walde- 
Hofmann I 493-494; Feist 86-87; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 22; Trier Z dph LXX 
341—342 (to Y.aX.fiscus 'basket, chesť, Icel 
biSa 'milk ttib' and the like); Jóhannes- 
son IE]V 604; Pokorný I 117; Vrdís 
ANEW 35; Frisk II 487-488; Benveniste 
IEL 95—98 (the originál meaning in Ger- 
manic: 'attendre avec confiance'); Chan- 
traine 868-869; Onions 93; Seebold 
94—96 (to Latv gaidít 'to waiť); Lehmann 
GED 56, 65-66. 

*bíó(n) sb.f: ON bý 'bee', OE beó id., 
OFris be id., OS bia id., OHG bia id., cf. 
blan id. (mase.). Cf. WGmc *binjan ~ *bino 
> OS bini- (in compounds), bina id., 
OHG bini id., bina id. Somehow related 
to ha.t Jucus 'drone' < *bhoi-ko-, Olr bech 
id. < *bhi-ko-, W by daf 'beehive , Lith bité 
id., Slav *bbčela 'bee' (Fick I 490; Meil- 
let MSL XIV 476-478). Pedersen Kelt. 
Gr. I 367, 537; Kluge Glotta III 280 
(reconstructs *bhouk'-'o- for Gmc and Lat); 
Torp-Falk 271; Johansson ZF III 225 (to 
Lat fůcus 'drone' < *bhoiko-\ K? XXXVI 
358; Walde-Hofmann I 555- 556; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 18, 24; Pokorný I 116, 

163; Fraenkel 45; Vries ANEW 66; 
Zalizniak II 220; Onions 84; Truba- 
ohev ESSJa III 91, 104-105; Kluge- 
Seebold 108. 

*bítan ~ *bítaz sb.n./m.: Goth anda-beit 
'reproach, rebuke, £7utinía', ON hiel-bítr 
'shadower', OE and-bita 'unleavened 
breaď. Derived from *bitanan. Feist 46; 
Seebold 97. 

*bítanan str.vb.: Goth beitan 'to bite', ON 
bita id., OE bitan id., OFris bita id., OS 
bitan id., OHG bizan id. Related to Skt 
bhinátti 'to split, to cleave, to pierce', Gk 
<peí8o|iai 'to spáre', Lat findo 'to spliť. 
Torp-Falk 270; Feist 87; Holthau- 
sen 24; Walde-Hofmann I 500-501; 
Jóhannesson IE] V 602-604; Mayrhofer 
II 500; Pokorný I 116-117; Vries 
ANEW 38; Frisk II 999-1000; Seebold 
96-99; Onions 97; Lehmann GED 66; 
Kluge-Seebold 94. 

*bíblan sb.n.: ON bíldr 'axe, an instrument 
for bleeding' (mase.), MLG bil 'axe', 
OHG bihal 'axe'. Cf. also WGmc *bidlan 
> OE bili 'crooked double-edged sword, 
bili, falchion', OS bili 'sworď, MHG bil 
'piek'. Continues IE *bh(e)i-tlo- (Holt- 
hausen AEEW 23) also reflected in Slav 
*bidlo 'rake, pole, plectrum' (Trubaohev 
Etim. 46). Torp-Falk 269; Pokorný I 
118; Vries ANEW 36; Onions 94; Tru- 
baohev Rem. 130-132 (on Slav *-dlo < IE 
*-tlo-m), ESSJa II 94-95. 

*bladan sb.n.: Burg *blap 'blade, edge', 
ON Had 'leaf, blade', OE bliti id., OFris 
-bled id., OS blad id., OHG blat id. 
Identical with Toch A pdlt, B puta id. and 
related to *bloanan (Hirt Urgerm. II 41). 
Torp-Falk 283; Holthausen AEEW 25; 
Pokorný I 122; Vries ANEW 41; Zaliz- 
niak I 139; Onions 98; Lehmann GED 
76; Kluge-Seebold 116; Adams TB 388. 

*blaďrón ~ blěčtrón sb.f: ON blaSra 
'bladder', OE blédre 'blister, pimple, blad- 
der', OS bladara 'bladder', OHG blatara 
'pock-mark'. Derived from *blěanan. 
Torp-Falk 283; Holthausen AEE]V 25; 
Pokorný 1121; Vries ANEW 41; Zaliz- 
niak I 155; Onions 98. 




*blaxón sb.f.: ODan blaa 'oakum', OHG 
blaha 'rough linen cloth'. Related to Latv 
blaks 'even, smooth', Lith blakas 'equal'. 
Petersson Glotta IV 296-297 (to Lat 
floccus 'lock, flock'); Torp-Falk 285 (samé 
as Petersson); Pokorný I 161; Fraenkel 
47; Vries ANEW 46. 

*blaikaz adj.: ON bleikr 'pale, wan', OE 
blác 'shining, white', OS Mek id., OHG 
bleih 'yellowish, pale'. Derived from 
*blik(j)anan. Karsten MB I 58; Zupitza 
Gutt. 196; Torp-Falk 286; Holthausen 
AEEW 25; Pokorný I 156; Vries AMEW 
43; Onions 99; Seebold 1 1 8; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 237; Heidermanns 127- 
128; Keuge-Seebold 118. 

*blaikjanan wk.vb.: ON bleikja 'to bleach 
linen', OE bltécan id., MLG blěken 'to 
bleacheď, OHG bleihhen 'to bleach, to 
make pale'. Derived from *blaikaz. 
Holthausen AEEW 25; Vries AMEW 
43; Onions 99; Heidermanns 127. 

*blaik(j)5n sb.f.: ON bleikja 'chalk painť, 
OHG bleihha 'make-up'. Derived from 
*blaikaz. Torp-Falk 286; Onions 99; 
Heidermanns 127. 

*blaitaz adj.: OE blát 'pale, Uviď. 
Identical with Slav *bléd~b id. Further may 
be connected with *blaikaz. Schmidt 
Voc. II 71; Torp-Falk 286; Holthausen 
AEEW 26; Otrebski LP I 122 (adds Lith 
blaívas 'pale' ?< Hlaidvas); Pokorný I 
160; Stang LS 15; Trubachev ESSJa II 
111-112; Lehmann GED 75; Heider- 
manns 128. 

*blaitojanan wk.vb.: E bloat 'to bloať. 
Derivationally close to Gk <pA.oi8éco 'to 
seethe'. Further related to Gk <pXi8áco 
'to overflow with moisture, to be ready to 
bursť (Fiok III 286), Latv blídu, blíst 'to 
increase quickly'. Muhlenbach-Endzelin 
I 316; Pokorný I 156; Frisk II 1027- 

*blakojanan wk.vb.: ON blaka 'to slap, to 
flutter', MDu blaken 'to shiver'. Probably 
connected with Lat flagrum 'whip, scourge, 
lash' (Zupitza Gutt. 213). Trautmann 
BB XXX 328; Torp-Falk 284; Walde- 
Hofmann I 511-512; Pokorný I 154. 

*blakrójanan wk.vb.: Norw blaha 'to 
flash'. Identical with Lat flagro 'to fláme, 
to blaze, to burn' and further with Gk 
tykíyw 'to burn'. See *blankaz. Torp- 
Falk 284; Walde-Hofmann I 510-511; 
Pokorný I 124-125; Frisk II 1022-1024; 
Lerchner 34-35. 

*blandan sb.n.: ON i bland 'among', OE 
3e-blond 'mixture'. Derived from *blanůa- 
nan. Seebold 1 16. 

*blančtanan str.vb.: Goth blandan 'to mix, 
to mingle, to associate with', ON Manda 
'to mix', OE blandan id., MDu blanden id., 
OHG Montan id. Related to Lith blendžiů, 
blgsti 'to sleep, to mix food with flour', 
Slav *bli;dq, *ble } sti 'to err'. Further con- 
nected with *tlendaz. Brugmann IF 
XXXII 179-181; Lidén Studien 77; Torp- 
Falk 285; Trautmann BS]V 34; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 26; Feist 98-99; 
Jóhannesson IEW 646; Pokorný I 
157-158; Fraenkel 47-48; Vries AMEW 
42; Onions 99; Seebold 115-117; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa II 115; Lehmann GED 
74-75; Kluge-Seebold 118. 

*blanďjanan wk.vb.: OE blendan 'to 
blinď, OFris blenda, blinda id., MLG 
blenden, blinden id., OHG blenten id. Fac- 
titive of *bleniaz. Structurally identical 
with Lith Mandy ti 'to wander, to lower 
eyes', Slav *blqditi 'to wander, to forni- 
cate'. Torp-Falk 285; Fraenkel 47; 
Ktuge-Seebold 118. 

*blankaz adj.: ON blakkr 'pale, wan', 
poet. 'horše', OE blanc 'white, grey', 
MLG blanc 'lighť, OHG blanc 'bright, 
white'. Probably, a deverbative. The 
corresponding str. vb. *blenkanan, how- 
ever, is only marginally attested (MLG 
blinkeň) and may be secondary. Con- 
nected with WGerm *blakjanan 'to be 
visible' (OFris blesza, MLG blecken 'to 
bare', OHG blecken 'to shine') and further 
with *tlakrqjanan. Related to Gk cp^éyco 'to 
burn', Lat flagro id. Karsten jVB I 
52-53; FalkA/VFXLI 118; Torp-Falk 
284; Holthausen AEEW 86, 418; 
Walde-Hofmann I 5 1 0-5 1 1 ; Pokorný 
I 124- 125; Vries AJVEW 42; Frisk II 




1023-1024; Heidermanns 129 (to OE 
bliec 'black'); Kluge-Seebold 115. 

*blankjanan wk.vb.: ON blekkja 'to 
impose upon', OE blencan 'to deceive, 
to cheať. Derived from *blankaz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 27; Vries ANEW 43; 
Onions 99; Hetoermanns 129. 

*blasaz adj.: ON sbst. blesi 'blaze, a white 
Star on a horse's foreheaď, OHG hlas 
'pale, white'. Hardly can be separated 
from *bhel- 'white' (Gk tfakóq and the 
like). Matzenauer IFXIII 170 (to Slav 
*plěšb 'baldness'); Torp-Falk 285; Holt- 
hausen AEETK 26; Pokorný I 158; Vries 
ANEW 43; Onions 99; Rluge-Seebold 

*blautaz adj.: Burg *blauts 'bare', ON 
blautr 'soft, fainť, OE bleát 'miserable, 
wretcheď, OFris blat 'poor', MLG bloot 
'uncovereď, MHG bloz id. Probably con- 
nected with <fkax>po<; 'petty, paltry, indif- 
ferenť, <pXu8apó<; 'soft'. Karsten NB I 
62; Torp-Falk 287; Muller AIWim (to 
Lat jlacceo 'to be flabby'); Holthausen 
AEEW 26; Pokorný I 159; Vries ANEW 
43 (to (pta)8áco 'to háve an excess of mois- 
ture'); Onions 101; Lehmann GED 75 
(with pre-Gmc *d, related to *blaupaz)\ 
Lůhr Expr. 267-268; Heidermanns 130— 
131; Kluge-Seebold 12. 

*blaubaz adj.: ON blauSr 'weak, efemi- 
nate', OE bleáo 'gentle, timid, peaceful', 
OS bloth 'fearful, despondenť, OHG blodi 
'apathetic, tedious'. Related to *blautaz. 
Wood MLN XV 326 (to Skt mlayati 'to 
wither, to fade'); Torp-Falk 287; Hol- 
thausen AEE]V 26; Pokorný I 159; 
Vries ANEW 43; Peeters IF XCIV 
295-296; Lehmann GED 75; Heider- 
manns 131-132; Kluge-Seebold 120. 

*blaubín sb.f: ON bleyoi 'cowardice', OS 
blothl id., OHG blodi 'apathy'. Derived 
from *blaupaz. Vries ANEW 44; Hei- 
dermanns 131. 

*blaubjanan wk.vb.: Goth blaupjan 'to 
make powerless, to bring to naughť, ON 
bleyba 'to lose hearť, OS part. gi-blóthid 
'despondenť, OHG bloden 'to invalidate, 
to fear'. Derived from *blaupaz. Torp- 

Falk 287; Feist 99; Holthausen AEE]V 
26; Karsten NB II 391-392; Vries 
ANEW 44; Lehmann GED 75; Lůhr Expr. 
267-268; Heidermanns 131. 

*blendaz adj.: Goth blinds 'blinď, ON 
blindr id., OE blind id., OFris blina id., OS 
blind id., OHG blint id. Related to Liťh 
blandús 'unclean', blqsti 'to sleep, to mix 
food with flour', Slav *bl(sti 'to err'. Cf. 
*blandanan. Torp-Falk 285; Feist 100; 
Holthausen AEEW 27; Wissmann NP 
82; Karsten JVB I 27; Fraenkel 
196-197; Stang LS 15; Pokorný I 157; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 85; Fraenkel 
47-48; Vries ANEW 44; Onions 100; 
Seebold 116; Lehmann GED 75-76; 
Bammesberger Nom. 240-241, 256; Hei- 
dermanns 133-134; Kluge-Seebold 119. 

*blendín sb.f: ON blindi 'blindness', OS 
blindi id., OHG blinti id. Derived from 
*blendaz. Heidermanns 134. 

*blendjanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-blindjan 'to 
blind, to make blind', OFris blinda 'to 
blindfold'. Derived from *blendaz. Feist 
100; Vries A/VET I 7 44; Heidermanns 134. 

*blendójanan wk.vb.: ON blinda 'to 
blinď, OFris blindia id. Derived from 
*blendaz. Heidermanns 134. 

*bleu3az adj.: ON bljúgr 'bashful, shy', 
MHG bliuc id. See *blautaz? Torp-Falk 
287-288 (to Lidi blúkštu 'to become 
slack'); Pokorný I 159; Vries ANEW 44. 

*bleusan ~ *bleusón sb.n./m.: ON 
blys 'torch', OE blysa id. Connected with 
*bhleus- in Gk Ttepi-jtEtpAetKJnivoí ictípí 
'burned by fire all arounď. Holthau- 
sen AEEW 28; Pokorný I 159. 

*blewwanan str.vb.: Goth bliggwan 'to 
beat, to strike', ME bléwe id., MLG 
blouwen id., OHG bliuwan id. Of unknown 
origin. Osthoff KZ III (NF) 84-85 (to 
Lat fllgo 'to strike, to strike down'); Wood 
MLN XV 327-328; Torp-Falk 287 
Feist 100; Gáters KZ LXXV 80-86 
Pokorný I 125 (to *balwari); Onions 102 
Seebold 120-122; Lindeman Verschárfung 
15.17, 20.4; Lehmann GED 75; Kluge- 
Seebold 119. 

*blěanan str.vb.: OE bláwan 'to blow', 




OFris pret. sg. on-ble id., OHG part. 
-blaen id. Related to Lat_/?o id. Bremer 
PBB XI 278; Torp-Falk 283; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 26; Walde-Hofmann 
I 517; Jóhannesson IEW 627-628; 
Pokorný I 121; Onions 101-102; See- 
bold 117-118. 

*blějanan wk.vb.: MHG bltejen 'to bleať. 
Identical witír Lat_/feo 'to weep, to neigh', 
Latv bleju, blět 'to bleať, Slav *blějq id. 
(Holthausen KZ XLVII 310). Torp- 
Falk 284; Walde-Hofmann I 515-516; 
Pokorný I 154-155; Stang LS 15. 

*blěsanan str.vb.: Goth uf-blesan 'to 
blow up, to boasť, ON blása 'to blow', 
MLG Masen id., OHG blasan id. Em- 
phatic derivative of *blěanan. Torp-Falk 
283; Holthausen 26; Feist 511-512; 
Jóhannesson IEW 627-628; Pokorný I 
121; Vries AMEW 42; Onions 99; See- 
bold 120; Lehmann GED 373; Kluge- 
Seebold 115. 

*blěsman adj.: ON indecl. bltesma 'of 
a ewe in heať, OLFrank sbst. blasmo 
'torch'. Derived from *blěsanan. Vries 

*blěstaz ~ *blěstuz sb.m.: ON blástr 
'blast, breath', OE blést 'blasť, OHG 
Mast 'breath'. Derived from *blesanan. 
Torp-Falk 283; Holthausen AEE]V 26; 
Pokorný I 121-122; Vries AMEW 
42-43; Zalizniak II 199; Onions 98; 
Lehmann GED 373. 

*blěwaz adj.: ON Már 'blueish, dark blue', 
OE blé-h(ii)wen 'blueish, violeť, OFris 
blan 'blue', OS Máo 'blueish', OHG blao 
'blue, purple'. Related to Lat flavus 
'golden yellow', Olr Már 'yellow', W Mawr 
'grey, blue grey' (Persson Beitráge 31). 
Torp-Falk 285; Schwentner FB 69-74; 
Hirt Etym. 193 (from *mlěuo-, to Gk 
\ieXac, 'black'); Holthausen AEEW 25; 
Walde-Hofmann I 513-514; FsArsten 
MB II 191-192; Pokorný I 160; Vries 
AMEW 42; Lehmann Festschr. Starek 
57-58; Polome RBPH XLIV 110-112; 
Onions 102; Bammesberger Mom. 244; 
Heidermanns 135; Fvluge-Seebold 116. 

*blikan sb.n.: ON blik 'gleam', OS Mek 

'metal leaf, OHG Meh id. Related to 
*blik(j)anan. Torp-Falk 286; Pokorný I 
156; Vries AMEW 44; Zalizniak II 185; 
Seebold 119; Fvluge-Seebold 117. 

*blikójanan wk.vb.: ON bliká 'to shine', 
OE blician id. Derived from *blikan. 
Holthausen AEEW 27; Vries AMEW 4:4:; 
Seebold 119. 

*blikón sb.f: ON bliká 'flash, lightning', 
OE ofer-blice 'surface'. Derived from 
*blikan. Seebold 119. 

*blik(j)anan str.vb.: ON blíkja 'to gleam', 
OE blíean 'to shine', OFris bliká id., OS 
blikán id., OHG bi-blihhan id. A sufBxal 
formation related to *blipjaz. Cf. also Lith 
blykšti 'to pale', blyšketi 'to sparkle, to 
shine', Slav *blbstati 'to shine', *bliskati id. 
Zupitza Gutt. 196; Torp-Falk 286-287; 
Holthausen AEE]V 27; Jóhannesson 
IEW 644; Pokorný I 156; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 84; Vries AMEW 44; Fraenkel 
46; Onions 99; Seebold 118-120; Golb 
Origins 127; KujGE-Seebold 118. 

*blipín sb.f: Goth bleipei 'benevolence, 
merey', OHG herz-blídi 'joy'. Derived 
from *blip(j)az. Feist 99; Heidermanns 

*blipjanan wk.vb.: Goth bleifrjan 'to také 
pity, to be merciful', OHG Miden 'to 
rejoice'. Derived from *bltp(j)az. Feist 
99; Vries AMEJV 44; Heidermanns 

*blip(j)az adj.: Godr bleips 'kind-hearted, 
merciful', ON blídr 'gende, milď, OE 
blíbe joyful, glad, merry', OS Mithi 'shin- 
ing, lighť, OHG blidi 'merry, glaď. Con- 
tinues *mlíto- 'sweeť, cf. Hitt miliddu- ~ 
maliddu-, Luw *mlitu- (Heidermanns 133). 
Johansson PBB XV 226-227 (to Skt 
mláyati 'to fade, to wither'); Torp-Falk 
286; Bugge P55XIII 181-182 (separates 
a prefix *t-, further to Lith pa-líeti 'to 
pour in'); Johansson PBB XV 226-227; 
Feist 99; Holthausen AEE]V 27; 
Karsten MB II 443-444; Pokorný I 
155; Vries AMEW 44; Zalizniak I 
146; Lehmann GED 75; Heidermanns 

*bllwan sb.n.: ON blý 'leaď, OFris Mi id., 




OS bii id., OHG bilo id. Identical with 
Lith blývas 'violet blue'. Further related to 
*blipjaz and WGmc *bliwon 'color' > OE 
blío, OFris blien, OS bil, *blajjon > OE 
bláy 'blay (fish), gudgeon', MLG bleie id., 
G Blei(h)e id. Persson UUÁ 1891 109, 
173; Much ~DADL XLII 163 (from 
Celtic); Senn JEGP XXXII 509; Torp- 
Falk 287 (together with Gk nó^uP8o<;, 
lióXíPo? 'leaď and Lat plumbum id., from 
an unknown source); Holthausen AEEW 
25, 27; Pokorný I 155; Vries ANEW 
45-46; Zalizniak I 146; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 81; Onions 99; Lehmann GED 
75; Kluge-Seebold 117-118. 

*blčanan str.vb.: OE blówan 'to blow, 
to bloom, to blossom'. Corresponds to 
wk. *blqjanan elsewhere: OFris bloia, 
OS blojan, OHG bluoen. Related to Lat 
flo 'to blow', flos 'bloom, flower', Mír 
bláth id. See *Ďleanan. Torp-Falk 283- 
284; Holthausen AEEW 28; Walde- 
Hofmann I 518-519; Jóhannesson IEW 
626-627; Pokorný I 122; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 101; Onions 102; Seebold 
122; Lehmann GED 76; Fvluge-Seebold 

*blóďa3az ~ *bloďÍ3az adj.: ON blódigr 
'bloody', OE blódij id., OFris blodich id., 
OS blodag id., OHG bluotag, bluotlg id. 
Derived from *blodan. Vries A NES V 45 . 

*blóďa3Ójanan wk.vb.: ON blódga 'to 
make bleeď, OHG bluotagon 'to make 
bloody'. Derived from *bloda^az ~ *blodi- 
3a Z . Vries ANEW 44-45. 

*blódan sb.n.: Goth blop 'blooď (with 
*-/>-), ON Mód id., OE blód id., OFris blod 
id., OS blod id., OHG bluot id. Deriva- 
tionally identical to Mír bláth 'blossom', 
W blawd, OCorn blodon < IE *bhlb~-to- and 
further connected with *bloanan. Grien- 
berger Got. 52 (to "Lat Jlavus 'golden yel- 
low'); Hirt Ablaut 90 (to Gk \izXac, 
'black'); Uhlenbeck PBB XXX 269-270; 
Torp-Falk 283; Holthausen AEE]V 27; 
Feist 101; Pokorný I 122; Vries ANEW 
44-45; Zalizniak I 139; Onions 101; 
Lehmann GED 76—77; Fsluge-Seebold 
121 (to *bhel- 'to swell'). 

*bl5ďa-raučtaz adj.: ON blóó-raudr 
'blood-reď, OE blód-reád id., early G blut- 
rot id. Compound of *blodan and *raudaz. 
Carr Jíom. comp. 88 (parallel formations). 

*blóda-rennandz adj.: Goth blopa-rin- 
nands 'blood-running, bleeding', OE blód- 
yrnende 'having an issue of blooď, OFris 
blod-rennand id. Compound of *blodan and 
participle of *rennanan. Carr Jíom. comp. 
88 (parallel formations). 

*blóda-risaz adj.: ON indecl. blói-úsa 
'bruised and bloody', LG dial. Blut-rise id. 
Cf. also OFris blód-risne 'bleeding wound', 
MLG blotrisene id. Compound of *blodan 
and *risaz derived from *risanan. Vries 

*blóčtjanan wk.vb.: ON blata 'to bleeď, 
OE blédan id., OFris bledá id., MLG bloden 
id., OHG part. bluotenti 'bloody'. Derived 
from *blodan. Holthausen AEE]V 27; 
Vries ANEW 46; Onions 99. 

*blóm5janan wk.vb.: ON blómask 'to 
bloom', OHG bluomon id. Derived from 
*blomon. Vries ANEW 45. 

*bl6món sb.m.: Goth bloma 'flower', ON 
blómi 'bloom, blossom', OFris bloma id., 
OS bldmo id., OHG bluomo id. Derived 
from *blóanan. Hirt Ablaut 90 (to Gk 
P^cÓcíkco 'to go, to come, to pass'); Meil- 
let Etudes 178; Petersson K£ XLVII 
290; Torp-Falk 284; Feist 100; Po- 
korný I 122; Zalizniak I 153; Onions 
101; Seebold 122; Lehmann GED 76; 
Kluge-Seebold 121. 

*bl5staz sb.m.: ODan blóstr 'blossom', 
MHG bluost id. Derived from *blóanan. 
Petr BB XXI 210 (to Slav *bl'uščb 'ivy'); 
Lehmann GED 76. 

*blóstran sb.n.: OHG bluostar 'sacrifice'. 
A similar form can be reconstructed for 
Gothic on ťhe basis of gup-blosireis 'wor- 
shiper of Goď. Derived from *blotanan. 
Feist 228; Seebold 123; Bammesberger 
Nom. 87. 

*bl5ta-xúsan sb.n.: ON blót-hús 'heathen 
house of worship', OHG bluoz-húz 'tem- 
ple'. Compound of *blótan and *xusan. 
Carr Nom. comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*b!5tan sb.n.: ON blát 'sacrifice, worship', 




OE blát id. Related to *blotanan. Torp- 
Falk 287; Holthausen AEE]V 28; Vries 
ANEW 4b; Seebold 123. 

*blótanan str.vb.: Goth blotan 'to serve 
(God), to honor (through sacrifice)', ON 
bláta 'to worship', OE blotan 'to sacrifice', 
OHG bluozan id. Probably related to 
*bloanan. Bugge BB III 98 (to Lat flamen 
'sacrificial priesť < *bhlád-men-); Grien- 
berger Got. 51-52 (to OHG bloz 'super- 
bus'); Osthoff BB XXIV 142 (samé as 
Bugge); Loewenthal ANF XXXV 231 
(to *bhel- 'to swell'); Meringer ^ÓG LIV 
398-399 (to Skt mlayati 'to wither, to 
fade'); Loewenthal PBB XLV 258-259 
(to *blodan); Torp-Falk 287; Holthausen 
AEEW 28; Feist 100-101; Walde- 
Hofmann 512—513; Jóhannesson IEW 
643; Krause GGA CCXII 54 (to Toch A 
plac, B pláce 'speech'); Pokorný I 154; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 87; Vries ANEW 
45; Seebold 122-123; Hamp IF LXXLX 
157 (to W blawdd 'to boast, to brag'); 
Puhvel KZ LXXLX 5 (foUows Walde- 
Horfmann); Lehmann GED 76. 

*b5 ptcl.: Goth -ba 'if, even if'. Related to 
Av ba 'truly', Gk <píj 'as', Lith ba 'so, yes', 
be 'anď, Slav *bo 'for, because' (Bader 
BSL LXVIII 39, 53). Grienberger Got. 
41 (syncopated form of *ebó); Bar- 
tholomae 912; Joseph IF LXXXVII 
166-169 (to Gk -<j<pa in néaipa 'until'); 
Lrautmann BSW 22-24; Feist 72; 
Pokorný I 113; Fraenkel I 28, Gnomon 
XXVIII 238; Frisk II 1007-1008; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa II 141-142; Lehmann 
GED 55. 

*bobon sb.m.: ON báji 'knave, rogue', OE 
prop. Boba, Bofa, OS prop. Bbvo, MLG 
bóve 'scam, scoundrel', Alam prop. Boabo, 
MHG buobe 'boy, servant'. Originally, a 
nursery word. Pokorný I 164 (short 
form of *Ďropar); Persson SVSLFK 253 (to 
Lat faba 'beán'); Wood MP XI 324 (samé 
as Persson); Torp-Falk 272; Jóhannes- 
son IEW 583 (to Icel babba 'to say, to 
talk, to chat'); Vries ANEW 47. 

*b03uz ~ *bo3az sb.m.: ON bógr 'shoul- 
der (of an animal)', OE bo3 'shoulder, 

arm', OFris bdg 'bow, branch', MLG boch 
'joint, shoulder, hip', OHG buog 'joint, 
shoulder, hip' (< *bo^iž). Identical with 
Toch A poke, B poko 'arm', Skt báhú- 'arm, 
fore-arm', Av bagu- 'arm', Gk Ttř\y\)<^ 
'elbow'. Zupltza Gutt. 205; Bartho- 
lomae 955-956; Torp-Falk 272; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 29; Mayrhofer II 429 
Pokorný I 108; Vries ANEW 47 
Zalizniak II 199; Frisk II 531-532 
Onions 109-110; Rix Sprache XXXII 
311-323; Bammesberger JVom. 156; 
Kluge-Seebold 143; Adams TB 403. 

*bójanan wk.vb.: OE bóian 'to boasť. 
Identical with Lat 1 sg. *for 'to speak' < 
*fa-i-or, Slav *bajq, *bajati 'to telí, to nar- 
rate' (Holthausen KZ XLVHI 238-239; 
Brugmann Grundrifi II/3 100, 197). 
Further related to IE *bha- 'to speak': Skt 
bhánati, Gk <pi\iií. Meillet BSL XX 31, 
161; Holthausen AEE]V 29; Walde- 
Hofmann I 525-526; Mayrhofer II 
469-470; Pokorný I 106; Frisk II 
1009-1010; Trubachev ESSJa I 138 

*bóka-listiz sb.f.: ON bók-list 'book learn- 
ing', OHG pl. mase. buoh-liste id. Com- 
pound of *bokz and Histiz. Carr Mom. 
comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*bóka-stabaz sb.m.: ON bók-stafr 'letter, 
character' (if not from OE), OE bóc-stdf 
id., OS bok-staf id., OHG buoh-stab id. 
Compound of *boks and *stabaz. FÍROG- 
mann IF XLVIII 268; Torp-Falk 272; 
Vries ANEW 48; Ebbinghaus GL XXI 
194-197; Lehmann GED 77; Kluge- 
Seebold 142 (ON < OE). 

*bókjan ~ *bókj5n sb.n./f.: ON beéki 
'beech', OE béce id., OS bdkia id. Derived 
from *bdkz. Holthausen AEE]V 28; 
Pokorný I 107; Onions 84-85. 

*bókó sb.f.: Goth boka 'letter, character', 
OS boka 'beech', OHG buohha id. (o- and 
otf-stem). See *bb~kz. Forsterman KZ I 
237; Torp-Falk 271-272; Feist 102 
103; Pokorný I 107; Zalizniak II 206; 
Lehmann GED 77; Kluge-Seebold 141. 

*bókojanan wk.vb.: ON boka 'to affirm by 
oath on the book', OE bócian 'to give by 




charter, to charter', OFris boha id., MLG 
boken id. Derived from *bokz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 28; Vries AMEW 48. 

*bokz sb.f.: ON bók 'beech; book', OE bóc 
'beech' (pardy neut.), OFris bok 'book', 
OS bok 'beech' (also neut.), OHG buoh 
'beech' (also neut. and mase). Related to 
Gk cpriyóg 'oak', Lat fagus 'beech', Gaul 
bago- in compounds, Slav *bbzb 'elder, 
Sambucus' (Hoops Waldbáume 126). 
Wissmann Buche passim; Osthoff BB 
XXrX 249-251 (from *bhaug-); Zupitza 
Gutt. 214; Bartholomae IF EK 271-272 
(on Kurd búz 'elm' < Irán *buz-)\ Torp- 
Falk 271-272; Holthausen AEEW 28; 
Walde-Hofmann I 445-446; Feist 
102-103; PaBler FuS 155-160; Pokorný 
I 107; Ghemodanov SGGJa I 90; Vries 
AMEW 47-48; Zaeizniak II 206; Frisk II 
1008; Onions 107; Lané KZ LXXXI 
197-212; Lehmann GED 77; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 197-198; Griepentrog 
]Vurzelnomina 41—45; Kluge-Seebold 

*bóniz sb.f.: ON bwn 'prayer, requesť, OE 
bén 'prayer, petition'. A derivative in *-ni- 
of *bojanan. Cf. in particular Arm ban 
'word, speech' < *bha-ni-, and also Gk 
cptovri 'sound, tone'. Torp-Falk 256; 
Holthausen AEE]V 29; Walde-Hof- 
mann I 525-526; Pokorný I 105-106; 
Vries AMEW 69; Frisk II 1009-1010; 
Szemerényi R'Z XLIII 122-123 (to 
*biajan); Bammesberger Mom. 148. 

*foosmaz sb.m.: OE bósum 'bosom', OFris 
bosem, bosm id., OS bosom id., OHG buo- 
sum id. Continues *bhos-mo- related to Skt 
bábhasti 'to blow', Gk \i?x>x<a id. Torp- 
Falk 272 (from *b~d~3-sma- related to 
*bó~3uz ~ *bó3az); Holthausen AEElť 
31; Pokorný I 101 (to IE *bheu- 'to 
swelT), 146; Onions 108; Kluge-Seebold 

*bóta-lausaz adj.: ON bóta-lauss 'getting 
no redress', OFris bot-las id. Compound 
of *boto and Hausaz. Garr Mom. comp. 
91 (parallel formations). 

*botjanan wk.vb.: Goth botjan 'to do 
good, to be of use', ON bata 'to better, to 

improve', OE bétan id., OFris beta id., OS 
botian id., OHG buozen 'to help, to excul- 
pate'. Derived from *botó. Torp-Falk 
258; Holthausen AEEW 29; Feist 103; 
Vries AMEW 69; Lehmann GED 78; 
Kluge-Seebold 147. 

*bótó sb.f: Goth bota 'advantage, benefit, 
good, usefulness, profit', ON bát 'cure, 
remedy, compensation' (traces of root 
stem), OE bát 'help', OFris botě 'improve- 
menť, OS bota id., OHG buoza id. 
Connected with *batiz. Wood MP XI 
323 (to Skt bhútí- 'well-being, prosperity, 
power'); Torp-Falk 258; Holthausen 
AEE]V 31; Feist 103; Pokorný I 106; 
Vries AMEW 51; Zalizniak II 206; 
Onions 107; Lehmann GED 78; Kluge- 
Seebold 147. 

*bópó sb.f: OSwed bop 'huť, MLG bode 
id., MHG buode id. Related to *bow(w)a- 
nan. Pokorný I 149. 

*bó(u) num.: Goth pl. bai 'both', ON bá-dir 
id., OE be^en (< *bó-jeno), bá id., OFris bě- 
the id., OS bě-thia id., OHG bi-de, bei-de 
id. Related to the second element of 
Toch A šmpi, B ant-api id., Skt u-bháu id., 
Gk cíuxpto id., Lat ambo id., Lith abú id., 
Slav *oba id. Sievers PBB X 495 (on 
OE); Schmidt KZ XXVI 384; Meringer 
KZ XXVIII 235-237 (Goth -ai under the 
influence of twai 'two'); Torp-Falk 255 
(Goth -op- in bajops id. = Lat -at- in nos- 
trátes 'ours'); Holthausen AEE]V 29 
Walde-Hofmann I 37; Feist 74, 77 
Mayrhofer I 107; Pokorný I 34-35 
Fraenkel 1; Frisk I 100; Vries AMEW 
22; Onions 109; Lindeman Verschdrfung 
1 1 .6; Lehmann GED 56; Jasanoff BSL 
LXXI 123-131 (Toch < *Hent-bho-); 
Lloyd-Springer I 513-515; Kluge- 
Seebold 93; Ross-Berns Mumerals 571— 
573; Adams TB 14; Burlak IFTJa 238; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*bów(w)anan str.vb.: Goth bauan 'to 
dwell, to inhabiť (pardy wk.), ON búa 'to 
dwell, to live', OE búan 'to dwell' (pardy 
wk.), OFris buwa, bowa id., OS búan id. 
Related to Skt bhávati 'to become, to be', 
Av bavaiti id., Gk cpúco 'to grow', Alb buj 




~ buj 'to statě overnighť, Lat perf. ful 
'to be', Lith buti id., Slav *byti id. See 
*bewwanan. Schmidt K£ XXVI 1-4 
(Goth -au- < *-ow-); Kluge PBB VI 
381-383; Bartholomae 927-933; Torp- 
Falk 272; Holthausen AEE]V 38; 
Walde-Hofmann I 557-558; Feist 
83-84; Jóhannesson IEW 604-605; 
Mayrhofer II 485-487; Pokorný I 
146-149; Fraenkel 68; Frisk II 1052- 
1054; Seebold 124-128 (specifically to 
Skt bhňvayati 'to bring into being' and 
Slav *baviti 'to be slow, to stay'); 
Trubachev ESSJa I 168-170, III 155; 
Lehmann GED 63-64; Rluge-Seebold 
86; Orel AED 39. 

*foówwiz sb.m.: ON bar 'town, village, 
farm', OFris halj be 'half of the house'. 
Derived from *bow(w)anan. Seebold 

*fo5wwjanan wk.vb.: ON byggja 'to settle, 
to inhabiť, OE býan 'to inhabit, to stay', 
OFris buwa id., OS búan id., OHG buen, 
buwen id. Derived from *bow(w)anan. 
Holthausen AEE\ 1 ' 39; Vries ANE1 V 67; 
Seebold 125. 

*fora3ťlan ~ *hra3Čtaz sb.n/m.: ON 
'moment, quick movemenť, OE 
'deceit, frauď, OFris breud 'pulling'. 
Derived from *bre$ianan. Holthausen 
AEEW 32; Vries AMW 52; Van Wlnde- 
kens I 387 (to Toch A praňk, B prentse 

*bra3nan sb.n.: OE brnčen 'brain', OFris 
brán id., MLG bragen, bragen, bregen id. A 
difficult word. Perhaps, originally an 
adjective *Ďrajnan (maz3an) 'upper (mar- 
row)' derived from IE *bhengh- 'high' and 
opposed to *maz3iz ~ *maz3an proper. 
On the other hand, the originál mean- 
ing of *b~ra3nan could be *'heaď. For the 
formation and meaning cf. Av barsšnu- 
'height, heaď. Torp-Falk 279; Hol- 
thausen AEE1 V 32 (to Gk ppexnóq 'top of 
the heaď); Onions 113. 

*braxsm6n sb.f: Norvv dial. brasma 
'bream (a kind of fish)', OS bressemo id. 
(mase), OHG brahsmo id. (mase), brahsma 
id. Probably derived from *brexanan ~ 

*brexojanan (Torp-Falk 278). Pokorný I 
142 (to *bhen>k- 'to shine'). 

*foraičtaz adj.: Goth braips 'broaď, ON 
breidr id., OE brad id., OFris brěd id., OS 
brid id., OHG breit id. Probably from 
*bhroi-to- based on IE *bhrei- 'to cuť 
(Wiedemann BB XXVIII 35). Bezzen- 
berger BB III 81 (to Lith beřti 'to pour 
out, to empty'); Petersson IF XXIII 392 
(samé as Bezzenberger, adds Lat frons 
'forehead'); Grienberger Got. 53 (to 
Lat brútus 'heavy, difficult' < *bhroito-)\ 
Johansson A"^XXX 451 (to Gk ppíOúq 
'heavy'); Bugge PBB XXIV 453-454 
(reconstructs *bhondo-)\ Karsten NB I 58; 
Siebs KZ XXXVII 306 (to *spriíarmn and 
Lith brýdoti 'to stand at arrest while wad- 
ing'); Loewenthal JVuS X 166-167 
(from *bhr-oitos 'wall-eyed'); Torp-Falk 
277; Feist 104; Holthausen AEEW 31; 
Trier Lehm 43; Vries ANEW 55; Onions 
119; Lehmann GED 79; Bammesberger 
Nom. 252; Heidermanns 136-137 (to 
*spndanari); Klajge-Seebold 134. 

*braidislan sb.n.: ON breizl 'cover', OE 
mase. (?) brddels 'anything spread, carpet, 
covering'. Derived from *braidaz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 32; Vries ANEW 55. 

*foraičtín sb.f: Goth braidei 'breadth', OE 
brédo id., OFris brěde id., OHG bráti id. 
Derived from *braiiaz. Holthausen 
AEEW 3,2; Feist 104; Onions 115; Hei- 
dermanns 137. 

*braiďjanan wk.vb.: Gouh us-braidjan 'to 
spread ouť, ON brada 'to spread', OE 
brédan 'to make broaď, OS bredian 'to 
spreaď, OHG bráten id. Derived from 
*braidaz. Holthausen AEE]V 32; Feist 
529; Vries ANEW 55; Lehmann GED 79; 
Heidermanns 137. 

*foraičtón sb.f.: ON brada 'drift, flock', OE 
bréde 'breadth', MLG brěde id., OHG 
hant-breita 'palm'. Derived from *braidaz. 
Holthausen AEEW 32; Vries ANE]\ r 55; 
Heidermanns 136. 

*brakan sb.n.: ON brak 'creaking noise', 
OE brate 'breaking, flowing, rheum', 
MLG brak 'burst, fracture', MHG brach 
'noise'. Derived from *brekanan. Similar to 




Lat fiagor 'fragility'. Osthoff Morph. 
Unt. V 100 (adds Olr braigim 'to farť < 
*bhragió); Torp-Falk 277; Feist 104 (sep- 
arates *brakan from *brekanaň)\ Pokorný 
I 165; Vries ANEW 53; Seebold 133; 
Lehmann GED 79 (to Lat fiagor 'crash, 

*brakójanan wk.vb.: ON braka 'to creak', 
OS brakon 'to crash', MHG braken id. 
Derived from *brakan. Vries ANEW 53; 
Seebold 133. 

*brakón sb.m.: Norw brake juniper bush', 
E brake 'bush', MLG brake 'branch'. De- 
rived from *brekanan. Torp-Falk 277; 
Pokorný I 165. 

*branďa-raiďó sb.f.: ON brand-reii 
'grate', OE brand-rád 'branding roď, OS 
brande-réda 'grate', OHG brante-reita id. 
Compound of *brandaz II and *rait5. 
Carr Nom. comp. 46. 

*brandaz I sb.m.: ON brandr 'firebranď, 
OE brand id., OFris brand id., OS brand 
id., OHG hrant id. Derived from *bren- 
nanan (Charpentier Á^XL 462). Torp- 
Falk 263; Holthausen AEEW 32; 
Jóhannesson IEW 619-620; Pokorný I 
144-145; Vries ANEW 53-54; Zaliz- 
niak I 129 (identifies *brandaz I and II); 
Onions 114; Seebold 138; Kluge-See- 
bold 130. 

*brandaz II sb.m.: ON brandr 'blade of a 
sword', OE brand 'sword' (if not from ON), 
MHG brant id. Related to YjaX fions 'fore- 
heaď (Petersson KZ XXXLX 392). It 
can ako be just a metaphoric usage of 
*branda Z I. Petersson IF XXIV 40-42 
(to *buriaň); Holthausen AEEW 32; 
Walde-Hofmann I 551; Pokorný I 167; 
Vries zL/VETT 53; Zalizniak I 129; Onions 
114 (identical with *brandaz I). 

*bran3Ó(n) sb.f.: ON branga 'quarrel (?)' 
(hap. leg.), MLG brank 'íighť. Unclear. 
Falk Festschr, Bugge Kr. 13-14 (to 
*prans(j)anari)\ Vries ANE]V 53. 

*brannjanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-brannjan 'to 
burn (trans.)', ON brenna id., OE bďfrnan 
'to kindle, to light, to burn', OFris barna 
'to burn (trans.)', OS gi-brennian id., OHG 
brennen id. Causative of *trennanan. 

Torp-Falk 263; Holthausen AEEW 15; 
Feist 176; Vries ANEW 56; Onions 128; 
Seebold 137; Lehmann GED 80; Kluge- 
Seebold 134; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*brannj5n sb.f: ON brenna 'fire', OHG 
brenne-fiiscing 'burning offering'. Derived 
from *brannjanan. Seebold 138. 

*brantaz adj.: ON brattr 'steep', OE brant 
'high, deep, steep'. Probably related to 
Latv bruSds 'roof ridge' (Persson Kí? 
XXXIII 292: Latv bruodins id.). Torp- 
Falk 279; Holthausen AEEW 32; 
Karsten NB II 229-230; Pokorný I 167; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 77; Vries ANEW 
54 (to *brandaz II); Heidermanns 137. 

*brast5janan wk.vb.: ON brasta 'to 
bluster', OHG braston 'to pelt down, to 
parter'. Derived from *brestanan. Che- 
modanov SGGJa I 75; Seebold 139. 

*braudan sb.n.: Crim. Goth broe 'bread', 
ON braud id., OE breád 'bit, morsel', 
OFris brad 'bread', OS brod id., OHG brot 
id. Continues IE *bhrou-tó- related to 
*brewwanan (Falk ANF XLI 117-118). 
Another accentual and apophonic type of 
the samé derivative in *-to- is represented 
by *brupan. Persson SVSU X 784-785; 
Schroder NG]\'G [1910] 13-15 (Goth 
broe < *broet); Torp-Falk 281; Holthau- 
sen IF XLVII 329 (reconstructs Goth 
*broc = OHG brocko 'hunk, chunk'), 
AEEW 33; Wood MUVXXV 72 (to Skt 
bhárvati 'to chew, to devour'); Feist 106; 
Pokorný I 145; Vries ANEW 54; 
Zalizniak I 139; Stearns CG 132 (fol- 
io ws Schroder); Onions 115; Seebold 
143; Lehmann GED 80-81; Bammesber- 
ger Nom. 79; Kluge-Seebold 137. 

*brauskaz adj.: ON breyskr 'brittle', MLG 
brosch id., G dial. brausch 'brittle, dry'. 
Despite morphological difficulties, de- 
rived from *breutanan. Holthausen KJ? 
XLVII 311; Torp-Falk 282; Pokorný I 
169; Vries ANEW 56 (reconstructs 
*brautiskaz)\ Heidermanns 138. 

*brautjanan wk.vb.: ON breyta 'to alter, 
to change', OE brytan 'to break'. Causa- 
tive of *breutanan. Holthausen AEEl\ r 
37; Vries ANEW 56; Seebold 141. 




*brazďaz ~ *forezďaz sb.m.: Norw dial. 
bradd 'shore, bank', OE breord 'brim, mar- 
gin, rim', OHG brart 'edge, prow of a 
ship'. Related to *bruzčtaz. Torp-Falk 

*bre3Ůan sb.n.: ON brigd 'change, breach' 
(also fem.), OE bri^d 'change, variety'. 
Derived from *bre^ianan. Holthausen 
AEEW 34; Vries ANEW 56. 

*bre3Čtanan str.vb.: ON bregia 'to move 
swiftly', OE brejdan 'to move to and fro, 
to vibrate', OFris brada 'to pufl, to tug', 
OS part. brugdun 'knitted, tieď, OHG bret- 
tan 'to pull, to tug'. Derived from *brekanan. 
However, if 'moving swiftly' or 'vibrating' 
are older meanings, one could derive 
this verb from *brexanan ~ *brexajanan. 
Torp-Falk 278; Holthausen AEEW 
33; Feist 103-104; Jóhannesson IEW 
621-623; Pokorný I 142 (to *bhenk- 'to 
shine'); Vries ANEW 55 (to *bher- 
'fence'); Onions 113; Seebold 129-132; 
Lehmann GED 79 (to *brěswó ~ *irěxwo); 
Heidermanns 140. 

*brexanan ~ *brexójanan str./wk.vb.: 
ON brjá, brá 'to flicker' (wk.), MHG bre- 
hm 'to light up' (str. and wk.). Gonnected 
with Skt bhr&sate 'to shine, to glitter', Gk 
cpopKÓv Xěvkov, noX\6v, ptxjóv, Hes. 
Torp-Falk 278 (to Lith mérkti 'to shut 
(eyes)', Slav *mbrknqti 'to become dark', 
Gk á|iapijaaa) 'to sparkle, to twinkle'); 
Mayrhofer II 532 (the comparison with 
Skt "subjective Auswahl bleiben muB"); 
Pokorný I 141-142; Frisk II 1036. 

*brekan sb.n.: ON brek 'fraudulent pur- 
chase of lanď, OE breč 'breaking, crash, 
noise', MLG brek 'affliction, shortage'. 
Derived from *brekanan. Holthausen 
AEEW 33; Vries ANEW 55; Seebold 

*brekanan str.vb.: Goth brikan 'to break', 
OE brecan id., OFris breka id., OS brehm 
id., OHG brehhan id. Related to \^aXfrango 
id., Lith bróžti 'to whisk' (Curtius Gr. Et. 
542). Cf. WGmc derivative *brokaz ~ 
*brokan > OE bróc 'brook', MLG brok 
'marsh', OHG bruoh 'swamp'. Zupitza 
Gutt. 196, 214; Torp-Falk 277-278 (*tro- 

kaz ~ *trokan to Gk ppayóq' éXoq, Hes.); 
Holthausen AEE~W 33, 35; Walde- 
Hofmann I 541; Feist 105-106; 
Pokorný I 165; Fraenkel 35; Onions 
115, 120; Seebold 132-135; Lehmann 
GED 80; Kluge-Seebold 133. 

*brekón sb.m.: ON breki 'breaker', OE 
wiSer-breca 'adversary', OHG hus-brehho 
'burglar'. Derived from *brekanan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 33; Vries ANEW 55; 
Seebold 133. 

*brem(m)anan str.vb.: OE bremman 'to 
roar, to rage', OHG pret. bram 'rugie- 
bam' (*-»i-), MHG brimmen 'to roar'. 
Identical with Lat Jřemo 'to roar, to re- 
sounď, W brefu 'to bleať (Sohulze K^ 
XLV 55; Fick II 184). Persson Beitrdge 
36 (on Gk fSpé|ico 'to roar' with initial 
*b-); Osthoff Morph. Unt. V 93-94 (from 
*mrem-); Torp-Falk 279; Holthausen 
AEEW 33-34; Walde-Hofmann I 544- 
545; Pokorný I 143; Seebold 135-136. 

*brenďaz ~ brendón sb.m.: Swed brind, 
bunde 'elk', Norw bringe id. Close to 
Messap Ppév8ov ĚAatpov (Hes.), Ppév- 
tiov • fi KEcpaAri toú k\á.qo\) (Strabo), 
brunda 'caput červi' (isid.). Cf. Lidr bríedis 
'deer', OPrus braydis 'mooze' and Alb bri 
~ brí 'horn'. Bezzenberger BB XXIII 
299-300; Lowenthal WiiSXI 60; Torp- 
Falk 279; Mayer KZ LXVI 75-77, 
87—89 (on onomastics containing this 
stem); Pokorný I 168-169; Fraenkel 57; 
Toporov PJa I 244-245; Orel AED 

*bren3anan str.vb.: Goth briggan 'to 
bring', OE brin^an id., OFris bringa id., 
OS bringan id., OHG bringan id. Related 
to IE *bhrenk- in W he-brwng 'to bring, to 
leaď, Toch B praiik- 'to také away'. 
Brugmann IF XII 155-158 (from *bher- 
'to carry' and *enek- 'to reach'); Gau- 
thiot Mélanges Saussure 119-121 (follows 
Brugmann); Johansson PBB XV 227-228 
(prefix *b-\ related to Gk pí(j<po 'quick, 
fasť); Zupitza Gutt. 209; Torp-Falk 279; 
Pedersen KZ XXXLX 354 (to Arm 
bařnam 'to exalť < *bhorgh-n-)\ Holthau- 
sen AEEW 34; Feist 105; Pokorný I 




168; Chemodanov SGGJa 1111; Onions 
118; Seebold 136-137; Lehmann GED 
79-80; Kluge-Seebold 136. 

*hren3Ďn sb.f.: ON bringa 'breast, chesť, 
OE brin^-ádl 'epilepsy'. Derived from 
*bren^anan. Torp-Falk 279 (to Icel bringr 
'hiU', and further to Lith brinkti 'to soak'). 

*brenkaz sb.m.: ON fem. brekka 'slope', 
ME neut. brinke 'bank, shore', MLG brink 
'edge of a field, hill'. Close to Toch B 
prenke 'island' (Van Windekens I 387). 
Zupitza Gutt. 197-198 (from IE *mreng- 
and further to *markan)\ Torp-Falk 277 
(to *brekanari); Pokorný I 167; Vries ANE1V 
55; Onions 118; Lerchner 50-51; 
Kluge-Seebold 136 (to *barmaz II). 

*brennanan str.vb.: Goth brinnan 'to burn 
(intr.)', ON brinna, brenna id., OE beornan 
id., OFris buma id., OS brinnan id., OHG 
brinnan id. Of unknown origin. It is not 
clear whether ON brimi 'fire', ME britn 
'embers' belong here. Kuhn K£ I 201; 
Bezzenberger BB XII 7 7 (to Lat furnus 
'stove'); Strachan BB XX 1 2 (to Mír do- 
e-prinn 'affiuiť); Abrahamson NTU VIII 
15-21; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. II 477-478; 
Persson Beitroge 784 (from *bhren-u-ó); 
Torp-Falk 263; Holthausen AEEW 24; 
Feist 106; Jóhannesson IEW 619-621; 
Pokorný I 144-145 (to IE *bhreu- 'to 
move violently'); Vries ANEW 56-57; 
Onions 128; Seebold 137-138 (to * g'her- 
'to burn'); Lehmann GED 80; Kluge- 
Seebold 134. 

*brennón sb.f: Goth brinno 'fever', OHG 
brinna 'burning, pain'. Derived from 
*brennanan. Feist 106; Seebold 137. 

*brestanan str.vb.: ON bresta 'to bursť, 
OE berstan id., OFris bersta id., OS brestan 
id., OHG brestan id. Related to Olr bris- 
sim 'to break'. Torp-Falk 280; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 21; Jóhannesson IEW 
640-641; Pokorný I 169 (to Mír brosc 
'noise'); Vries ANEW 56; Onions 129; 
Seebold 139; Kluge-Seebold 100 (to 

*brestuz sb.m.: ON brestr 'outburst, crash', 
OE berst 'loss', OHG bresto 'destruc- 
tion, damage'. Derived from *brestanan. 

Torp-Falk 280; Holthausen AEEW 21; 
Vries ANEW 56. 

*breuskan sb.n.: ON brjósk 'gristle', MLG 
brúsche 'bump'. Probably related to 
*brustz. Torp-Falk 281-282; Pokorný 
I 171. 

*breusta-ber3Ó sb.f: ON brjóst-bjqrg 
'breastplate', OE bréost-beors id. (mase). 
Compound of *breustan and *ber^o. 
Carr Nom. comp. 80 (parallel formations). 

*breustan sb.n.: ON brjóst 'breasť, OE 
bréost id. (also fem. and mase), OFris 
briast id., OS pl. briost id. An ablaut vari- 
ant of *brustz. Structurally close to Slav 
*br'ustb 'calf (anat.)', *br'ustbvb id. 
(Trubachev ESSJa III 34-35). Grimm- 
Grimm II 443 (influenced by *breutanan)\ 
Kluge Btrg. Gesch. VIII 510; Torp-Falk 
283; Holthausen AEEW 34; Pokorný I 
170-171; Chemodanov SGGJa I 61; 
Vries ANEW 57-58; Zalizniak II 206; 
Onions 116; Lehmann GED 82; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 200; Kluge-Seebold 140. 

*breutanan str.vb.: ON brjóta 'to break', 
OE brebtán 'to bruise, to break', MHG 
briezen 'to buď. Of unclear origin. 
Torp-Falk 281-282 (to Lith bnáutis 'to 
penetrate'); Holthausen AEE]V 34; 
Wood AIP V 270-271 (to IE *bhreu- 'to 
eut off'); Persson UUA 1891 125 (to *bar- 
janan); Trbír Holz 8 1 ; Jóhannesson IEW 
635-636; Pokorný I 169; Vries ANEW 
58; Stang NTS XX 239-242, LS 16; 
Seebold 141-142; Lehmann GED 81; 
Kóbler 715. 

*brewwanan str.vb.: ON part. brugginn 'to 
brew (beer)', OE breówan id., OFris past 
part. browen id., OFris brouwa id., OS 
part. gebreuuan id., MLG brouwen id., 
MHG briuwen, briiwen id. Related to Lith 
briáuti 'to push', Slav *brujati 'to buzz, to 
flow'. See *brupan. Torp-Falk 281; 
Holthausen AEEiV 34; Jóhannesson 
IEW 619-621; Pokorný I 145 (to *brm- 
nanan); Vrtes ANEW 60; Onions 117; 
Seebold 143-144; Lindeman Verschdtfung 
17.6; Keuge-Seebold 132. 

*brěčtanan str.vb.: OSwed part. bradhin 
'melteď, OE brédan 'to roast, to broil', 




OFris brala id., MLG braden id., OHG 
bratem id. Can be connected vvith *breja- 
nan. Torp-Falk 263—264; Holthausen 
AEEW 32 (to *bredaz); Feist 104-105; 
Jóhannesson IEW 613-614; Pokorný I 
132-133; Vries ANEW 62; Seebold 
128-129; Lehmann GED 79; Kluge- 
Seebold 131 (to IE * g'her- 'to burn'). 

*brědaz adj.: ON brádr 'hasty, sudden', 
OE sbst. bréd 'odor, scent, breath'. De- 
rived from *brějanan. Perhaps, further 
related to Lat jřetum, Jřetus 'raging, swelling, 
heat, violence'. Torp-Faek 263; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 32; Walde-Hofmann 
I 546-547; Pokorný I 132- 133 (to IE 
*bher- 'to boil up'); Vries AMEW 52; 
Onions 116. 

*forědjanan wk.vb.: ON bneda 'to melt', 
OE brédan 'to roasť. Derived from 
*bredanan. Torp-Falk 263; Holthausen 
AEEW 32; Seebold 129. 

*brědó(n) sb.f./m.: ON brad 'raw 
meať, OE brdde 'roasted meať, OS brado 
'ham', OHG brato 'meat, roasted meať. 
Related to *brěianan. Torp-Falk 263; 
Holthausen AEE1 1' 32; Vries AJVE1 V 52; 
Kluge-Seebold 131. 

*brěxwó ~ *braxwan sb.f./n.: Goth 
bratu 'twinkling (of an eye)' (only in the 
context of in bratva augins év piTtfj 
ó<p6aX|ioí>), ON brd 'eyeliď, OFris ag-bre 
id., OS slegi-brawa, braha 'eyelid, brow', 
OHG brawa 'eyelid, brow'. Cf. also OE 
mase. bréw 'eyelid' < *bre3wiz ~ *brexwiz. 
Derived from *brexanan ~ *brexqjanan. 
Kuhn KZ I 134 (to IE *bhreu- 'brow'); 
Fick £JXX (1872) 178; Spitzer I 350, 
463 (follows Kuhn); Johansson KZ XXX 
445-448 (to Lith mérkti 'to motion'); 
Noreen SVSU V/3 7; Torp-Falk 
278-279; Holthausen AEEW 32; Feist 
103-104; Specht 83, 162 (to Lat jřóhs 
'forehead'); Pokorný I 142; Vries ANEW 
51-52 (to *bre^ianari); Zalizniak II 192; 
Onions 112; Lehmann GED 78-79 (to IE 
*bhrek- 'to gleam'); FLluge- Seebold 131— 
132; Adams TB 418-419 (to Toch B preke 
'time, occasion'). 

*brějanan wk.vb.: Crim. Goth breen 'to 

roasť, MDu brayen id., MHG briejen 'to 
smelP. A distant connection with Skt 
bhuráti 'to move', Gk jtopcplpro 'to heave, 
to rise' is possible. Figk I 696 (to Lat 
Jřetmn, in its metaphoric meaning: Jřetus 
ipse anni permiscet jřigus et aestum, Lucr. 6, 
364); Grienberger Z dph xxx 133; 
Bremer PBB XI 279; Holthausen PBB 
LXVI 268; Feist 104-105; Pokorný I 
132-133; Lehmann GED 79 (to IE *bher- 
'to boil up'). 

*brima-laičtó sb.f: ON brim-leid 'sea', OE 
britn-lád 'sea-way'. Compound of *briman 
and Haido. Carr Nora. comp. 54. 

*briman sb.n.: Burg *brhn 'fiooď, ON 
brim 'surf', ME brim 'surf, sea'. Related to 
Gk (ppijiáco 'to snort and leap (of ani- 
mals)' (Froehde BB XVII 310). Char- 
pentier IFXXLX 376 (to Skt bhrámati 'to 
move around'); Pokorný I 133 (to 
*brědaz); Vries ANEW 56-57; Frisk II 
1043; Kobler 709. 

*br5kz sb.f: ON brok 'tartan cloth, 
breeches', OE bróc 'breeches', OFris brok 
id., MLG brok id., OHG Im-bruoh 'stock- 
ing'. The relations with Gaulish braca 
'breeches', Mír bróc id., OPrus broakay id. 
are not clear. The latter is probably from 
Gmc. Much ~DADL XLII 170 (to *bre- 
kanari); Stokes IF II 168 (to l^axjřagfó 'to 
emit a smell, to smell'); Zimmer KZ XXX 
87-88 (Mír bróc 'trousers' < Gmc); 
Jaberg WuS LX 148-151 (from Celtic); 
Torp-Falk 280; Holthausen AEE]V 35; 
Jacobsohn ZDADL LXVI 244-246 (samé 
as Jaberg); Pokorný I 165; Vries ANEW 
58; Zalizniak I 157; Onions 116; 
Birkhan GuK 402; Toporov PJa I 
253-254; Bammesberger Mom. 198; Grte- 
pentrog l^urzelnomina 62-90; Kluge- 
Seebold 138. 

*br5běr sb.m.: Goth bropar 'brother', 
ON bródir id., OE bródor id., OFris 
brother id., OS bróthar id., OHG bruodar 
id. Continues IE Hhrater- id.: Toch A 
pracar, B procer, Skt bh.rata.r-, Av bratar-, 
Gk Ion <ppr|xr|p- á8eX(poi; (Hes.), Arm 
elbayr, Lat Jřater, Olr bráth(a)ir, OPrus 
brati, Slav *bratrt>. Kjeckers HG 95; 




Bartholomae 971-972; Torp-Falk 280- 
281; Holthausen AEEW 36; Walde- 
Hofmann I 541-542; Feist 106-107; 
Mayrhofer II 530-531; Pokorný I 
163-164; Zalizniak I 157; Vries ANEW 
58; Frisk II 1039-1040; Onions 121; 
Benveniste IEL 172; Szemerényi Kinship 
25-28; Trubachev ESSJa II 238; Leh- 
mann GED 81; Hamp KZ CIII 102-103; 
Bammesberger Nom. 208; Kluge- 
Seebold 138-139 Adams TB 421-422; 
Burlak IFTJa 250. 

*brobur-banon sb.m.: ON bródur-bani 
Tratricide', OE bródor-bana id. Compound 
of *bró\)er and *banon. Carr Nom. comp. 

*foru3J5(n) sb.f.: ON bryggja 'landing-stage, 
pier', OE bryc3 'bridge', OFris bregge, 
brigge id., OS bruggia id., OHG brugga id. 
A guttural derivative connected with 
Gaul briva 'bridge' < *bhrěua, Slav *bn>vb 
id. Cf. also ON brú 'bridge' < *brb~wb~. 
Kuhn KZ I 1 34 (to Skt bhrú- 'brow, eye- 
brow', Gk ócppúi; id.); Meringer ]\'uS 
I 189; Torp-Falk 281; Lané Language 
LX 253-254; Holthausen AEEW 37; 
Pokorný I 173; Vries ^7VEH'59, 61-62; 
Zalizniak II 179; Seebold /FLXXXVII 
189-191; Trubachev ESSJa III 71-72; 
Kluge-Seebold 138. 

*bru3nó sb.f.: Norw dial. brogn, brogne 
'twig', OE brojnfej id. Closely related to 
W brwyn-en 'bulrush', OCorn brunnen 'jun- 
cus, scirpus', Bret broenn-enn < *bhrugh-no-. 
Holthausen AEEh ' 36; Pokorný I 174. 

*brukón sb.m.: Goth ga-bruka 'broken 
piece, crumb', OE se-broc 'broken piece, 
fragment' (neut.), OHG brocko 'a kind of 
biscuiť. Comparison with *brekanan (Cur- 
tius Gr. Et. 542; Gůntert Ablaut 54, 
79-86) is impeded by uhe vocalism of 
*brukon (but cf. *trunjaz ~ *brunon). 
Torp-Falk 277; Hirt Idg. Gr. II 82 
Holthausen AEEW 36; Feist 176 
Walde-Hofmann I 541; Pokorný I 165 
Lehmann GED 134. 

*foruman sb.n.: ON brum 'buď, OHG 
brom id. Probably from *bru3man, related 
to *bru3no. Bugge BB III 99 (to 'La.tfrdns 

'foliage, branch, bow'); Lidén Studien 96 
(samé as Bugge); Torp-Falk 105 (follow 
Bugge); Pokorný I 142; Vries ANEW 60 
(to OE bróm 'shrub from which besoms 
are made, broom'). 

*brunap5n sb.m.: Swed brdnad 'conflagra- 
tion', OE brúnéda 'a kind of disease', 
OHG bronado 'scab, rash'. Derived from 
*brunjaz ~ *brunon. Torp-Falk 263. 

*brunjaz ~ *brunón sb.m.: ON 
bruni 'burned lava-fielď, OE bryne 'burn- 
ing, fláme, fire'. Related to *brennanan. 
Torp-Falk 263; Holthausen AEE]V 37; 
Vries ANEW 61. 

*brunjón sb.f: Goth brunjo 'armor, breast- 
plate', ON brynja 'coat of mail', OE byrne 
'corslet, coat of mail', OS brunnia id., 
OHG brunna, brunnl id. Borrowed from 
Celtic, cf. Olr bruinne 'breasť, OW bronn 
id., Bret bronn id. (Stokes Urkelt. 184). 
Grienberger Got. 53 (to *brúwo); 
Wtedemann BB XXVII 235 (to Alb mbrej 
'to harness', brinje 'rib'); Wood iWUVXIII 
82 (to *bher- 'to carry'); Petersson IF 
XXIII 390-392 (to Lat frbns 'forehead'); 
Torp-Falk 282; Holthausen AEE)V 
41; Feist 107-108; Szadrowsky GRM 
XXXI 273; Pokorný I 170; Vendryes 
B-104-105; Vries A^E]\' 62; Zalizniak 
I 155; Lehmann GED 81-82; Kluge- 
Seebold 139 (to *brustz). 

*brunnón sb.m.: Goth brunna 'fountain, 
source', ON brunnr, brudr 'spring, well' 
(from *brunnaz), OE burna 'stream', OFris 
burna 'spring, well', OS brunno, burno id., 
OHG brunno id. Based on an r//-stem 
reflected in Arm albiwr 'founť, Gk ippéap 
'well, reservoir'. Johansson BB XVIII 
37; Stokes Urkelt. 172 (to Mír bruinnid 'to 
make spouť); Osten-Sacken IF XXIII 
379 (to Slav *brujati 'to stream'); Walde 
KZ XXXIV 517; Torp-Falk 264; 
Holthausen AEEW 39; Feist 108; 
Pokorný I 144; Vries ANEW 61; Zaliz- 
niak II 178; Frisk II 1040-1041; Onions 
128; Lehmann GED 82; Kluge-Seebold 

*brunstiz sb.f: Goth ala-brunsts 'burnt 
offering', OHG brunst 'fire, burning, in- 




flammation'. Derived from *brennanan. 
Torp-Falk 263; Feist 33-34; Seebold 
138; Lehmann GED 24-25; Kluge- 
Seebold 140. 

*bruskaz sb.m.: Norw brusk 'bush', LG 
briisch 'hair-lock'. Close to Lith pl. bruzgai 
'scrub, copse, bush', brúzgas 'rod, twig'. 
Fiok III 282; Torp-Falk 282; Pokorný I 
172; Fraenkel 61. 

*brustz sb.f.: Goth brusts 'breasť, OFris 
brust id., MLG borst id., OHG brust id. 
(also an i-stem). Identical with Slav 
*brbstt>, *brbstb 'buď. Grimm D]V II 
443 (to *breutanari); Zupitza Gutt. 129; 
Bugge PBB XIII 320-322 (to Slav pl. 
*pbrsi 'breasť); Grienberger Got. 53-54 
(to *bruwd); Uhlenbegk PBB XXX 271; 
Johansson IF XrX 117-118 (to Slav 
*bbrdo 'hill, elevation'); Petersson IF 
XXIII 391 (to IE *bhreus- 'to swell'); 
Torp-Falk 283; Feist 108-109; Pokorný 
I 170-171 (to Olr brú 'belly'); Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 61; Vries AMEW 57; 
Zalizniak II 206; Trubachev ESSJa III 
57—58; Lehmann GED 82; Bammesberger 
Mom. 200; Griepentrog ]Vurzelnomina 
463-471; Keuge-Seebold 139-140 (to 
Slav *grqdb 'breasť). 

*brutan sb.n.: ON brot 'broken piece, frag- 
ment', OE 3e-brot 'fragment'. Derived 
from *breutanan. Holthausen AEEJ\' 36; 
Vries AMEW 59; Seebold 141; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 56. 

*brutjójanan wk.vb.: ON brytja 'to chop', 
OE bryttian 'to divide into fragments'. 
Related to *brutjdn. Holthausen AEE] V 
38; Pokorný I 169; Vries ANEW 62. 

*brutjón sb.m.: ON bryti 'steward, bailiff', 
OE brytta 'bestower, dispenser, distribu- 
tor'. Derived from *breutanan. Torp- 
Falk 282; Holthausen AEEW 37; 
Pokorný I 169; Vries ANEW 62; 
Seebold 141; Bammesberger Mom. 182. 

*bruban sb.n.: ON brod 'brodť, OE brod 
id., OHG brod id. Continues IE *bhrúto- 
identical with Olr bruth 'heať, Thrac 
PpíiTO? 'barley beer', Ppothog- xo ek 
KpiGcov 7tó|ia, Hes. (Tomaschek Thr. 11/ 1 
7) furťher belonging to IE *bhreu- 'to 

move strongly', see *brewwanan. Torp- 
Falk 281; Holthausen AEEW 36 
Detschew Thr. 93; Pokorný I 145 
Georgiev Issledov. 1 19; Vries AMEW 58 
Zalizniak I 139; Onions 121; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 79. 

*bruzdaz sb.m.: ON broddr 'spike, shafť, 
OE brord 'prick, sharp poinť, OHG brort 
'edge, stem'. Continues *bhrazdhos < 
*bhrus-dh-. Related to Lith bruzdúklis 'bri- 
dle', Slav *brt>zda id. Pedersen IFV 73; 
Meillet Etudes I 156; Torp-Falk 266; 
Trautmann 5511' 39; Holthausen 
AEE]V 36; Pokorný I 110; Fraenkel I 
60; Vries ANEW 58; Zaeizniak I 129; 
Onions 1 12; Trubachev ESSJa III 62. 

*bruzčtjanan wk.vb.: ON brydda 'to prick, 
to poinť, OE bryrdan 'to prick, to goaď. 
Derived from *bruzdaz. Holthausen 
AEEW 37; Vries AMEW 61. 

*brúčti-3umón sb.m.: ON britš-gumi 
'bridegroom', OE brýd-guma id., OFris 
breid-goma id., OS brúdi-gomo id., OHG 
brúti-gomo id. Compound of *brúdiz 
and *3umon. Torp-Falk 282; Schmidt 
ZDADL LI 28-287; Carr Mom. comp. 46; 
Peeters K£ XC 8-9; Kluge-Seebold 

*brúčti-xlaupan sb.n.: ON brúS-laup 
'bride's journey', OFris bro-lop id. Cf. also 
OS brúd-loht, MHG brút-louft. Compound 
of *brudiz and *xlaupan. Sghróder 
~DADL LXI 17-34 (reconstructs the ori- 
ginál meaning as 'bride's dance'); Krog- 
mann IIMXVI 80-90; Torp-Faek 282; 
Carr Mom. comp. 46; Vries AME]V 59; 
Ktuge-Seebold 133. 

*brúdiz sb.f: Goth brups 'bride, young 
wife' (< *Ďrúpiz), ON brúdr 'bride', OE 
hýd 'bride, wife', OFris breid 'newly mar- 
rieď, OS bríid 'bride, married woman', 
OHG brút 'newly married woman, young 
woman, daughter-in-law'. Of unknown 
origin. Uhlenbeck PBB XXII 188 (< 
*mrúti- 'promised, engageď, to Lidr martl 
'bride, daughter-in-law', Skt brávlti 'to 
speak, to say'); Wood MIM XV 96 
(follows Uhlenbeck); Wiedemann BB 
XXVII 205 (samé as Wood); Bugge PBB 




XIII 184-185 (from *per-údhi-, based on 
*uedh- 'to leaď); Torp Festschr. Unger 1 74 
(samé as Uhlenbeck); Braune PBB 
XXXII 58 (to Lat Frutis, epithet of 
Venus); Kluge PBB XXXIV 561-562 
(foUows Braune); Helten PBB XXXV 
306—310 (to *braudan, for the meaning 
cf. OE hléj-di^e 'bread-kneader, mistress, 
lady'); van Helten %LPh XLII 446-447 
(to Slav *brakt> 'marriage'); Langenhove 
LS II 48-64 (from IE *bhr-Hu-eH-ti- 'life- 
giving force bearer'); Krogmann ]VuS 
XVI 80-90 (to *breutanan); Hammar- 
strom Glotta XI 216-217 (to Gk 'Aeppo- 
8íxri); Torp-Falk 282; Holthausen 
AEEW 37; Feist 103, 110-111; Trier 
ZSSR LXV 254-255 (to IE *bhrater- 
'brother'); Pokorný I 299; Vries AMEW 
59-60; Zalizniak I 150; Onions 117; 
Lehmann GED 83—84; Rluge-Seebold 

*brúkanan str.vb.: OE brúcan 'to use', 
OFris brúka id., OS brúkan id., OHG 
brúhhan id. Cf. Goth brukjan id. < *brňk- 
janan. Related to Lith braukiú, braukti 'to 
smear, to painť, Slav *brusiti 'to wheť. 
Tomaschek Thr. 1/30 (to Thrac ethn. 
Bp-úyei;); Solmsen K~Z XXXrV 70 (samé 
as Tomaschek); Torp-Falk 281; Woods 
MPV 270-271 (to *breutanan); Holthau- 
sen AEEW 37; Feist 107; Holthausen 
AEEW 36; Pokorný I 170, 173 (to Lat 
frúx 'fruits of the earth, produce of dre 
fields, pulse', fruor 'to enjoy, to delight in'); 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 91; Onions 120; 
Seebold 140—141; ICluge-Seebold 131. 

*brúkiz ~ *brukjaz adj.: Goth bruks 
'useful', OE brýce id., OHG brúhhi id. 
Derived from *brúkanan. Wood MP V 
270-271 (to *breutanari); Zupitza Gutt. 
96; Feist 107; Walde-Hofmann I 
552-553 (to \^Afrúgi 'having merit', dat. 
of frúx 'fruiť); Holthausen AEEW 36; 
Pokorný I 173; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 
97, KZ CV 134-135; Lehmann GED 81; 
Bammesberger Mom. 260; Heidermanns 

*brúnaz I adj.: ON brúnn 'brown', OE 
brún 'dark, brown', OFris brún 'brown', 

OS brún-rod 'sparkling reď, OHG brún 
'reddish-brown, blackish'. Structurally 
identical with Gk tppíivoc; 'frog' < 
*'brown' (Kuhn R'Z I 200). Further re- 
lated to IE *bhreu-, cf. Skt babhrú- 'red- 
dish-brown, brown'. Torp-Falk 264; 
Schwentner FB 56-59; Holthausen 
AEE]V 36 (adds Slav *bruněti 'to shine'); 


MB II 204-205; Mayrhofer II 409-410; 
Pokorný I 136; Dybo VSJa 26; Vries 
AMEW 61; Frisk II 1047; Onions 121; 
Heidermanns 143; Kluge-Seebold 132. 

*brúnaz II adj.: ON sbst. brún 'edge', OE 
brún 'shining, flashing'. Related to Olr brů 
'border, edge, shore', Lith briauna 'edge' 
(Persson Beitráge 17-19, 750-752: further 
to *brúwo). Holthausen AEEW 36; 
Pokorný I 170-173; Fraenkel 57; Vries 
AMEW 60; Zalizniak II 220; Heider- 
manns 143 (identifies *brúnaz I and II); 
Adams TB "ilA (identical with Toch A 
pdrwam, B pdrwane 'brows'). 

*brús5janan wk.vb.: Swed brúsa 'to roar, 
to thunder', MLG brúsen id., MHG brúsen 
id. Of imitative origin. Persson UUA 
1891 164 (to Gk (pprjáooonai 'to neigh, 
to be wanton'); Pokorný I 171-172; 
Vries AMEW 61. 

*brúwó sb.f: ON brún 'eyebrow' (general- 
ized pl. stem), OE brú 'eyebrow'. Related 
to Toch A duál pdrwan-, B pdrwane id., 
Skt bhru- id., Gk ócppvq id., Maced 
áftpovxeq (leg. áftpovfeq)- 6(fpvq. Mase- 
8Óveí; (Hes.), Mír brúad, Lith bruvis id., 
Slav *bry, gen. -~bve id. FvRetschmer 
Einleitung 287 (on Macedonian); Hoff- 
mann Mak. 51 (conjecture for Macedo- 
nian); Torp-Falk 281; Holthausen 
AEEW 36; Mayrhofer II 534-536; 
Pokorný I 172-173; Fraenkel 57; 
Zalizniak II 220; Frisk II 454; Onions 
121; Trubachev ESSJa III 63-64; 
Gindin Etim. 1984 41 (Maced áfSpoíctEq 
= Slav pl. *brudi 'whiskers'). 

*budan sb.n.: ON bod 'bid, command- 
menť, OE bod 'command, command- 
menť, OFris bod id, OS gi-bod id, OHG 
bot 'authoritative pronouncemenť . De- 




rived from *beudanan. Torp-Falk 274; 
Holthausen AEE]V 28; Pokorný I 151; 
Seebold 109; Bammesberger Nom. 56. 

*buddon sb.m.: ON prop. Boddi, Norw 
buiia 'newborn domestic animal', ME 
budde 'buď, LG budde 'louse'. Of descriptive 
origin. Holthausen AEEW 38; Vries 
ANEW47; Kluge-Seebold 105-106. 

*budmaz ~ *butmaz sb.m.: ON botn 
'bottom' (*-t-), OE bodán id. (also botm 
with *-/-), OFris bodem id., OS bodom id., 
OHG bodám id. (<*-J>-). Unexplained 
fluctuations in the intervocalic dental. 
Close to Gk mj9ur|v id. and further to 
Skt budhná- 'bottom, grounď, Av buna- id. 
(?< *bhundhno-), Lat fundus 'bottom'. 
Petersson SVSL I 17-18 (alternation *d: 
*dh explained from the paradigm nom. 
*bhudh-, gen. *bhu(n)dnes); Bartholomae 
968-969; Torp-Falk 275 (add OE 
byden 'bushel, barrel', MLG bodem 'cask', 
OHG butin(a) id. which are from MLat 
butina 'bottle, vessel'); Porzig TTh.S XV 
112-133; Nordmeyer GR XIII 127- 
129; Holthausen AEEW 31; Walde- 
Hofmann I 564-565; Mayrhofer II 438; 
Pokorný I 174; Vrtes ANEW 51; Zaliz- 
niak II 226; Frisk II 620-621; Onions 
109; Lůhr Expr. 340-341; Kluge- 
Seebold 122-123. 

*bud5janan wk.vb.: ON bodá 'to an- 
nounce', OE bodían 'to telí, to announce', 
OFris bodia 'to summon', MLG boden id., 
MHG boten id. Derived from *beudanan. 
Holthausen AEEW 28; Vries ANEW 

*buŮ5n sb.m.: Burg *buda 'messenger', 
ON bodi id., OE bodá id., OFris bodá id, 
OS bodo id, OHG boto id Derived from 
*beudanan. Torp-Falk 275; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 28; Pokorný I 151; Vries 
ANEW AI; Zalizniak I 139; Onions 104; 
Seebold 1 09; Bammesberger Nom. 1 74; 
Kobler 709; Kluge-Seebold 128. 

*bu3Ón sb.m.: Crim. Goth boga 'bow', ON 
bogi id., OE bosá id., OFris boga id., OS 
swi-bogo 'vaulť, OHG bogo 'arch, bow'. 
Derived from *beu3anan. Torp-Falk 
273; Holthausen AEEW 29; Feist 102; 

Pokorný I 152-153; Vries ANEW 47; 
Zalizniak I 153; Onions 111; Seebold 
111; Lehmann GED 73, 77; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 174; Kluge-Seebold 123. 

*bu3Ílaz sb.m.: ON bygill 'stirrup', MLG 
bogel 'hanger, G Biigel id. Derived from 
*beu3anan. Vrtes ANE\V 67; Kluge- 
Seebold 143. 

*bu3Íz sb.m.: ON bugr 'bowing, winding', 
OE bý^e 'bowing, bending, angle', MDu 
boge 'bend'. Derived from *beu3anan. 
Holthausen AEEW 39; Vries ANEW bZ; 
Seebold 111. 

*bu3Janan wk.vb.: Goth bugjan 'to buy', 
ON byggja 'to let out, to lend', OE byc^an 
'to buy', OS buggian id. Derived from 
*beu3anan (Grienberger Got. 54). For tíre 
semantic development cf. Gk rccoXéeo 'to 
seli' ~ néX(ů 'to turn, to spin'. Osthoff 
IF V 293-295; Uhlenbegk Btrg. Gesch. 
XXX 2777; Loewenthal ANW XXXII 
282 (to Gk <peúyto 'to fly'); Torp-Falk 
274; Holthausen AEEW 39; Feist 111; 
Pokorný I 153; Vries ANEW 67; Benve- 
niste 1 1 0-1 1 1 (to Av baog- 'to savé, to 
redeem, to liberate'); Seebold 111; Ben- 
veniste IEL 1 08—1 1 1 ; Lindeman Verschdr- 
fung 15.3; Lehmann GED 84. 

*buxtiz sb.f.: ON bot 'patch', OE byht 
'bending, corner' (mase.), MLG bucht 
'bay', G Bucht id. Derived from *beu3anan. 
Holthausen yl££I V 39; Vries ANE] V 5 1 ; 
Kluge-Seebold 142. 

*bukjanan wk.vb.: OFris buekia 'to bend', 
MLG bucken id., MHG bůcken id. Based on 
the unattested *beukanan to be compared 
with Skt bhujáti id., \rfid-bocc 'wood bow'. 
Mayrhofer II 504-506; Pokorný I 153. 

*bukkaz sb.m.: ON bukkr, bokkr 'buck', 
OE bucc 'roebuck', MLG buck 'goat, ram', 
OHG boc, buc id. Borrowed from the 
Celtic word for 'he-goať, cf. Mír boce, W 
bwch, Corn boch, Bret bouc'h (Pedersen 
Litteús VII 23-24). Meillet MSL XV 
356 (hypocoristic gemination); Zupitza 
Gutt. 196; Torp-Falk 273 (related to 
Celtic and other Indo-European forms 
continuing *bhugos ~ *bhukkos); Lané Lan- 
guage VII 282 (to *beu3anan); Marttnet 




Gém. 87, 138-139; Porzig Gliederung 115; 
Pokorný I 174; Vries AMEW 64; 
Zalizniak II 178; Onions 122; Kluge- 
Seebold 122. 

*bukkón sb.m.: ON bokki 'he-goať, OE 
bucca id. See *bukkaz. Holthausen 
AEEW3&; Martinet Gém. 113, 139, 178; 
Onions 122. 

*bulaz ~ *buló sb.m./f.: ON bolr, bulr 
'trunk', MLG bole 'plank', MHG bole id. 
Related to *búljo(n). Torp-Falk 266 (to 
Slav *b-blvan-b 'idol'); Vries AMEW 49 (to 
*bhel- 'to swell'). 

*bul3J6n sb.f.: ON bylga 'billow', MLG 
bulge 'rising wave', MHG bulge 'storm 
wave'. Derived from *belsanan. Torp- 
Faek 268; Pokorný I 126; Vries AMEW 
67; Kluge-Seebold 144. 

*buljanan wk.vb.: ON bylja 'to roar', OE 
byl$an 'to offend, to anger', MDu bullen 
'to race, to rage', MHG bullen 'to bark'. 
Connected with *bellanan I. Holthau- 
sen AEE]V 40; Pokorný I 123; Vries 
AMEW 67. 

*bullón sb.m.: ON bolli 'bowl', OE bolla 
'round vessel, cup, poť, OFris strot-bolla 
'larynx', OS bollo 'cup', OHG bolla 'bud, 
round pod, globular vessď (fem.). 
Related to *bul(j)6n. Torp-Falk 267 (to 
Lat follis 'purse, bag'); Holthausen 
AEElť30; Marttnet Gém. 194; Pokorný 
I 121 (to IE *bhel- 'to swell, to blow); 
Vries AMW 49; Onions 111. 

*bull6janan wk.vb.: Icel-Norw bulla 'to 
babble', OHG bullou 'to howl, to bark'. 
Related to *Ďellanan II. Marttnet Gém. 
142; Pokorný I 123. 

*bulójanan wk.vb.: ON bola 'to fell trees', 
OHG bolon 'to roli'. Derived from *bulaz 
~ *bulo. Vries AMEW 48. 

*bulón sb.m.: ON boli 'bull', OE bula 
'young bull', MDu bul, bolle 'bull'. WGmc 
words reflect *bull- < *buln- extracted 
from oblique cases of *bulon. Perhaps 
connected with Thrac póAivGoi; 'wild 
bull' < *bhul-ento- (Tomaschek Thr. 11/ 1 
5). Torp-Falk 266; Detsohew Thr. 74; 
Pokorný I 121 (to IE *bhel- 'to swell'); 
Georgiev Issledov. 119; Vries AME]V 49; 

Lerchner 55-56; Kluge-Seebold 144. 

*bulstraz sb.m.: ON bólstr 'cushion', OE 
bolster 'bolster, pillow', MDu bolster id., 
OHG bolstar id. Probably from *bulxstraz, 
to *belsanan. Torp-Falk 268; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 30; Vries AME]V 49; Onions 
105; Seebold 100; Bammesberger Mom. 
87; Kluge-Seebold 639-640. 

*bultaz sb.m.: ON boltr 'bolť, OE holt id., 
MLG bolte id., OHG bolz 'catapulť. 
Probably related to Lat fullo 'to trample', 
Lith béldžiu, bélsti 'to knock, to rap', bildu, 
bildeti 'to crash, to thuď. Bruch ^DADL 
LXXIII 75-86; Torp-Falk 268; Walde- 
Hofmann I 560-561; Holthausen 
AE£n r 30; Pokorný I 124; Fraenkel 39; 
Vries AMEW 49; Onions 105; Kluge- 
Seebold 124. 

*bun3Ón sb.f./m.: ON bunga 'elevation, 
convexity', MLG bunge 'drum', OHG 
bungo 'tuber'. Related to Skt bahú- 'much, 
abundant, large', Gk na%vq 'thick', Latv 
biezs id., Lith búožé 'knob'. Zupitza Gutt. 
177; Mann Language XXVI 387 (to Alb 
bung 'a kind of oak'); Pokorný I 128; 
Fraenkel 64; Vries AMEJV 65. 

*bunkojanan wk.vb.: OSwed buňka 'to 
strike, to hit', MLG bunken id., G bunken 
id. Denominative of *bunkon. Pokorný I 
115 (to IE *bheg- 'to break, to strike'); 
Frisk II 484-485. 

*bunkón sb.m.: ON bunki 'heap, pile', Du 
bonk 'clump, cloť. To be compared with 
Alb bung 'a kind of oak, Quercus sessi- 
flora' < PAlb *bunga, further to *bheu- 'to 
grow' (see *bewwanati). Torp-Falk 259 
(to *bankiz); Vries ANE1V 65 (to Icel buna 
'ox bone'); Lerchner 41—44; Orel AED 

*buran sb.n.: Goth ga-baur 'tribute, contri- 
bution, tax, ^.oyeía, cpópoi;', OHG gi-bor 
'progeny, offspring'. Derived from *bera- 
nan. Kluge KZ XXVI 71; Feist 174; 
Seebold 105; Bammesberger Mom. 58. 

*buraz sb.m.: ON bon 'borer', OE bór 
id., MLG bor id. Connected with *buro- 
janan. Holthausen AEE]V 30; Vries 
AMEW 51. 

*burda-pakan ~ *burda-pak5n sb.n./m.: 




ON bord-pak 'covering of planks', OE 
bord-daca 'board thatch, a cover of a 
house, snare'. Compound of *burdan and 
*pakan. Carr Nom. comp. 80 (parallel 

*burdan sb.n.: Goth fotu-baurd 'footstool', 
ON bord 'board, plank', OE hord id., 
OFris bord id., OS bord id., OHG bort 
'deek'. A secondary ablaut variant is 
*bardan > ON barů 'edge, brim' some- 
times explained from *bardaz (Torp-Falk 
262; Zalizniak II 166) or compared with 
Lith barta 'boarď (Vries ANEW 26). 
Togeťher with Umbr furf-ant '(they) put 
upon the board' and Slav *bbrdo 'reed (in 
loom), mountain ridge' continues IE 
*bhrdho- (DlEFENBAOH K? XVI 221). 
Uhlenbeok AfslPh XV 483 (Slav *bbrdo 
from Germanic); Brůckner AfslPh XLII 
127 (against Uhlenbeck); Torp-Falk 
262-263; Holthausen AEEW 30; Feist 
159; Trier Holi 86-87; Pokorný I 138; 
Vries ANEW 50 (separates *turďan 
'board' from *burdan 'edge, board of a 
ship'); Zalizniak I 139; Onions 103; 
Trubaohev Rem. 26-31, 131, ESSJa III 
164-166; Anttila Schw. 91; Lehmann 
GED 121; Kluge-Seebold 126. 

*burdón sb.m.: ON bordi 'border', OE 
horda 'hem, trimming', OS horda id., 
OHG borto id. A morphological variant of 
*burdan. Holthausen AEEH r 30; Vries 
ANEW 50. 

*burdin3az sb.m.: ON byrdingr 'mer- 
chant ship', MLG bordinc 'small vehicle'. 
Derived from *burian (Falk ]VuS IV 
111-112). Vries ANEW 67. 

*burdiz sb.f: Goth ga-baurps 'birth', ON 
mase. burdr id., OE y-byrd id., OFris herd, 
berde id., OS gi-burd id. (mase), OHG gi- 
burt id. Continues IE *bhrtí-, cf. Olr breth, 
brith id. < *bhrta. Further related to 
*beranan. Torp-Falk 261; Holthausen 
AEEW 40; Feist 175; Pokorný I 131; 
Zalizniak II 176; Vries ANEW 68; 
Onions 96; Seebold 105; Trubaohev 
ESSJa III 97-98; Lehmann GED 134; 
Bammesberger Nom. 141; Kluge- 
Seebold 304. 

*burdjanan wk.vb.: ON byrša 'to em- 
broider', OE byrdan id., OS burdian 
id. Derived from *burdan. Holthausen 
AEEW 40; Vries ANEW 67. 

*bur3ěnan ~ *bur3Ójanan wk.vb.: ON 
borga 'to bail, to pay', OE bor^ian 'to bor- 
row', OFris borgia id., MLG borgen id., 
OHG borgen id., ir-borgon 'to promise'. 
Derived from *ber^anan. Torp-Falk 
265; Holthausen AEEW 31; Vries 
ANE]V 50; Onions 108; Kluge-Seebold 

*bur3Jan sb.n.: ON byrgi 'enclosure, 
fence', OE eord-byrj 'earth mound' 
(fem.). Derived from *bur^z. Holthau- 
sen AEEW 41; Vries ANEW 68. 

*bur3Janan I wk.vb.: ON byrgja 'to close, 
to shuť, OE byrdan 'to bury'. Cf. also 
OHG borgen id. Derived from *ber$anan. 
Holthausen AEEW A:\\ Vries ANEW 68; 
Seebold 107. 

*bur3Janan II wk.vb.: ON á-byrgja 'to 
answer for, to také care of ', OE on-byr^an 
'to vouch for', MLG borgen id., OHG 
unter-burgen 'to fake'. Related to *bur^ěnan 
~ *bur3qjanan. Holthausen AEE]V 41; 
Vries ^JV£ir 68. 

*bur3z sb.f: Goth baurgs 'castle, citadel, 
city', ON borg 'hillock, wall, castle, city' (i- 
stem), OE Aarj 'fortified pláce, castle, 
city', OFris burch, burich id., OS burg id. 
(also an z-stem), OHG burg id. (also an 
z-stem). Corresponds to Av bmz- 'high', 
Arm barjr id. < *bhrghu-, Olr brí 'hill'. 
Other parallels see s.v. *ber^anan. Bréal 
MSL VII 135-136 (to Gk Trépyoq 'tower, 
fortification, castle'); VIuch ^TJADL XLI 
113, ]VuS XII 353 (partly from Lat burgus 
'castle, fořt, fortress' < Gk rcúpycx;); 
Zupitza Gutt. 204; Jacobsohn £^XLVIII 
139-140 (to Gk tpúpKOc;- teíxoq, Hes.); 
Kretschmer Glotta XXII 100-102 (from 
the samé North Balkán source as Gk 
Jťúpyoc;); Gutenbrunner ÁJ3ADL LXXII 
173-175; Bartholomae 949-950; Torp- 
Falk 265; Holthausen AEE]V 38; Feist 
85—86; Porzig Gliederung 173; Pokorný I 
140-141; Vries ANEW 50 (to Gk 
tppáaacú 'to fence in, to fortify', ipúpKOi; 




ValT); Zalizniak II 206; Onions 108; 
Motz IF LXXXI 204-220; Lehmann 
GED 64—65 (influenced by Lat burgus); 
Bammesberger Nom. 195-196; Grie- 
pentrog IVurzelnomina 91-116; Kluge- 
Seebold 145—146. 

*fourilón sb.m.: ON byrli 'cup-bearer', OE 
byrele id. Derived from *burilaz, see *Ďeri- 
laz. Holthausen AEE]V 41; Vries 
ANEW 68. 

*fouriz I sb.m.: Goth baur 'he who is born, 
yevT]TÓ<;', ON burr 'son', OE byre id. 
Derived from *teranan. Torp-Falk 261; 
Holthausen AEE]V 40; Feist 84—85; 
Vries ANEW 65; Pokorný I 131; See- 
bold 105; Lehmann GED 64; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 132. 

*fouriz II sb.m.: ON byrr 'fair winď, OE 
byre 'event, opportunity', WFris bur 
'winď, MLG bore-los 'widrout fair winď. 
Related to Slav *bur'a 'storm' (Uhlen- 
beck PBB XXX 278; Lewy IF XXXII 
158-159). Torp-Falk 261; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 40; Pokorný I 131; Vries 
ANEW 68; Trubachev ESSJa III 97-98. 

*fourjanan ~ *burjójanan wk.vb.: ON 
byrja 'to begin', OE býrian 'to happen', 
OFris bera id., OS gi-burian 'to také care 
of, to befiť, OHG purren 'to happen, to 
be due'. Derived from *buriz LI. Torp- 
Falk 261; Holthausen AEE1V 41; Trter 
Holz 88; Pokorný I 131 (to *beranarí); 
Vries ANEW 68; Kluge-Seebold 304. 

*fourjaz adj.: Goth adv. ga-baurjaba 'gladly, 
with pleasure', OE am-byr 'favourable'. 
Related to *buriz II. Feist 175; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 3, 5; Matzel KZ CIV 
240-250, CV 135; Bammesberger ESts 
LXIV 97-101 (reconstructs *buruz from 
*beranan); Heidermanns 144. 

*fourójanan wk.vb.: ON bóra 'to bore', 
OE bórian id., OS boron id., OHG bordn 
id. Related to *barjanan. Torp-Falk 
261; Endzeltn K£ LU 124 (to Latv birze 
'furrow in the field of corn'); Holthausen 
AEEW 31; Pokorný I 135; Vries ANEW 
49-50; Onions 108; Kluge-Seebold 

*fourón sb.f: ON bóra 'bore-hole', latě 
OHG bóra 'auger'. Related to *burajanan. 
Onions 108. 

*fourstiz sb.f: ON burst 'bristle', OE byrst 
id. (neut.), OS bursta id. (o-stem), OHG 
burst id. (neut.), bursta id. (o-stem). Iden- 
tical with Skt bhrslí- 'sharp point'. Cf. also 
Slav *b~brščb 'kind of plant, Heracleum' 
(Petr BB XXI 211). Torp-Falk 266 
Holthausen AEE]V 41; Pokorný I 109 
Vries ANEW 65; Zalizniak II 195 
Onions 1 1 9; Trubachev ESSJa III 
131-132; Kluge-Seebold 127. 

*burj3Ín sb.f: Gouh baurpei 'burden, loaď, 
OFris berde id., OHG burdí id. Based on 
*bhrti- attested in Skt bhrtí- 'load, burden', 
cf. also bhrtyd 'care, fooď. For further 
connections see *beranan. Torp-Falk 
261; Feist 86; Pokorný I 131; Vries 
ANE1V 67-68; Zalizniak II 220; Onions 
127; Lehmann GED 65; Kluge-Seebold 

*buskaz sb.m.: Norw busk 'bush', ME 
busch, busche id., MLG busch id., OHG 
buse id. Derived from *bow(w)anan. 
Torp-Falk 276-277; Vries ANEW 66 
(from latě Lat boscus 'a forest where wood 
gathering is permitteď); Kluge-Seebold 
147 (to nruskaz). 

*buttaz ~ *bútaz sb.m.: ON bútr 'log', 
LG adj. butt 'blunt, plump', MHG butze 
'eut out piece'. Probably related to *bau- 
tanan. Torp-Falk 274; Vries ANE\ V 66. 

*buj)lan sb.n.: ON bál 'farm, abode', OE 
hold 'building, dwelling, house', OFris 
bodel 'movable property', OS bodal 'land 
property'. Derived from *bów(w)anan. 
Structurally similar to Lith hukla 'resi- 
dence, camp' < *bhu-tlo-. Torp-Falk 
272-273; Holthausen AEEW 30; Fraen- 
kel 68; Vries ANEW 48; Onions 124; 
Seebold 126; Kluge-Seebold 143 (ON 
to MLG boule 'sleeping pláce', MHG buole 
id. < *bolon further compared with Lith 
guolis 'resting-place'). 

*búkaz sb.m.: ON búkr 'trunk, body', OE 
búc 'belly, stomach', OFris buk 'trunk, 
body', MLG buk id., OHG biih 'sto- 




mach, womb'. A descriptive formation. 
Osthoff BB XXIX 255 (to OE búc 'bot- 
tle, jug'); Torp-Falk 273 (to Heu^anan); 
Holthausen A]VN 29 (to Latv baugas 
'intestines'); Vries ANE]V 64 (samé as 
Torp-Falk); Pokorný I 1 00; Zalizniak I 
130; Onions 123, 125; Kluge-Seebold 85. 

*búlj6(n) sb.f.: ON bála 'blister', OE býl 
(mase), hýle 'bile, blotch, sore', OFris bil, 
běh id., OS bíila id., OHG bulla 'blister, 
pimple, swelling'. Cf. Skt bulí- 'buttoeks, 
vulva', buri- 'vulva' (reflecting unaspirated 
*b), Lith bulis id. Osthoff Suppl. 66-67 
(to IE *bheu- 'to grow); ZuprrzA Gutt. 72; 
Persson Beitráge 30; Torp-Falk 274-276; 
Holthausen AEE] V 39; Feist 511; Mayr- 
hofer II 439-440; Pokorný I 98-102; 
Vries ANE]V 48; Fraenkel 63-64; 
Onions 104; Lehmann GED 371; Kluge- 
Seebold 105, 143. 

*foúran sb.n.: ON búr 'chamber, panťry', 
OE búr 'cottage, dwelling, room', OS búr 
'dwelling, room' (mase.), OHG búr 
'house' (mase.). Close to Messap (Júpiov 
oiKTina, Hes. (Krahe IF XLVII 326, 
Spr. Vorz. 104). Further to *bow(w)anan. 
Torp-Falk 273; Holthausen AEE]V 38; 
Porzig Gliederung 129; Pokorný I 146, 
149; Vries ANE]V 65; Zalizniak II 167; 
Onions 111; Seebold 126; Lehmann 
GED 64; Bammesberger Nom. 75; Kluge- 
Seebold 86. 

*búsniz sb.f.: Goth ana-busns 'command, 
commandmenť, ON býsn 'wonder', OE 
býsen 'example, pattern', OS am-búsan 
'order'. Derivative in *-sni- based on 
*beuianan. Brugmann Grundriji I 705 
(compensatory length in *-ú- < *-us-)\ 

Torp-Falk 275; Holthausen AEE] V 4-1; 
Feist 41-42; Vries ANEW 68; Seebold 
109; Lehmann GED 31; Bammesberger 
Nom. 148. 

*búsójanan str.vb.: Norw husa 'to dart, to 
make a dash', EFris bušen 'to be turbu- 
lent, to storm', MDu búsen 'to tipple'. 
Related to Slav *bystn> 'quick'. Torp- 
Falk 276; Vries ANEW 68; Trubaohev 
ESSJa III 153-154. 

*búpó ~ *bój5Ón sb.f.: ON búd 'abode, 
booth', MLG bode 'huť (*-£-), MHG buode 
id. (-o-). Derived from *bow(w)anan. 
Structurally close to Olr both 'huť < 
*bhuta, Lith bútas 'house', OPrus buttan 
id., Slav *byto 'stay, possessions'. Torp- 
Falk 272; Trautmann BSW 40-42; 
Fraenkel 68; Vries ANEW 63; Truba- 
chev ESSJa III 155; Lehmann GED 64; 
Kluge-Seebold 142. 

"•^búwa-landan sb.n.: ON bú-land 'home- 
lanď, OS bú-land 'cultivated lanď. Com- 
pound of *búwan and Handan. Carr 
Mom. comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*búwan sb.n.: ON bú 'house, estate', OE 
bú 'dwelling', OS bú id. Derived from 
*bow(w)anan. Torp-Falk 272; Holt- 
hausen AEEh r 38; Pokorný I 149; Vries 
ANEW 63, 67; Seebold 125; Lehmann 
GED 64. 

*búwiz sb.m.: ON býr 'town, village, 
farm'. Identical with Lidi bSvis 'resi- 
dence'. Furdier derived from *bow(w)a- 
nan. Torp-Falk 272; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 73; Fraenkel 68. 

*búwón sb.m.: ON bii 'dweller', OHG 
erd-búwo 'inhabitant of the earth'. Derived 
from *bow(w)anan. Vries ANE]V 63. 

*dabanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-daban 'to hap- 
pen, to be suitable', OE part. se-dafen 
'becoming, fit, suitable'. Related to Arm 
darhin 'smith' (< *dhabhro-), Lat faber 
'forger, smith, artificer, carpenter, joiner', 
Lith daba 'nature, way' (if not from 
Slavic), daba? 'now', Slav *doba 'time', 
*dobiti 'to form, to decorate'. Torp- 
Falk 200-201; Holthausen AEEW 69; 
Walde-Hofmann I 436-437; Feist 
176-177; Pokorný I 233-234; Fraenkel 
79; Seebold 146; Trubachev ESSJa V 
38-39; Lehmann GED 134-135; Kluge- 
Seebold 166. 

*dabjanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. dabba 'to 
tap', E dab 'to tap lightly', EFris dafeii 'to 
strike', MDu dabben 'to patter', G tappen 
id. An imitative verb. However, a con- 
nection with *daianan cannot be ruled 
out — in this čase cf. Slav *dobiti 'to form, 
to decorate'. Vries ANEW T 7 1 (to *dab- 
jaz); Trubachev ESSJa V 38-39. 

*dabjaz sb.m.: Norw dial. dab, dabbe 'small 
fat person', MHG tappe 'clumsy man'. 
Identical with Slav *dobb 'valiant, noble'. 
Loewenthal ANF XXXV 240 (to Skt 
dabhnóti 'to hurt, to injure'); Persson 
IF XXXV 202 (to Latv depis 'fool'); 
Pokorný I 233 (to Gk xá<poi; 'funeral 
rites; raised platform'); Holthausen 
AÍVN 33 (to SCr depati 'to strike'); Vries 
ANEW 71. 

*dabnójanan wk.vb.: ON dafna 'to thrive 
well', OE je-dafenian 'to be becoming, to 
fit'. Connected with *daianan. Torp- 
Falk 200; Holthausen AEE]V 69; Vrtes 
ANEW 71; Lehmann GED 134-135. 

*tiačtrójanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. dadra 'to 
shake, to tremble', G dial. tattern id. Of 
imitative origin. Torp-Falk 202. 

*da3a-lan3az adj.: ON dag-langr 'all day 
long', OE dď3-lan3 'lasting a day', MHG 
tage-lanc id. Compound of *da^az and 
Han^az. Carr Nom. comp. 88 (parallel 

*tia3a-werkan sb.n.: ON dag-verk 'day's 
work', OE dďj-weorc id., OFris dei-werch 
id., OS dag-werk id., OHG taga-werk 
id. Compound of *da$az and *werkan. 
Carr Nom. comp. 52. 

*da3az sb.m.: Godr dags 'day', ON dagr id., 
OE í£k3 id., OFris dei id., OS dag id., 
OHG tag id. Identical with Skt ni-daghá- 
'heat, summer', Mír daig 'fire', Lith dagas 
'summer heať. Continues *dhog*hos, deri- 
vative of IE *dheg"h- 'to burn'. Schulze 
Kl. Schr. 833, 844-847; Zupitza Gutt. 
101, 205; Torp-Falk 199; Holthausen 
AEEW 69; Feist 113-114; Walde- 
Hofmann I 466—467 (contamination with 
IE *agh-r- 'day'); Lané JEGP XXXV 
25 (phonetically difficult *-g"h- > *-j-); 
IVIayrhofer II 39; Pokorný I 7 (related 
to Skt áhar- 'day' with secondary *d-), 
240-242; Fraenkel 85-86; Vries ANEW 
71-72; Zalizniak I 130; Seebold K~ 
LXXXI 125; Onions 246; Lehmann GED 
86; Bammesberger .Nom. 51; Kluge- 
Seebold 812. 

*da3Ójanan wk.vb.: ON daga 'to dawn', 
OE dasian id., MLG dagen id., OHG 
tagěn id. Derived from *da^az. Torp- 
Falk 199; Holthausen AEEW 70; Vries 

*daÍ3az I sb.m.: Gotii daigs 'dough, soft 
mass', ON deigr id., OE neut. dá3 id., 
OFris deeg id., MLG dech id., OHG tag 
id. Continues *dhoighos derived from IE 
*dheigh- 'to kneaď. Close to Toch A tseke 
'molded figuře', Skt deha- 'body', Av uz- 
daěza- Svalí', Arm dez 'heap', Gk toí%oi; 
'wall', Slav *děža 'kneading trough, ves- 
sel' < *doighiá. In the Gmc perspective, 
substantivated *dai$az II. See *íí3anan. 
Bartholomae 411-412; Torp-Falk 206; 
Holthausen AEEW 69-70; Feist 114; 
Mayrhofer II 65-66; Pokorný I 
244-245; Vries ANEW 1^-lb; Zalizniak 
I 130; Frisk II 865-866; Onions 286; 
Seebold 151; Trubachev ESSJa V 23- 




24; Lehmann GED 87; Bammesberger 
Nom. 52; Heidermanns 145; Kluge- 
Seebold 819. 

*daÍ3az II adj.: ON deigr 'soft', MLG dech 
'pasty', MHG teic 'soft'. Deríved from 
*ii3anan. Karsten NB I 58—59; Torp- 
Faek 206; Vries ANEW 75; Seebold 
151; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 94, K% CV 
96; Heidermanns 145; Fsluge- Seebold 

*daÍ3J6n sb.f.: ON deigja 'dairy-maiď, OE 
die^e 'female baker' . Derived from *di^a- 
nan or directly from *dai^az I. Formally 
close to Slav *děža 'kneading trough, ves- 
sel' < *doighia. Sievers PBB L 1 6; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 69; Vries ANEW 75; 
Onions 242; Seebold 151; Trubaghev 
ESSJa V 23-24; Bammesberger Nom. 

*dailibó sb.f: ON «/ 'deal, share', OHG 
teilida 'division'. Derived from *dailjanan. 
Torp-Falk 198; Vries ANEW 75. 

*dailiz sb.m.: Goth fem. dails 'part, por- 
tion, share', latě ON deill 'deal, share', 
OE dél 'part', OFris děl id., OS děl id., 
OHG teti id. Identical with Slav *dělb 
'part, division'. Further related to *dai-: 
*di- 'to divide' with an irregular develop- 
ment of the anlaut. Bopp apud Schwei- 
zer R~£ I 478 (to Skt dmati 'to bursť); 
Wood MLNXX1 39 (to Gk 8ř|taonai 'to 
hurt, to damage'); Pedersen K~^ XXXLX 
372 (from Slav *dětb 'portion'); Torp- 
Falk 198; Holthausen AEE]V 69; Feist 
114; Pokorný I 176, 195; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 84; Zalizniak II 185; Onions 
247; Martynov Jazyk 17-18 (folio ws 
Pedersen); Trubaghev ESSJa V 9-10; 
Lehmann GED 87; Fvluge-Seebold 820; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*dailjanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-dailjan 'to 
divide, to alloť, ON deila 'to divide, to 
deal', OE cbélan 'to divide, to separate', 
OFris děla id., OS dělian id., OHG teilen 
id. Derived from *dailiz. Structurally 
close to Lith dailýti 'to divide', Slav *děliti 
id. Buga RFV LXX 103; Berneker 
I 195; Torp-Falk 198; Holthausen 
AEEW 69; Feist 114; Pokorný I 176; 

Fraenkel 80; Vries ANEW 75; Mar- 
tynov Slav.-germ. 112 (Gmc < Slav); Ben- 
veniste IEL 156; Trubachev ESSJa IV 
233-234; Lehmann GED 87. 

*dailó(n) sb.f: ON deila 'disagreement, 
contesť, MHG teile 'division'. Related to 
*dailiz. Vries ANEW 75. 

*áajjanan wk.vb.: Goth daddjan 'to suckle', 
OSw dícggia id. Structurally identical with 
Skt dháyati 'to suck, to drink', Osset d&jun 
'to suck', Slav *dqJQ, *dojiti 'to suckle, to 
milk'. Further related to *dejanan, *dloja- 
nan. Torp-Falk 205; Feist 112-113; 
Mayrhofer II 93; Pokorný I 241-242; 
Vries ANEW 76; Lindeman Verschdtfung 
10.4; Trubachev ESSJa V 53-54; Leh- 
mann GED 85. 

*dalaz ~ *ďalan sb.m./n.: Goth dal(s) 
'ravine, pit, valley', ON dalr 'dále', OE 
dtsl 'dále, den, giilf ', OFris del 'valley', OS 
dal id., OHG tal. Identical wiur W dol 
'valley', Slav *doh> id. (Hellouist ANF 
VII 171; Meillet Etudes 242-243). Cf. 
probably Gk BóXoc; 'round building with a 
conical roof. Schweizer KZ I 478; 
Sperber WuS VI 40; Loth RC XLII 86; 
Torp-Falk 204; Holthausen AEEW 69; 
Feist 114-115; Huisman R'Z LXXI 103; 
Pokorný I 245; Vries ANEW 72; Frisk I 
677; Zalizniak II 186; Onions 242; 
Trubaghev ESSJa V 64-65; Bammes- 
berger Notn. 54; Fvluge-Seebold 813. 

*dal3Ójanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. dalga 'to 
strike', LG dalgen id. Related to *dul^an. 
Torp-Falk 210; Pokorný I 247. 

*daljan ~ *daljó sb.n./f: Goth ib-dalja 
'declivity, slope' (mase. or neut.), OE of- 
drele 'downward slope', dell 'deep hollow, 
valley', OFris déle id. MLG delle id., latě 
MHG klk id. Derived from *ialaz ~ 
*ialan. Torp-Falk 204; Holthausen 
AEEW 71; Feist 114, 287; Onions 253; 
Lehmann GED 202; Kluge-Seebold 169. 

*dammaz ~ *tiamman sb.m./n.: ON 
dammr 'dam', OFris damm, domm id., 
MLG dam id., MHG tam, tamm id. 
Continues *d/i9-mno, based on *dhě-men-, 
cf. Skt dhaman- 'statute, law' (Grien- 
berger Got. 66). Schroder ZPADL 




XLII 66 (to IE *dheb- 'thick'); Torp-Falk 

201—202 (samé as Grienberger); van 
Wijk IFXXW 31-32 (from *dambna-, to 
Gk 6«7tx(o 'to bury', Arm damban 'grave'); 
Wood MB XVIII 84 (from *dhm-uo-, cf. 
Gk OajrÓQ 'thick'); Gůntert Labyrinth 30 
(pre-IE term); Walde-Pokorny I 850 
(follow Sohroder); Pokorný I 238; Vrfes 
AMEW 72-73; Onions 242; Lehmann 
GED 111; Kluge-Seebold 1 6 1 (back for- 
mation from *dammjanan). 

*dammjanan wk.vb.: Goth faur-dammjan 
'to dam up, to hinder', OE for-demman 'to 
dam up', OFris damma 'to fence in', 
MHG ver-temmen 'to fence in'. Derived 
from *iammaz ~ *tamman. Torp-Falk 
201; Holthausen AEEW 71; Feist 146; 
Vrtes AME1V 75; Onions 242; Lehmann 
GED 111; Kluge-Seebold 161. 

*dampaz sb.m.: MLG damp 'steam', 
OHG dampf id. Based on str. vb. 
*iempanan > MHG dimpfen 'to steam, to 
smoke' which can be related to Lith 
dumpiú, dúmpti 'to blow'. Pokorný I 
247-248 (to Skt dhámati 'to blow', Mír 
dera 'black, dark'); Onions 243. 

*daniz sb.m.: Goth prop. Danus, ON pl. 
Danir 'Dane', OE pl. Dene id., OHG pl. 
Teni id. Of uncertain origin. Zachris- 
son Festschr. Kock 404-408; Ltndouist MB 
106-110 (to *dentanan); Holthausen 
AEEW 71; Vries AMEW 73. 

*ďan3\vjanan wk.vb.: ON dengja 'to 
hammer', OE denc^an 'to knock, to 
ding', MHG tengen 'to strike'. Causative of 
*denjwanan. Identical with Slav *dqzíti 'to 
rush', cf. furťher Lith danginti 'to move, to 
resettle'. Torp-Falk 200; Vries AMEW 
75; Trubachev ESSJa V 100; Kluge- 
Seebold 170. 

*dani-mark5 sb.f: ON Dan-mqrk 'Den- 
mark', OE Dena-mearc id., OHG Dene- 
marca id. Compound of *daniz and 
*marko. Vries AME]V 73. 

*dankó sb.f: ON dqkk 'pit, pool'. Could be 
formally identical with Latv danga 'vault, 
angle', Slav *dqga 'are' but the latter seem 
to reflect *-gh-. Torp-Falk 200; Vries 
AMEW 93; Trubachev ESSJa V 98-99. 

*dankwaz ~ *denkwaz adj.: ON dqkkr 
'dark', OFris diunk id. Identical with 
Hitt dankui- 'black, dark' (Kammenhuber 
KZ LXXVII 62). Torp-Falk 201; 
Schwentner PBB XLV 457; Karsten 
MB II 429-431; Pokorný I 247-248 (to 
Mír dm 'black'); Vries AME]V 92; Hei- 
dermanns 146, 152, KZ XCLX 297; 
Fvluge-Seebold 199. 

*dann5n sb.f: OS danna 'pine', OHG 
tanna 'fir wooď. If related to Gk Bájivoi; 
'thickeť (Fick I 464), *damnón should be 
reconstructed. Torp-Falk 200 (to Skt 
neut. dhanva- 'bow'); Frisk I 652. 

*dapraz adj.: ON dapr 'sad, downcasť, 
MLG dapper 'heavy', OHG tapjar id. 
Compared with Toch A tpár, B tapre 
'high' (Wiedemann BB XXX 216: also to 
Slav *dobrb 'gooď, *debeh> 'strong, thick'). 
Wood MiJVXXI 227 (to Skt dabhrá- 'lit- 
de, small'); Torp-Falk 200; Karsten MB 
II 257; Pokorný I 239; Chemodanov 
SGGJa 1111; Vries ^jVEII r 73; Onions 
244; Trubachev ESSJa V 45-46; 
Heidermanns 146—147; Kluge-Seebold 
815; Adams TB 280 (compares Toch with 
*deupaz); Burlak IFTJa 246 (samé as 

*dar(r)adaz sb.m.: Burg *dards 'spear', 
ON darradr 'darť, OE dani id., OHG tart 
id. Derived from *darran. Holthausen 
AEEW 70; Vries AMEW 74; Onions 244; 
Kobler 709. 

*darran sb.n.: ON dair 'darť. Borrowed 
from Irán *dáru-\ Av dauni- 'trunk, 
wooden weapon'. Martinet Gem. 199; 
Vries AMEW 74 (to Skt dhara 'edge, 

*darsa str.vb.: Goth ga-dars 'to venture, to 
dare', OE dear 'to dare', OFris dur id., 
OS dar, darr id., OHG -tar id. Related to 
Skt dhrsnú- 'bold, courageous', Av darši- 
'bold, strong', Gk Gpaaút; 'bold, rash', 
Oapoéto 'to be courageous', Lith drqsús 
'brave' and probably Slav *dbrz~b 'dar- 
ing, audacious' (with unexplained *-Z~). 
Bartholomae 699; Torp-Falk 203; 
Meillet/FV 333; Feist 177-178; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 80; Mayrhofer II 




112-113; Pokorný I 259; Fraenkel 
101-102; Frisk I 654-655; Onions 244; 
Seebold 147; Trubaohev ESSJa V 
228-229; Lehmann GED 135. 

*dasón ~ *ctasaz sb.m.: ON dasi 'lazy 
fellow', MDu daes 'fool'. Related to Lat 
jěriae, OLat fěsiae 'days of rest, holidays', 
jestus 'of the holidays, festive, solemn', 
Umbr fesnaf-e 'in fanum' < *dhes-. 
Walde-Hofmann I 481, 489; Pokorný I 
259; Vries ANEW 74 (to MLG dosen 'to 

*daubaz adj.: Goth daujs 'duli, numb, 
deaf, nEJitopcoiiévoc;', ON daujr 'deaf', OE 
deáf id., OFris dáj id., MLG doj 'id., OHG 
toub id. Probably related to Gk x\)<pA.ó? 
'blinď, TÍi(po<; 'smoke, conceiť (Persson 
UUÁ 1891 55). On the other hand, cf. 
Slav *duhb 'upright, straighť. Karsten 
MB I 62; Torp-Faek 209-210; Lewy KZ 
XL 420 (to Latv stubs 'stump'); Feist 
115-116; Holthausen AEEW 70; Wiss- 
mann MP 88; Jóhannesson IEW 503-506; 
Pokorný I 264; Vries AMEW 74; Frisk 
II 949-950; Chantraine 1147-1148; 
Onions 246; Seebold 155; Trubaohev 
ESSja V 145; Lehmann GED 88; Bam- 
mesberger Mom. 237; Heidermanns 148; 
Kluge-Seebold 817. 

*daubibó sb.f.: Goth daubipa 'dullness, 
numbness, stubborness', ON deyjb 'deaf- 
ness'. Derived from *iaubjanan I. Feist 
115; Vries AMEW 76; Heidermanns 148. 

*daubjanan I wk.vb.: Goth ga-daubjan 'to 
make insensitive, to be numb, to harden', 
ON deyja 'to make blunť, OHG gi-touben 
'to weaken'. Derived from *daubaz. 
Feist 115; Vries AMEW 76; Lehmann 
GED 88; Heidermanns 148. 

*daubjanan II wk.vb.: ON deyja 'to dive', 
OE á-dujan id., OS bi-dobian id. Derived 
from *dubanan. Holthausen AEE]V 73; 
Vries ANEW 76. 

*daudaz adj.: Goth daups 'deaď (-/>- 
under the influence of *daupaz ~ *dau- 
puz), ON dauSr id., OE deíd id., OFris dďd 
id., OS dod id., OHG tot id. Derived from 
*iewanan. Feist 1 1 8; Torp-Falk 1 99; 
Holthausen AEEW 70; Fvarsten MB II 

333-334; Host MTS XV 410-411; 
Pokorný I 260; Vries AME1V 74; Onions 
246; Seebold 148; Lehmann GED 89-90; 
Bammesberger Mom. 251; Heidermanns 
149; Fíluge-Seebold 829; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*ttaudjanan wk.vb.: Goth daupjan 'to kilT, 
ON deySa id., OS bi-dodian id., OHG 
pret. gi-dotía id. Derived from *daudaz. 
Feist 118; Vries AMEU' 76; Lehmann 
GED 90; Heidermanns 149. 

*dau3a str.vb.: Goth daug 'to be good, to 
be suitable', OE deáh 'to be of use, to be 
gooď, OFris dach, daech 'to be suitable 
for, OS dog id., OHG toug id. Related to 
Gk teÍix™ 'to produce, to make, to builď, 
Tt>Y2(ávcfl 'to meet, to attain a goal', Lith 
daug 'much, many', Slav *dugb 'strength, 
power', *dužb 'strong, large' (Wood MP 
XI 333). Zupitza Gutt. 178; Grtenber- 
ger Got. 54-55; Torp-Falk 207; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 79; Feist 127-128; 
Johansson K^ XXX 422 50; Jóhannes- 
son IEW 508; Pokorný I 271; Fraen- 
kel 84, IF LLX 161; Vries AMEW 86; 
Frisk II 888; Onions 286; Trubaohev 
ESSja V 150, 167-168; Seebold 149- 
151; Lehmann GED 96-97; Fvluge- 
Seebold 818. 

*dauniz sb.f./m.: Goth dauns 'odor, smelT, 
ON daunn id. Related to IE *dheu- 'to fly 
about, to whirl': Skt dhíinóti 'to shake, to 
agitate', Gk Gúto 'to sacrifice'. Schwei- 
zer R'Z I 159; Torp-Falk 206-207 
Feist 116-117; Mayrhofer II 107-108 
Pokorný 259-260; Vries AME]V 74: 
Frisk I 698-699; Lehmann GED 88-89. 

*daupjanan wk.vb.: Goth daupjan 'to im- 
merse, to baptize', ON deypa 'to dip', OFris 
depa 'to immerse, to baptize', OS dópian 
id., OHG toujen id. Derived from *ieu- 
paz. Kluge Btrg. Gesch. XXXV 131-132 
(Gothic influence on WGmc meanings); 
Torp-Falk 209; Feist 117; Vries AMEW 
76; Lehmann GED 89, 92; Heidermanns 
154; Kluge-Seebold 817-818. 

*<tauba-bandan sb.n.: ON pl. dauba-bond 
'death bonď, MHG tot-bant id. (hap. leg.). 
Compound of *iaupaz ~ *daupuz and 




*bandan. Carr jVotn. comp. 83 (OHG is a 
calque of Lat uincula mortis). 

*čtaupa-čla3az sb.m.: ON 
'deaťh day', OE deád-dtej id. Compound 
of *daupaz ~ *daupuz and *da^az. Carr 
Mom. comp. 80 (parallel formations). 

*daupaz ~ *čtaupuz sb.m.: Goth daupus 
'deadr', ON daudr id., daudi id. (n-stem), 
OE déad id., OFris dath id., OS doth id., 
OHG tod id. Substantivized *daudaz. 
Torp-Falk 199; Holthausen AEE]V 7 1 ; 
Feist 118; Pokorný I 260; Vries AMEW 
74; Zalizniak II 199; Lehmann GED 
90; Bammesberger Mom. 159; Kluge- 
Seebold 826; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*ctawjanan str./wk.vb.: ON deyja 'to 
die', OS doian id., OHG douwen 'to set, 
to go down'. Derived from *dewanan. 
Torp-Falk 198-199; Jóhannesson IEW 
502-503; Pokorný I 260-261; Vries 
AMEW 76; Onions 266; Seebold 147; 
Kluge-Seebold 826. 

*tiawwěnan wk.vb.: ON dqggva 'to 
bedew', OFris dawa 'to melt', MHG tou- 
wen id. Derived from *dawwo ~ *dawwan. 
Torp-Falk 204; Vries AMEW 92-93. 

*dawwo ~ *dawwan sb.f./n.: ON dqgg 
'dew', OE mase. deáw id., OFris dáw id., 
OS mase. mili-dou 'mildew', OHG tou 
'dew'. Connected with Toch A twe, B 
tweye 'dusť, Lat suf-Jio 'to fumigate, to 
perfume, to scenť < *-dhuiio. Torp- 
Falk 204; Holthausen AEEW 71; 
Walde-Hofmann II 625; Pokorný I 
260-261; Vries AMEW 92; Zalizniak II 
173; Onions 263; Lehmann GED 89; 
Kluge-Seebold 817; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*delaz ~ *ďeló sb.m./f: Sw dial. del 
'teať, OE dělu id., OHG tila. Identical 
with Alb djale 'boy, youth', cf. also Latv 
dels 'son', Lat Jilius id. with a long vowel. 
Derivative of IE *dhei- 'to suck', see 
*dajjanan. Torp-Falk 205; Holthausen 
AEEW 71; Walde-Hofmann I 496-497; 
Pokorný I 242; Dybo VSJa 25 (pretonic 
shortening of *ě in Gmc); Lehmann GED 
85; Schrijver LL 352 (follows Dybo); 
Orel AED 67. 

*delbanan str.vb.: OE delfan 'to dig', 

OFris delva id., OS bi-deltan id., OHG bi- 
telpan id. Related to Slav *dblbti 'to gouge, 
to thump', rare *delbti id. Torp-Falk 
204; Holthausen AEE1\' 71; Pokorný I 
246; Chemodanov SGGJa I 82; Onions 
254; Stang LS 17; Seebold 153; Truba- 
chev ESSJa IV 205, V 206. 

*delbaz ~ *delban sb.m./n.: ON stein- 
deljř 'wagtail, Motacilla', MLG ř/c/fditch'. 
Derived from *delbanan. Gf. a structurally 
close Slav *dblb'b 'chisel, pit'. Vries 
AMEW 75; Trubaohev ESSJa V 206- 

*deljaz sb.m.: Swed dill 'dill', OE dik id., 
OS dilli id., OHG tilli id. Related to Olr 
deil 'roď < *dheli-. Torp-Falk 203; 
Trter Holz 56; Fvluge-Seebold 181 (to 
OHG toldo 'foliage'). 

*demmaz adj.: ON dimmr 'dark, dim', OE 
dim id., OFris comp. dimme id. Related to 
Olr dem 'black, dark'. Torp-Falk 201; 
Holthausen AEEW 73; Sghwentner 
PBB XLV 454-455; Karsten NB II 
220-221; Pokorný I 247-248; Vries 
AMEW 77; Onions 268; Heidermanns 

*demmojanan wk.vb.: ON dimma 'to 
become dim', OE part. á-dimmad 'to dim, 
to darken, to obscure'. Derived from 
*demmaz. Vrtes AMEW 77; Heider- 
manns 151. 

*den3\vanan str.vb.: OSwed diunga 'to 
knock, to rap', ME din^en, den^en 'to beať. 
See *dan3ivjanan. Torp-Falk 200; Vrtes 
AMEW 75; Trubaohev ESSJa V 100; 
Kluge-Seebold 170. 

*denraz sb.m.: OHG tenar 'fiat hand, 
palm'. Related to Hitt dannar-eššar 
'armpiť, Gk 9évap 'palm, footsole'. 
Thematization of the originál *dhenr 
(Lůhr Wortschatz 68). No connection with 
WGmc *denjan > OE dam 'den', MLG 
fem. denně 'low ground', OHG tenni 
'drreshing-floor' (despite Fvluge-Seebold 
821) which is to be compared witír Skt 
dhánus- 'dry land', dhánu- 'sandbank, 
shore'. Wood AÍLMXXl 41-42 {*tenjan 
to Skt pl. dhana 'grain'); Torp-Falk 199; 
Holthausen AEEW 72; Pokorný I 




249; Frisk I 661-662; Onions 255-256; 
Bammesberger Mom. 74; Lůhr Wortschatz 
67-70; Kluge-Seebold 821. 

*dentanan str.vb.: ON detta 'to fall, to 
drop'. Related to Alb gdhend 'to plane' < 
PAlb *ka-denta (Joke Studien 21-22). 
Fick I 463 (to Lat de-fendo 'to fend, to 
repel, to averť); Torp-Falk 199-200; 
Jóhannesson IEW 512-514; Pokorný I 
250; Vries AMEW 76; Seebold 154; 
Bammesberger Mom. 131; Orel AED 

*derbanan str.vb.: OE deorjan 'to labor', 
OFris far-derva id., MLG vor-dewen 'to step 
down', MHG ver-derben 'to die, to pass 
away'. Related to Lith dirbu, dirbti 'to 
work', dárbas 'work'. Torp-Falk 567; 
Holthausen AEEW 72; Pokorný I 257; 
Chemodanov SGGJa 171; Vries ANEW 
77-78; Fraenkel 82; Seebold 154-155. 

*derbaz adj.: ON djarfi 'bold, daring', OE 
deorf 'valianť, OFris déme 'daring, auda- 
cious', OS derbi 'hostile, evil'. Derived 
from *derbanan. Torp Festschr. Unger 
176-179 (to Gk xpéipco 'to feeď); Torp- 
Falk 202; Holthausen AEEW 70; 
Karsten MB I 32; Walde-Pokorny I 863 
(to Lith dárbas 'work'); Pokorný I 
257-258; Vries AME]V 77-78; Seebold 
154; Heidermanns 152-153. 

*derkaz adj.: OE deorc 'dark, obscure'. 
Identical with Olr derg 'reď < *dhergo- 
and further connected wiuh Litíi dérgiu, 
dérgti 'to become dirty'. Cf. also Toch 
A tdrkár, B tarkár 'clouď < *dhrg-ru-. 
Zupitza Gutt. 160; Pedersen BB XLX 
299—300 (to Lat furuus 'ark, dusky, 
gloomy' < *dhorg"o-); Reichelt K£ XLVI 
323 (samé as Pedersen); Torp-Falk 202; 
Sohwentner PBB XLV 457-458; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 72; Pokorný I 251-252; 
Fraenkel 103; Heidermanns 153; Adams 
75 21. 

*deupa-líkaz adj.: ON djúp-ligr 'deep', 
OE deóp-líc id. Derived from *deupaz. 
Heidermanns 154. 

*deupaz adj.: Goth dhips 'deep', ON djipr 
id., OE deóp id., OFris comp. diape id., 
OS diop id., OHG tiof, tiufi id. Related to 

Olr domain id., Lith dubiis id., Latv duSbs 
id. Zupitza Gutt. 37; Torp-Falk 209 
Feist 121; Holthausen AEEW 72 
Karsten MB I 29; Pokorný I 267 
Fraenkel 108-109; Vries AMEW 78 
Onions 250; Lehmann GED 92; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 240; Heidermanns 153— 
154; Kluge-Seebold 824; Adams TB 280 
(to Toch A tpar, B tapre 'high'). 

*deupibó sb.f.: Goth diupipa 'depuY, ON 
dýpt id., ME depthe id., OLG diopitha id., 
MLG děpede id., MHG tufede id. Derived 
from *deupaz. Identical with Alb det 'sea' 
< PAlb *dtubeta (Jokl Studien 14-15). 
Torp-Falk 209; Feist 121; Vries AMEW 
90; Onions 258; Bammesberger Mom. 
117; Heidermanns 154; Orel AED 

*deupín sb.f: Goth diupei 'depth', OS diupi 
id., OHG tiufi id. Derived from *deupaz. 
Torp-Falk 209; Feist 121; Onions 258; 
Lehmann GED 92; Heidermanns 153. 

*deurja-líkaz adj.: ON dýr-ligr 'glorious', 
OS diur-lik 'valuable, excellenť, OHG 
tiur-lih id. Derived from *deurjaz. Hei- 
dermanns 154. 

*deurip5 sb.f: ON dýro 'glory, fame', OS 
diuritha id., OHG tiurida id. Derived from 
*deurjaz. Torp-Falk 199; Vries AMEh r 
90; Onions 247; Heidermanns 154. 

*deurjaz adj.: ON dýrr 'dear, precious', 
OE deóre 'dear, expensive', OFris diure id., 
OS diuri 'valuable, expensive', OHG tiuri 
id. Related to Skt adv. dhurd 'violently', 
Gk á-B-upco 'to play'. Torp-Falk 199; 
Holthausen ^££[1' 73; Kluge 129, 727; 
Karsten MB II 384-385; Pokorný I 
266-267; Vries AMEW 91 (to *dheu- 'to 
weave'); Onions 247; Heidermanns 154— 
155 (to Slav *dum 'stupidity, madness'); 
Kluge-Seebold 822-823 (from *dheg>h- 
ro- to *dheg"h- 'to burn'). 

*deuzan sb.n.: Goth dius 'beast, animal', 
ON dýr id., OE deór id., OFris diar 
id., OS meri-dior 'sea animal', OHG tior 
'animal'. Continues IE *dheuso- closely 
related to *dhouso- > Alb dash 'ram', Lith 
pl. daúsos 'paradise', Slav *duxb 'breath, 
spirit' (Burda KZ II 190-191; Saussure 




Mánoire 81). Persson UUA 1891 81-83; 
Grienberger Got. 58 (to Gk 9éco 'to run'); 
Torp-Faek 217; Wood AJPhil XLI 345- 
346 (to Gk Gúco 'to rage'); Feist 121-122; 
Holthausen AEE]V 72; Pokorný I 
244-245; Chemodanov SGGJa I 83; 
Fraenkel 115; Vries ANE1V 90; Zaliz- 
niak I 139; Onions 250; Trubachev 
ESSJa V 153-154; Lehmann GED 92-93; 
Bammesberger Nom. 96; Heidermanns 
155-156; Keuge-Seebold 825; Orel 
AED 57. 

*<tewanan str.vb.: Goth diwan 'to die'. 
Connected with Av 1 duál. pres. med. 
dvaidl 'to press', Phryg Saóc;' [. . .] i)7tó 
Opityčov X\>Koq, Hes., Slav *daviá 'to press, 
to squeeze'. Grienberger Got. 58 (to 
Gk Géto 'to run'); Torp-Falk 198-199; 
Feist 122; Lidén Arm. St. 40-41 (to Arm 
di 'corpse'); Wood MLN XXI 226-227 
(to Lat fatigo 'to grow weary'); Pokorný 
I 235; Seebold 147-149; Llmdeman Ver- 
schárfung 16.5; Lehmann GED 3, 93. 

*dědiz sb.f.: Goth ga-deps 'act, deeď, ON 
dád id., OE déd id., OFris děde id., OS dad 
id., OHG tat id. Formally identical with 
Av ni-8aiti- 'laying down', Lith detis 'loaď 
derived from IE *dhě- 'to put, to seť, see 
*Íonan. Bartholomae 1082; Torp- 
Faek 198; Holthausen AEE]V 68; Feist 
178; Trier Lshm 104-109; Pokorný I 
237; Fraenkel 91-92; Vries AMW 71; 
Zalizniak I 150; Onions 250; Seebold 
157; Lehmann GED 136; Bammesberger 
JVom. 146; Kluge-Seebold 816; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*čtěxón sb.f.: OHG tahá 'jackdaw'. 
Probably telated to OPrus doacke 'starling' 
< *ddk- (Pott BVS VI 113). Nessel- 
mann Thesaurus 31; Toporov PJa I 354; 
Fvluge-Seebold 187. 

*dějanan vvk.vb.: OHG taen 'to suckle'. 
Related to Skt dháyati 'to suck, to drink', 
Gk aor. 0r|aaxo id., Arm diem id., Olr 
dírám id., Latv dějů id., Slav *dojiti 'to 
milk'. Cf. zero grade in OSw dla 'to 
suckle', MLG tlen id. See *dajjanan. 
Torp-Falk 205; Mayrhofer II 93; 
Pokorný I 241-242; Frisk I 673-674; 

Lindeman .ATS XXII 72-73; Lehmann 
GED 85. 

*dÍ3raz adj.: ON digr 'stout, big', OFris 
adv. diger 'careful', MDu deger 'complete', 
MHG adv. tiger, tigere 'complete, tutal'. 
Derived from *di^anan. Karsten MB II 
254; Torp-Falk 205; Feist 119; Van 
Windekens I 533 (to Toch A tsiňk 
'hardly, strongly'); Pokorný I 244-245; 
Vries AME\V 76; Seebold 151; Lehmann 
GED 90 (on Goth digrei 'abundance'); 
Hetdermanns 156—157. 

*ďÍ3anan str.vb.: Goth irreg. d(e)igan 'to 
kneaď, Norw digen 'to milk'. Related to 
Toch A tsek-, B tsaik- 'to shape, to form', 
Skt degdhi 'to smear, to anoinť, Av caus. 
daězqyeiti 'to wall abouť, Gk Giyyávto 'to 
touch, to také hold of, Lat fingo 'to form', 
Lith díežti 'to skin, to flay'. Bartho- 
lomae 673-674; Torp-Falk 205-206; 
Holthausen AEE1V 69-70; Walde- 
Hofmann I 501-502; Feist 118-119; 
Jóhannesson IE\V 501-502; Mayrhofer 
II 62; Pokorný I 244-245; Fraenkel 98; 
Vries ANEW 76; Frisk I 674-675; 
Onions 242; Seebold 151-152; Lehmann 
GED 90; Burlak IFTJa 263. 

*díkón ~ *dikaz sb.m.: ON díti 'ditch, 
dike', OE díc id. (fem.), OFris dik id., OS 
dik id., OHG tíh id. Of unknown origin. 
Fick KZ XXII 103-104 (to Lat figó 'to 
fix, to fasten, to thrust in, to attach', Lith 
dýgti 'to grow, to crop'); Torp-Falk 205 
(follow Fick); Holthausen AEE]V 72; 
Pokorný I 244; Vries AMEW 76; 
Zalizniak II 182; Onions 278; Lehmann 
GED 90; Kluge-Seebold 167. 

*díojanan wk.vb.: OSwed dia 'to suck', 
MHG dlen 'to suck, to suckle'. Related to 
*dějanan. Torp-Falk 205; Pokorný I 
241-242; Frisk I 673-674. 

*dísó sb.f.: ON dis 'goddess, sister'. 
Unclear prefixal formations in WGmc: 
OE ides 'woman', OS idis 'woman, wife', 
OHG itis 'woman'. Unclear. Related to 
*dajjanan? Or to Arm pl. di-k' 'gods' if 
the latter is to be separated from Gk 
6eó<; 'goď? Torp-Falk 206; Frisk I 




*dóbiz adj.: Goth ga-dofs 'appropriate, 
suitable', OE y-dífe 'becoming, fit, 
proper'. Derived from *iaianan. Torp- 
Falk 200; Feist 179; Seebold 146. 

*ŮÓ3az sb.n.: Goth fidur-dogs 'four days 
long', ON dogr 'day or nighť. Derived 
from *ia3az. Torp-Falk 199; Schulze 
Kl. Schr. 844-845; Holthausen AEEW 
74; Feist 149; Pokorný I 7, 241-242; 
Vries AMEW 92; Lehmann GED 86. 

*d51jo sb.f.: ON dal 'little dále', LG dole 
'hole', OHG tuola 'hole, pit' (o- and on- 
stem). Related to *dalaz ~ *dalan. 
Torp-Falk 204; Vries ANEW 92; 
Lehmann GED 87. 

*doma-xúsan sb.n.: ON dóm-hús 'court- 
house', OE dóm-hús id. Gompound of 
*domaz and *xusan. Carr Mom. comp. 80 
(parallel formations). 

*dóma-st51az sb.m.: ON dóm-stóll 'judg- 
ment seať, OHG tuom-stuol 'tribunál'. 
Compound of *dó?naz and *stolaz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 85 (parallel formations). 

*áómaz sb.m.: Goth doms 'discernment, 
distinction', ON dómr 'court of judgment, 
judgmenť, OE dóm 'judgment, ruling', 
OFris dóm id., OS dóm id., OHG tuom id. 
(also neut.). Close to Gk 9co|ió<; 'heap', 
Phryg duma, dumos 'religious assembly', 
further derived from *dhe- 'to put, to seť. 
See *ió~nan. Torp-Falk 198; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 74; Feist 122-123; Pokorný 
I 238; Dybo VSJa 27; Fraenkel 92 (Lith 
dome 'attention' is secondarily derived 
from dometis 'to watch'); Frisk I 700; 
Vries ANEW 79; Zalizniak II 167; 
Onions 24; Seebold 158; Lehmann GED 
93; Bammesberger Mom. 72; Orel Phry- 
gian 425. 

*áómjanan wk.vb.: Goth domjan 'to deem, 
to judge', ON dcema 'to judge, to talk', 
OE démon 'to diink, to judge', OFris dona 
id., OS a-domian 'to judge', OHG tuomen 
id. Derived from *Íomaz. Torp-Falk 
198; Holthausen AEEW 74; Feist 122; 
Vries AMEW 92; Onions 250; Lehmann 
GED 93. 

*dónan str.vb.: OE dán 'to do, to make', 
OFris dma id., OS doan id., OHG tuon id. 

Related to IE *dhe- 'to puť: Hitt dai- 
'to puť, Toch AB ta- id., Skt dádháti id., 
Av daSaiti 'to bring', Gk xíGr|ui 'to puť, 
Lat facio 'to do, to make', Lith děti 'to 
puť, Slav *děti 'to puť. Bartholomae 
678; Torp-Falk 197-198; Holthausen 
AEEW 75; Walde-Hofmann I 440-442; 
Mayrhofer II 14-15; Pokorný I 
235-239; Fraenkel 91-92; Frisk II 
897-898; Onions 279-280; Seebold 
157-160; Kluge-Seebold 841; Burlak 
IFTJa 245. 

*<tówjanan wk.vb.: Goth part. af-dauips 
'troubled, annoyeď. Similar to Slav 
*daviti 'to strangle, to press, to squeeze'. 
Cf. also ON dá 'catalepsy' < *dawan 
close to Phryg Sáoi;' . . . bnb Opuyróv 
AÚkoc; (Hes.). Causative of *dewanan. 
Fvretschmer Einleitung 211; Wood MLM 
XXI 226-227 (to ON dasask 'to become 
weary'); Fiok BB XXLX 236; Torp-Falk 
198; Feist 4; Detschew Thr. 117; 
Pokorný I 235; Fraenkel 100 (Lith dovyti 
'to tormenť < Slav); Vries AMEW 71; 
Stang LS 18; Trubachev ESSJa IV 198 
199; Lehmann GED 3; Orel Phtygian 

*draban sb.n.: ON draf 'draff, husks', ME 
mase. drafjeasť, MLG draf 'draff, husks, 
dregs', OHG pl. trebir 'husks'. See 
*ÍroÍ(j)az. Further to be compared with 
Olr drab 'dregs, yeasť, Slav *drob~b 'bit, 
intestine' (Fraenkel 102-103). Torp- 
Falk 202-203; Feist 126-127, 179; 
Pokorný I 204, 252; Vries ^AEIT 79-80 
(to Gk xpécpto 'to fatten, to nourish'); 
Chantraine 1135 (follows Vries); 
Onions 287; Trubachev ESSJa V 119- 
120; Lehmann GED 96, 136; Kluge- 
Seebold 834. 

*drablón sb.m.: ON drafli 'curdled milk'. 
Cf. also neut. draf 'tatde' < *drablan. 
Structurally close to Gk tpoipaXíg 'fresh 
cheese, sour milk', further to Gk Tpéepto 
'to feeď (Petersson SVSL I 125). Vries 
AMEW 80; Frisk II 925-927. 

*dra3an sb.n.: ON drag 'rim, lining', OE 
je-ř/ívej 'dragging, band, multitude', MLG 
ge-drach 'yielď. Derived from *dra^anan. 




Holthausen AEEJ V 75; Vries ANE] V 80. 

*dra3anan str.vb.: Goth dragan 'to draw, 
to accumulate, to také on', ON draga 'to 
draw', OE dragan 'to draw, to drag', 
OFris draga, drega 'to carry', OS dragan id., 
OHG tragan id. Identical with Alb dredh 
'to turn, to rotate' < PAlb *dradza, cf. also 
Arm darnam 'to turn' (Lidén Arm. St. 
101-102). Walde IF XLX 106 (to Lat 
traho 'to pull' if from *dhragho); Zupitza 
Gutt. 177; Berneker 212-213 (to Slav 
*dorga 'roaď); Trautmann BB XX 330 
(to Gk Tpéxto); Torp-Falk 211; Feist 123; 
Holthausen AEE] V 76; Walde-Pokorny 
I 859 (to Skt dfhyati 'to be strong'); 
Jóhannesson IEW 519-521; Pokorný I 
257; Vries ANEW 80; Onions 288; 
Seebold 160-162; Lehmann GED 93-94 
(to IE *dher- 'to hold'); Mottausch KZ 
CVI 160-172; Kluge- Seebold 830-831; 
Orel AED 73. 

*dra3Ílaz sb.m.: Burg *dragik 'carrier', 
ON dregill 'ribbon', OHG tregil 'bearer'. 
Derived from *dra3an, *dra^anan. See- 
bold 161; Kobler 709. 

*ďra3Jo sb.f.: ON dregg 'dregs, lees'. 
Related to OPrus dragios 'yeasť (if not 
from Germanic), Lith pl. drages id. (if not 
from Old Prussian), Lett dial. dradzi 'sed- 
iment in melted butter', Slav *droždía 
'yeasť < *dhroghió, Alb dra ~ dra 'oil-cake, 
melted butter' < PAlb *draga (Forste- 
mann KZ XLX (1870) 355). Fick KZ 
XXI 4; Froehde BB XIII 455 (adds Lat 
fracěs 'grounds, dregs of oil'); Persson 
Beitrdge 929 (follows Froehde); Torp 
Festschr. Unger 178; Zupitza Gutt. 31, 178; 
Torp-Falk 211; Reichelt KZ XLVI 
322; Pokorný I 251; Fraenkel 100; 
Vries ANEW 82; Onions 289; Truba- 
ohev ESSJa V 128-129; Fsluge- Seebold 
835; Orel AED 71; Dybo BSA 13. 

*dra3Ón sb.f: ON pl. drqgur 'timber car- 
ried on horseback', OE dm^e 'dragneť 
(neut.?), OHG traga 'barrow, nurse, 
nanny'. Derived from *dra^anan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 75; Vries ANEW 80; 
Seebold 161. 

*draxtuz ~ *čtraxtó sb.m./f: ON dráttr 

'draught, pulling', MLG dracht id. 
Structurally close to Lat part. tractus, of 
traho 'to drag'. Further related to *dra^a- 
nan. Torp-Falk 211; Walde-Hofmann 
II 698-699; Vries ANEW 81; Kluge- 
Seebold 830. 

*draibjanan wk.vb.: Godi draibjan 'to 
drive, to propel', ON dreifa 'to scatter, to 
disperse', OE dréjan 'to drive', MHG 
durch-treiben id. Derived from *drííanan. 
Holthausen AEElť 75; Feist 123; Vrles 
ANEW 82; Seebold 163. 

*dramban sb.n.: ON dramb 'roli of fat on 
the neck'. Glose to Gk GpónPoq 'coagu- 
lated mass'. Pokorný I 257—258; Frisk 
I 685-686 (further to xpéipto 'to thicken, 
to curdle'); Chantraine 442; Lehmann 
GED 96. 

*dran3az sb.m.: ON drangr 'lonely up- 
standing rock'. Identical with Alb drang 
'barge-pole, punting-pole; young crea- 
ture, cub', Lidi draňgas 'thick pole', dránga 
'perch, pole', Slav *drqgl, 'club, stick' 
(Zupitza Gutt. 177). Johansson KZ 
XXXVI 374; Torp-Falk 211; Traut- 
mann BS] V 59; Stang LS 19; Pokorný I 
254; Fraenkel 101; Vries ANE]V 81; 
Mann Language XXVI 386; Trubachev 
ESSJa V 129-130; Orel Zf^alk XXIII/1 
73, AED 72. 

*drankan sb.n.: Goth dragk 'drink, potion', 
OHG tram id. (mase, neut.). Derived 
from *drenkanan. Feist 123; Onions 289; 
Seebold 165; Bammesberger Nom. 53; 
Kluge-Seebold 832. 

*drankjanan wk.vb.: Goth dragkjan 'to 
make drink', ON drekkja 'to drown, to 
swamp', OE drencan 'to give to drink', 
OFris drentza id., OS or-drenkian id., 
MHG trenken id. Causative of *irenkanan. 
Torp-Falk 211-212; Holthausen 
AEEW 76; Feist 123; Vries ANEW 82; 
Onions 289; Seebold 165; Kluge- 
Seebold 832. 

*Ůrau3az sb.m.: ON drangr 'ghost, spectre' 
(unless = draugr 'dry log'), OS gidrog 
'mirage', OHG gi-trog 'deception' (neut.). 
Identical with Av draoya- 'lie, deceiť. See 
*dreu3anan. Bartholomae 768; Torp- 




Falk 213; Pokorný I 276; Vries ANEW 
81; Lehmann GED 95; Crozier ANF Cil 
1—12 (on ON draugr 'companion'). 

*draumaz sb.m.: ON draumr 'dream', OE 
dreám 'joy, pleasure', OFris dram 'dream', 
OS dróm id., OHG troutn id. Derived from 
*ireusanan 'to fall', semantically similar to 
the development of IE *suep- 'to sleep' 
based on *suep- 'to fall', presumably, with 
an intermediate stage 'to become weak, to 
drowse' (cf. E drowse also connected with 
*ireusanan). Notě that *draumaz is formally 
close to Gk 9paí>na, 6paí>o|ia 'debris, 
wounď based on Gpaúto 'to break' < IE 
*dhreus-. Schroder GRM XVI 164 
(from *drau3maz, to *drau3az)\ Schulze 
Kl. Schr. 862; Torp-Falk 213 (separate 
OS and OE); Holthausen AEEW 76; 
Porzig Gliederung 180; Pokorný I 275; 
Vries AJ\E1\ t 82; Zalizniak I 130; Frisk 
I 680-681; Onions 289; Ghantraine I 
439; Bammesberger Mom. 70; Kluge- 
Seebold 833-834. 

*ďraumjanan wk.vb.: ON dreyma 'to 
dream', Du dromen id., OHG troumen id. 
Derived from *draumaz. Vries AjYE1\' 

*draupjanan wk.vb.: ON dreypa 'to drop, 
to dip', OE dreópan id., MLG dropen id., 
OHG troufen id. Causative of *dreupanan. 
Torp-Falk 214; Holthausen AEE]V 77; 
Vries ANEW 83; Seebold 169. 

*drausjanan ~ *drauzjanan wk.vb.: 
Goťh ga-drausjan 'to cast down, to over- 
throw', ON dreyra 'to bleed, to ooze', 
OHG troren 'to rain'. Causative of *dreu- 
sanan. Torp-Falk 214; Feist 5; Vries 
ANEW 83; Seebold 171; Lehmann GED 

*drauzaz ~ *drauzjón sb.m.: ON dreyri 
'gore, blooď, OE dreór 'blooď, OS drór 
id., OHG trar id. Derived from *dreu- 
sanan. Torp-Falk 215; Holthausen 
AEEW 77; Vries ANEW 83; Onions 289; 
Seebold 171; Lehmann GED 95. 

*drenkanan str.vb.: Goth drigkan 'to 
drink', ON drekka id., OE drincan id., 
OFris drinka id., OS drinkan id., OHG trin- 
can id. Of unknown origin. It is plausible 

that *drenkanan is a back formation based 
on *drankjanan, the latter originally mean- 
ing 'to milk' and related to Slav *dregati 
'to pull'. Wood M/JV XVIII 15-16 (to 
*dra3Jo); Zupitza Gutt. 161 (to Skt dhrájati 
'to glide, to move'); Torp-Falk 211-212 
(to Lith nérti 'to dive'); Cahen Etudes 23— 
25 (from pre-Gmc); Zupitza Gutt. 161 (to 
Skt dhrájati 'to glide, to move'); Schulze 
K~ XXVII 606 (to Skt adv. hap. leg. 
drahyát- 'firmly'); Feist 125; Holthausen 
AEEJV 77; Keuge 791-792; Jóhannesson 
IEW 529-530; Pokorný I 273 (to *dhreg- 
'to pull'); Vries ANEW 82; Onions 290; 
Seebold 165—166; Lehmann GED 94-95 
(to Lith dregti 'to become damp'); Kluge- 
Seebold 836. 

*drenkón sb.f: ON drekka 'drink, bever- 
age', OE drince id. Derived from *dren- 
kanan. Holthausen AEEJi' 77; Vries 
AA r £n / 82; Seebold 164. 

*drepan sb.n.: ON dřep 'blow', OE se-drep 
'stroke'. Derived from *irepanan. Torp- 
Falk 212; Holthausen AEEW 77; 
Seebold 166; Bammesberger Nom. 59. 

*drepanan str.vb.: ON drepa 'to strike', 
OE part. drepen id., OS ofar-drepan 
'to outdo, to surpass', OHG treffan 'to 
strike'. Related to Slav *drebiti 'to crush'. 
Torp-Falk 212; Holthausen AEE]V 77; 
Jóhannesson IEW 530; Pokorný I 272- 
273; Vries ANEW 83 (to Godr ga-draban 
'to chip, to hew ouť); Seebold 166-167; 
Trubachev ESSJa V 106; Bammesberger 
Nom. 59, 62; Rluge-Seebold 834. 

*dreu3anan str.vb.: Goth driugan 'to wage 
war, to lead a military life', OE dreópan 
'to do, to work, to perform, to bear'. Cf. 
also ON drýgja 'to commiť < *ireu$janan. 
Historically identical with WGmc *dreu- 
3anan > OE be-dró^ 'seduceď, OFris bi- 
driaga 'to seduce', OS bi-driogan id., OHG 
triogan 'to deceive' (Ambrosini ASNSP 
XXVII 229). Probably related to Lith 
draúgas 'fellow traveller', OPr drúktai 
'harď, Slav *drugb 'friend, other, seconď 
(Lané Language LX 247; Stang LS 19-20). 
KuhnáT^I 181 (connected with *drausaz)\ 
Persson I Vurzelerw. 25, 60 [*ireu3anan 'to 




seduce' to Latfraus 'deceit, frauď); Torp- 
Falk 213-214; Zupitza Gutt. 102, 177; 
Feist 125-126; Holthausen AEE]V 77; 
Porzig Gliederung 1 96; Jóhannesson IE]\ t 
516-517; Pokorný I 255; Fraenkel 102; 
Zalizniak I 150; Onions 289; Benve- 
niste IEL 89; Seebold 167-168; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa V 131-132; Lehmann 
GED 95 (to IE *dher- 'to hold'); Kluge- 
Seebold 839. 

*dreu3az adj.: ON drjúgr 'rich, solid, sub- 
stantial', OE dréoj 'studious, earnesť, 
NFris driech 'extensive'. See *dreu^anan. 
Torp-Falk 213-214; Zupitza Gutt. 129; 
Holthausen AEEW 1&-11; Karsten NB 
I 40; Pokorný I 254-255; Vries ANEW 
84; Heidermanns 159-160. 

*dreupanan str.vb.: ON drjúpa 'to drip', 
OE dreópan id., OFris driapa 'to drip, to 
trickle', OS driopan id., OHG triofan 'to 
drip'. A secondary formation parallel to 
*ireusanan. Torp-Falk 214; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 77; Jóhannesson IEW 527- 
529; Pokorný I 274-275; Vries ANEW 
84 (to Olr drucht 'dew'); Seebold 169 
170; Kluge-Seebold 836. 

*dreusanan str.vb.: Goth driusan 'to fall', 
OE dreósan 'to rush, to fall, to perish', OS 
driosan 'to fall'. Etymologically identical 
with Gk Oporům 'to break, to grinď 
(Johansson KZ XXX 422), cf. also Slav 
*drusati 'to shake, to throw up, to swing' 
with *-s- < *-k-. Torp-Falk 214-215; 
Feist 126; Holthausen AEEW 77; van 
Wtndekens KZ LXXIII 26-27 (to Gk 
8póaoi; 'dew'); Jóhannesson IE]V 527— 
529; Pokorný I 274; Frisk I 680-681; 
Onions 289-290; Seebold 170-171; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa V 133; Lehmann GED 95. 

*drěko sb.f: ON drak 'streak'. Related to 
Skt dhrájati 'to glide, to move, to fly', 
dhraj- 'tractive force'. Zupitza Gutt. 161; 
Mayrhofer II 115; Pokorný I 273; 
Vries ANEW 80; Dybo BSA 128 (with a 
lengui of an originál root noun). 

*drěnó ~ *čtrěnaz sb.f./m.: OE drán 
'drone', OS drán id. Cf. also OHG třen id. 
with short vocalism. Identical with Gk 
áv-6pr|vr| 'wild bee', Gpfjvo^ 'dirge'. 

Torp-Falk 211; Holthausen AEE]V 76; 
Pokorný I 255; Dybo VSJa 25-26 (pre- 
tonic shortening in OHG); Frisk I 681— 
682; Onions 290; Kluge-Seebold 195. 

*driban sb.n.: ON drif 'driven snow', OE 
je-dríf 'driving, movemenť, OHG 
trib 'divorce'. Derived from *dňianan. 
Torp-Falk 212; Holthausen AEE]V 77; 
Vries ANEW 83; Seebold 163; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 56. 

*drib5n sb.m.: ON hring-drifi 'prince', 
OHG uz-tribo 'exorcisť. Derived from 
*dňbanan. Seebold 163. 

*driftiz sb.f: ON drift, dript 'snow-drifť, 
ME drift 'current, flow', OFris ur-drift 
'driving ouť, MLG drift id., OHG ana- 
trift 'influence'. Derived from *dňbanan. 
Vries ANE]V 83; Seebold 163; Lehmann 
GED 94; Kluge-Seebold 836. 

*dribanan str.vb.: Goth dreiban 'to drive', 
ON drífa id., OE drifan id., OFris driva id., 
OS dňban id., OHG trlban id. Related to 
Lith drimbu, dribh 'to fall down in flakes', 
cf. ON drífr směr 'snow drifts' ~ Lith 
sniegas drimba 'the snow is falling thickly' 
(Grienberger Got. 59-60). Merlnger 
IF XVIII 235-236 (folio ws Grienber- 
ger); Persson Beitrdge 75, 309; Uhlen- 
beck FBB XXVII 117-118; Torp-Falk 
212; Feist 124-125; Holthausen AEE1 V 
77; Jóhannesson IEW 526-527; Pokorný 
I 274; Fraenkel 104; Vries ANEW 83; 
Onions 290-291; Seebold 162-163; 
Lehmann GED 94; Levickij IF GIII 
224 (to *drobjanan); Kluge-Seebold 834. 

*drífon sb.f: ON drífa 'fall of snow, sleeť, 
MLG drive 'gutter', MHG tribe 'diarrhea'. 
Cf. also OE drif 'fever'. Derived from 
*dňbanan. Holthausen AEE1 V 1 7 . 

*drítanan str.vb.: ON dríta 'cacare', ME 
dňten id., OFris part. be-drit id., MDu 
dňten id., OHG gloss drizo 'megio'. Sim- 
ilar to but phonetically not agreeing with 
Lith tríedžiu, tríesti 'to háve diarrhea' < 
*treidh-. Torp-Falk 212; Holthausen 
AEEW 78; Jóhannesson IEW 518-519; 
Pokorný I 256; Fraenkel 1122; Vries 
ANEW 84; Onions 271; Stang LS 20 (to 
Slav *dristati 'cacare'); Seebold 164-165. 




*drob(j)az adj.: OE dróf 'draffy, draggy, 
dirty', OS drobí 'můrky, cloudy', OHG 
truobi id. Related to *iraian and eventu- 
ally to Gk xpétpto 'to become fať (Kluge 
742). Torp-Falk 203; Feist 126-127 
Holthausen AEEW 78; Pokorný I 252 
Frisk II 925-927; Lehmann GED 96 
Matzel KZCV 121; Heidermanns 160- 
161; Fvluge-Seebold 839. 

*drobjanan wk.vb.: Goth drobjan 'to stir 
up, to excite', OE dréfan 'to disturb, to 
agitate', OS drobian 'to become saď, 
OHG truoben 'to entangle'. Derived from 
*drdb(j)az. Zupitza Gutt. 31; Torp-Falk 
203; Holthausen AEEW 78; Feist 
126-127; Lehmann GED 96; Heider- 
manns 160. 

*druxtiz sb.f.: Goth drauhti-witop 'cam- 
paign', ON drótt 'people, bodyguarď, OE 
dryht 'people, multitude, army', OFris 
dracht, drecht 'people', OS druht-folk 'suitě', 
OHG truht 'crowď. Derived from *dreu- 
Sanan. Kuhn K£ I 181; Grienberger 
Got. 80; Zupitza Gutt. 1 78; Torp-Falk 
214; Lané Language LX 247; Holthausen 
AEE]V 79; Feist 124; Porzig Gliederung 
196; Pokorný I 255; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 66; Vries ANEW 84-85; Zaliz- 
niak I 150; Seebold 167; Benveniste IEL 
89, 93; Lehmann GED 94; Bammesberger 
Nom. 140; Kluge-Seebold 839. 

*druxtinaz sb.m.: ON dróttinn 'lord, mas- 
ter', OE dryhten 'ruler, lord, prince', 
OFris drohten id., OS drohtin id., OHG 
truhtin id. Cf. Goth drauhtinon 'to cam- 
paign, to serve in the army' < *Íruxtlno- 
janan. Derived from *druxtiz. Kuhn KJ? 
I 181; Torp-Falk 214; Holthausen 
AEE]V 79; Feist 124; Porzig Gliederung 
196; Vries ANEW 85; Seebold 167; 
Benveniste IEL 89; Lehmann GED 94; 
Bammesberger Nom. 83. 

*drunjanan wk.vb.: Norw drynja 'to rum- 
ble', LG dronen id. Derived from *drunjuz. 
Torp-Falk 211; Onions 290 (to *dreno ~ 
*irenaz); Lehmann GED 96. 

*drunjuz sb.m.: Goth drunjus 'sound, call', 
Norw dryn id. A verbal abstract 
(Brugmann Grundúfi 11/ 1 224-225) based 

on an unattested verb, cf. Skt dhránati 
'to sound'. Torp-Falk 211; Feist 127; 
Mayrhofer II 115-116 (onomatopoeia 
in Skt); Mayrhofer II 115-116; 
Pokorný I 255-256 (to Tokh A tráňk-, B 
treňk- 'to speak'); Vries AMEW 85-86; 
Lehmann GED 96. 

*drunkanaz ~ *drunkenaz adj.: ON 
drukkinn 'drunken', OE druncen id., MLG 
drunken id., OHG win-truncan id. Derived 
from *drenkanan. Torp-Falk 212; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 78; Vries ANEW 85; 
Lehmann GED 95; Fvluge-Seebold 839. 

*drunkanín sb.f: Goth drugkanei 'drunk- 
enness', OHG truncaní id. Derived from 
*trunkanaz ~ *drunkenaz. Feist 127; 
Lehmann GED 94-95. 

*drunkanójanan wk.vb.: ON drukna 'to 
be drowneď, OE druncnian 'to sink, to 
drown, to be drunk', OHG trunkanen, 
trunkanon 'to sink, to drown'. Derived 
from *irunkanaz ~ *irunkenaz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 78; Vries ANEW 85; 
Onions 291. 

*drunkiz sb.m.: ON drykkr 'drink, bever- 
age', OE drync id., MLG drunk id., OHG 
trunc id. Derived from *drenkanan. Torp- 
Falk 212; Holthausen AEE]V 79; Vrles 
ANEW 85; Bahder Verbalabstr. 15-17; 
Seebold 1 65; Lehmann GED 4, 95; Lůhr 
Expr. 243, 255; Bammesberger Nom. 53, 

*drupón sb.m.: ON dropi 'drop', OE dropa 
id., ME droppe id., OS dropo id., OHG 
tropfo id. Derived from *dreupanan. 
Torp-Falk 214; Holthausen AEE]V 78; 
Pokorný I 275; Vries ANEW 84; Zaliz- 
niak I 153; Onions 291; Seebold 169; 
Ktuge-Seebold 838. 

*drusojanan wk.vb.: Swed dial. drusa 'to 
fall down hard', MLG drusen 'to fall wiťh 
noise'. Derived from *dreusanan. Vries 
ANEW 85. 

*druzan ~ *ďruziz sb.n./m.: Goth drus 
'fall', ON dror 'phlegm, rheum', OE dryre 
'fall, dechne'. Derived from *ireusanan 
(Lidén MASO I 109). Holthausen 
AEEW 79; Feist 127; Vries ANEW 86; 
Seebold 171. 




*čtrúčtaz sb.m.: OHG trut 'friend, 
beloveď. A substantivized adjective iden- 
tical widi Olr drúth 'salacious, lecherous' 
< *dhru-to-. Marstrander MTS I 245 
(to Lat Frutis, epithet of Venus); Torp- 
Falk 214 (to Skt dhruvá- 'firm, fixeď); 
Pokorný 1215; Meid KZ LXXLX 291; 
Heidermanns 161-162. 

*čtrúpójanan wk.vb.: ON drúpa 'to 
droop', OE drupian 'to drop'. Derived 
from *dreupanan. Holthausen AEE]\ 7 
78; Vries ANEW 85; Seebold 170. 

*Ůuďr5n sb.m.: Swed dodra 'marsh 
marigolď, ME doder 'dodder, devil's guts, 
Caltha palustris', Du dodder id., OHG 
totoro 'cuscuta, epithymus'. Identical with 
Skt dudhra- 'violenť further related to Skt 
dódhat- 'violent, shocking', Gk Hom 
Qvaaavóeic, 'tasseled, fringeď (based on 
*9u8ia). Torp-Falk 208; Pokorný I 
264-265; Frisk I 697. 

*duftaz sb.m.: ON dupt, duji 'powder', 
MHG tuft 'fog, dew'. Related to *dauiaz. 
Torp-Falk 209; Pokorný I 264; Vries 
ANE] V 87 (to *steuíanan ~ stiitanan); Leh- 
mann GED 328. 

*du3unbiz sb.f.: ON dygd 'virtue', OE 
duguú 'manhood, multitude, majesty, 
glory', OFris dugethe 'virtue', MLG doget, 
dogent id., OHG tugund id. Derived from 
*dau3a. Holthausen AEEH' 79; Vries 
ANEW 89; Kluge-Seebold 840 (to ON 
dyggr 'faithful'). 

*duxtěr sb.f.: Goth dauhtar 'daughter', ON 
dóttir id., OE doktor id., OFris dochter id., 
OS dohtar id., OHG tohter id. Related to 
Toch A ckacar, B tkácer id., Skt duhitár- id., 
Av dugsdar- id., Gk Guyáxrip id., Arm dustr 
id., Ose futír id., Lidi dukte id., Slav *dbkti 
id. Delbrůck KZ XLX (1870) 240-247; 
Bartholomae 748; Torp-Falk 207; 
Holthausen AEE1 V 74; Feist 116; Mayr- 
hofer II 56; Pokorný I 277; Deroy II 
Facht. IGAS 160-162 (to *dau 3 a); Vries 
ANEW 79; Zalizniak I 157; Fraenkel 
110; Frisk I 690; Szemerényi Kinship 
22 (to *duxtiz ~ *duxto), Hermes CV 
387; Onions 245; Trubachev ESSJa V 
178-179; Peeters IF1XXXW 206-207; 

Hamp IF LXXXVIII 94-95; Lehmann 
GED 88; Keuge-Seebold 826; Adams TB 

*duxtiz ~ *čtuxtó sb.f: Goth dauhts 
'feasť, MHG duht 'doughtiness'. Derived 
from *dau3a (Diefenbach V\V II 616). 
Grimm DG II 208; Grienberger Got, 79; 
Holthausen AnZDA XXIV 33 (to Gk 
TEt>xo) 'to make, to builď); Feist 116; 
Lehmann GED 88. 

*dukkón sb.f: ODan -dokke 'dock, coarse 
weedy herb' (in compounds), OE docce 
id., OS dokka 'doll', OHG tocka id. 
Probably connected with Latv duga 'shrne 
on the surface of water'. Holthausen 
AEEW 74; Onions 280; Lůhr Expr. 
226-227; Kluge-Seebold 187. 

*dul3an sb.n.: ON dolg 'enmity', OE í/o/j 
'wound, scar', OFris dolg id., MLG dolk 
id., OHG tolg id. Based on WGmc 
*Sel3amm > OFris delga 'to wounď, MHG 
telken 'to beať related to Gk 0é^.yto 'to 
enchant, to transform using a charm' 
(Ehrismann PBB XX 60; Havers KZ 
XLIII 231, IF XXVIII 190-192). The 
originál meaning of *iiílsan must háve 
been 'mark (of blood)' while the Greek 
verb denoted the act of making such 
a mark. For the semantic development 
cf. Fr blesser 'to wound' < WGmc 
*bl5dsjanan (OE blédsian 'to bless, to con- 
seerate') based on *tlodan. Saussure 
MSL VIII 443 (Gk 6é?iyto to Lidi ívelgiú 
'to look, to peer'); Torp-Falk 210; 
Holthausen AEE]\ t 74; Dauzat DELF 
93; Walde-Pokorny I 866 (to Lat 
falx 'siekle, reaping-hook, scythe') 
Pokorný I 247; Vries ANEW 78-79 
Zalizniak I 139; Frisk I 658-659 
Onions 100; Chantraine I 427; Seebold 

*dul3az sb.m.: Goth dulgs 'debť. Related 
to Olr diiged 'duty, law', dligim 'to earn', 
Slav *ďblgb (Kuhn KZ I 205; Berneker I 
244). Grimm R'Z I 82; Lottner KZ XI 
174 (Gmc < Slav); Zupitza Gutt. 178; 
Torp-Falk 210; Feist 128-129; Chemo- 
danov SGGJei I 96; Scardigli Goten 54 
(from Celtic); Lehmann GED 97. 




*dulbiz sb.f.: Goth dulps 'festival', OHG 
tuld id. Derivative in *-ti- related to OE 
deall 'proud, exulting, eminenť, MHG 
ge-telle beautiful, nice' and furťher to 
Mír dell-rad 'shine'. Dietrich ^J)ADL 
V 224-225 (to ON dvala 'to delay'); 
Delbrůck ^jdPh I 9 (to Skt dhfti- 'firm- 
ness, resolution'); Grienberger Got. 60 
(derived from *dwelanan); Torp-Falk 204; 
Senn JEGP XXXII 513, 528; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 70; Feist 129; Trier 
Holz 55 (follows Delbrůck'; Pokorný I 
246; Zalizniak I 150; Mayrhofer II 
111-112 (against Delbrůck); Lehmann 
GED 97; Kluge-Seebold 198 (from 

*dumbaz adj.: Goth dumbs 'dumb', ON 
dumbr id., OE dumb id., OFris dumb id., 
OS dumb 'stupid, simple', OHG tumb id. 
An expressive form related to *iaubaz 
(Holthausen CřE]V 24. Torp Festschr. 
Unger 179 (to ON dumba 'misť); Torp- 
Falk 201; Lewy KZ XL 420 (to Slav 
*dqb'b 'oak'); Feist 129; Holthausen 
AEEW 80; Karsten VB I 15; Pokorný I 
264; Vries AMEW 87; Onions 293; 
Lehmann GED 97-98 (to IE *dheubh- 
'darkened'); Lůhr Expr. 101-103; Hei- 
dermanns 166; Kluge-Seebold 199. 

*dun3az ~ *čtun3Ó sb.m./f: OE dun3 
'dung', OFris dung id., OS dung id., OHG 
tunga 'manuring, fertilizer'. Cf. also ON 
'heap' < *dun^jdn. Related to Lith 
deňgti 'to cover', Olr dinged 'to sup- 
press'. Zupitza Gutt. 99; Torp-Falk 
208; Holthausen AEE]V 80; Lendouist 
MB XV 97-132 (to *deti3wanan); Po- 
korný I 249; Fraenkel 88-89; Vries 
AMEW 90; Onions 294; Kluge-Seebold 

*dun3J6n sb.f: ON dyngja 'dungeon, lady's 
bower', OE dýmy 'plowed land, fallow 
lanď. Derived from *dim^az ~ *iun^d. 
Holthausen AEEW 82; Vries AMEW 

*duniz sb.m.: ON dynr 'din', OE dyne 'din, 
noise'. Related to Skt dhvánati 'to sounď, 
Gk 0ijvco 'to rush, to dart along'. Torp- 
Falk 208; Holthausen AEEW 81; Mayr- 

hofer II 118; Pokorný I 277; Vries 
AMEW9Q; Frisk I 697-698; Onions 269. 

*dunjanan wk.vb.: ON dynja 'to gush, to 
shower', OE dynian 'to make a noise, to 
resounď, OS dunian 'to roar, to rumble'. 
Connected with *duniz. Torp-Falk 208; 
Holthausen AEEW 82; Vries AMEW 90; 
Onions 269. 

*du(n)stan ~ *čtu(n)staz sb.n./m.: ON 
dusí 'dusť, OE dust id., OFris dust 'heap', 
MLG dust 'dusť, dunst 'smoke, haze', 
OHG dunst 'wind, storm'. Related to 
Latv dvans 'smoke, haze'. Any connection 
widr *duniz? Torp-Falk 216-217; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 80; Pokorný I 266; Vrles 
A/VEn r 88; Onions 295. 

*duntiz sb.m.: ON dyttr, dyntr 'dinť, OE 
dynt 'stroke, blow'. Derived from *denta- 
nan. Holthausen AEE]ť 82; Vries 
ANEW 90-91; Seebold 154; Bammes- 

BERGER Jíom. 131. 

*duran ~ *duró sb.n./f: Goth daur 
'dooř, gate', OE dór 'large dooř', důru 
'dooř', OFris duře id., OS dor 'gate', důru 
'dooř', OHG tor 'gate'. A morphological 
variant of *durz. Meringer IF XVI 1 25 
(on mase. *duron > Goth auga-dauro 'win- 
dow'); Torp-Falk 210; Holthausen 
AEEW 75. 80; Feist 117-118; Pokorný 
I 278-279; Zalizniak II 206; Onions 
284; Lehmann GED 89; Fvluge-Seebold 

*dura-stuďó sb.f: ON dura-stod 'door- 
posť, OE dúru-stod. Compound of *durz 
and * studii. Carr Mom. comp. 52. 

*dura-wardaz sb.m.: Goth daura-wards 
'door-keeper', OE dúru-weard id., OHG 
tor-warto id. (n-stem). Compound of *durz 
and *wardaz. Feist 117; Carr Mom. 
comp. 69 (parallel formations); Lehmann 
GED 89. 

*durstiz sb.f: OE dyrst 'tribulatíon', OHG 
ki-turst 'boldness'. Derived from *iarsa. 
Identical wiťh Skt dhrslí- id. derived from 
dhrsnóti 'to be audacious'. Torp-Falk 
203; Pokorný I 259. 

*durz sb.f: ON pl. dyn 'dooř', ODu dori 
id. (z-stem), OHG turi id. (í-stem with 
traces of a root stem). Related to Toch B 




twere id., Skt nom. pl. dvar- id., Av acc. sg. 
dvarstn id., Arm pl. dur-k' id., Gk Supa 
'dooř', Alb dere id., Lat Joris, Jbrěs id., W 
dor 'dooř', Lith diitys id., Slav *dvbm 
id. Brugmann Grundrift 11/ 1 133; Bar- 
tholomae 766; Torp-Falk 210; Walde- 
Hofmann I 529-530; Feist 117-118; 
Mayrhofer II 83-84; Pokorný I 
278-279; Fraenkel 112-113; Vries 
AM.W 91; Zalizniak II 206; Frisk 
I 695-696; Onions 284; Trubachev 
ESSJa V 171-172; Lehmann GED 89; 
Bammesberger Nom. 197; Griepentrog 
I Vurzelnomina 117-152; Fvluge-Seebold 
841; Orel AED 60; Adams TB 323- 

*durzuz adj.: MHG ttirre, dúrre 'valianť. 
Derived from *darsa. Structurally identi- 
cal with Skt dhrsú- 'bold, courageous', Gk 
Opacrúc; 'brave, valianť and probably Slav 
*dbrz~b-kb 'daring' (with unclear *-£-). 
Mayrhofer II 112-113; Pokorný I 259; 
Frisk I 654-655; Seebold 147; Matzel 
Festschr. Schrockr 98, 109, 113, KZ CV 
104; Georgiev LuE 199 (on Slav *dbrz~b- 
ktí); Heidermanns 167—168. 

*duskaz adj.: OE dox, dosc 'dark, swarthy'. 
Identical with Yjnífuscus 'dark, blackish' < 
*dhusko- (ZuprrzA KZ XXXVII 388). Cf. 
*dusnaz. Torp-Falk 216; Schwentner 
PBB XLLX 428-429; Holthausen 
AEEW 75; Walde-Hofmann I 572-573; 
Pokorný I 270; Onions 295; Heider- 
manns 168. 

*dusnaz adj.: OE dosen 'chestnut brown', 
OS iosan 'maroon, ash-coloreď, OHG 
tusin 'ash-coloreď. Identical with Mír 
donn 'dark brown', MW dwnn 'dark red' 
< *dhusno — *dhuosno-. Cf. *duskaz. For- 
ster Festschr. Líebermann 137; Schwentner 
FB 61-62, PBB XLLX 423-427; Torp- 
Falk 216; Holthausen AEE]\ 7 80; 
Pokorný I 270-271; Vries ANEW 87; 
Lockwood K'Z LXXIX 294-300; 
Heidermanns 168-169. 

*dut(t)janan wk.vb.: ON dytta 'to med- 
dle', OE dyttan 'to close, to shut up'. 
Derived from *duttaz. Holthausen 
AEEW 82; Vries ANEW 91. 

*duttaz sb.m.: Norw dott 'tuft, wisp', OE 
dott 'dot, small spoť, LG dott 'tuft, bunch'. 
Derived from *dheu- 'to blow': Skt dhunoti 
'to shake, to move', Gk 8t)co 'to offer by 
burning', Lat suf-fio 'to fumigate, to per- 
fume, to scenť. Torp-Falk 208 (to Gk 
Oúaavoc; 'tassel, fringe'); Holthausen 
AEEW 75; Pokorný I 262-263; Vries 
ANEW 91; Onions 285. 

*dúbanan str.vb.: ON dúja 'to dive' (wk.), 
OE dúfan 'to sink', MLG be-duven 'to be 
covereď. Eventually related to *deupaz. 
ZuprrzA Gutt. 37; Torp-Falk 209; Holt- 
hausen AEEJ\ T 79; Jóhannesson IEW 
508-509; Pokorný I 267-268; Vries 
AME]V 86; Lerghner 61; Seebold 

*dúbjanan wk.vb.: ON dýfa 'to dip', OE 
dýfan id. Derived from *iuianan. Hol- 
thausen AE£7r 81; Vries ANE]V 89; 
Onions 278; Seebold 156; Lehmann 
GED 92. 

*dúbon sb.f: Goth hraiwa-dubo 'turde- 
dove', ON dúja 'dove', OE dúfe-doppa 'pel- 
ican', OFris dúve 'dove', OS duba id., 
OHG tuba id. Originally, a dark-colored 
bird (cf. Gk jtéA.Eia 'wild dove' ~ neXióq 
'dark, black and blue, livid')? If so, con- 
nected widi Olr dub 'black', OW dub id. 
and Gk TVfXóq 'dark, blind' (Petersson 
Aufs. 53—54), cf. for example Slav *golqbb 
'dove' ~ *golqb'b 'blue'. Suolahti DVN 
206-212; Torp-Falk 209; Holthausen 
AEEW 79; Feist 269-270; Pokorný I 
264; Vries AjYEU r 86; Zalizniak I 155; 
Frisk II 949-950; Ebbinghaus GL XVI 
9—13 (onomatopoeia); Lehmann GED 
190-191; Kxuge-Seebold 817. 

*dúnaz ~ *dúnó sb.m./f: OE dun 
'mountain, hill, down', OFris dúne 'hill, 
duně', MDu duun id., OHG duna 'cape, 
duně'. Borrowed from Gaul *dúnom, cf. 
Celtic pláce names in -dúnum. Torp- 
Falk 207 (from *dheu- 'to blow'); Holt- 
hausen ^££71' 80; Pokorný I 263; 
Onions 286; Kluge-Seebold 199 (to 
Gk 6l<; 'heap, shore, sand', Skt dhísniya- 

generous , 

*dúsaz adj.: ON sbst. dús 'lull, dead calm' 



(< *dúsan), OFris dus 'still'. Identical with 
Slav *dyxb 'breath', for further connec- 
tions see *deuzan. Jóhannesson IEW 508; 
Vries AMEW 88 (to Gk Gúco 'to offer, to 
sacrifice'); Trubachev ESSJa V 200. 

*dúsójanan wk.vb.: ON dúsa 'to doze', 
MLG dosen, dusen 'to slumber, to re- 
sounď. Derived from *dúsaz. Torp 
MMEO 79; Holthausen PBB XLI 476; 
Mohr ZDADL LXXVI 179 (adduces 
MLG dúschen 'to rush'); Vries AMEW 88. 

*ďwalaz adj.: Goth dwals 'foolish, stupiď, 
MLG dwal 'insane'. Compared with Gk 
Oo^óeo 'to make turbid, to confounď 
(Pott KZ XXVI 189), Olr dali 'blind, 
dark'. The connection with *dwelanan 
seems indispu table. Torp-Falk 215 
Karsten MB II 241, 297; Feist 130 
Pokorný I 265-266 (Olr dali < *dhulno-) 
Vries AMEW 88 (to Gk QÓXoq 'dirť) 
Seebold 172-173; Lehmann GED 98 
Bammesberger Mom. 238; Heidermanns 
169; Keuge-Seebold 827. 

*<twalib6 ~ *dwalij)an sb.f./n.: Goth 
dwalipa 'foliy, foolishness', OE dwild 
'error, heresy'. Derived from *dwalaz. 
Feist 130; Heidermanns 169. 

*ďwaljanan wk.vb.: ON dnelja 'to delay', 
OE dwellan 'to lead into error, to 
deceive', OFris dwelia 'to be mistaken', 
OS bi-dwellian 'to hinder', MDu dwellen 
'to stun, to perplex', OHG twellen 'to 
stop, to halť. Derived from *iwelanan. 
Torp-Falk 215; Holthausen AEEW 81; 
Vries AMEW 88-89 (to *iwalaz)\ Onions 
296; Seebold 172. 

*dwalmaz ~ *tlwalm5n sb.m.: OE 
dwolema 'darkness, chaos', NFris dwelm 
'stupidity', OS dwalm 'fascination', OHG 
twalm 'confusion'. Derived from *dwalaz. 
Torp-Falk 216; Holthausen AEEW 81; 
Lehmann GED 98. 

*tlwalmjanan ~ *čtulmjanan wk.vb.: 
ON dylma 'to be careless', OE for-dwilman 
'to confuse, to perplex'. Derived from 
*iwalmaz ~ *Íwalmon. Torp-Falk 216; 
Holthausen AEE1 V 8 1 ; Vries AME1 V 89. 

*ďwal5janan wk.vb.: ON dvala 'to delay', 
OE dwalian 'to err', OFris dwalia id., 

OHG ga-twalon 'to delay, to postpone'. 
Derived from *dwaló(n). Holthausen 
^££11^80; Seebold 172. 

*dwal5(n) sb.f./m.: ON dvql 'short stay, 
stop', dvala 'hesitation', OE dwala 'error, 
doubť, MDu dwale id., OHG twal 'pro- 
crastination', twála id. Derived from 
*dwalaz. Holthausen AEE]\ r 80; Vrtes 
AMEW 88-89; Lehmann GED 98. 

*ďwelanan str.vb.: Icel dulinn 'swell- 
headeď, OE part. se-dwolen 'erroneous, 
wrong, perverse', OS far-dwolon 'missed, 
losť, OHG twelan 'to remain, to be slow, 
to lag'. Probably related to Lat fallo 'to 
deceive', Lith dúlti 'to roť and deriva- 
tionally identical with Lith dvélti 'pedere'. 
Torp-Falk 2 1 5-2 1 6; Holthausen AEE] I ' 
80; Walde-Hofmann I 447-448 (Lat fallo 
< *ghu r lnb); Jóhannesson IEW 503-506; 
Pokorný I 261-267; Fraenkel 109; 
Seebold 172. 

*ďwer3az sb.m.: ON dvergr 'dwarf', OE 
dweoi'3 id., MLG dwerch id., OHG twerg id. 
(neut.). Of unknown etymology. Bar- 
tholomae IF XII 131 (to Av dwa- 
'dwarfish, benť); ZuprrzA Gutt. 99; Torp- 
Falk 215; Holthausen PBB XI 548, 
AEEW 81; Krogmann R'Z LXII 143 (to 
Latv drugt 'to subside, to fall'); Pokorný I 
278; Vries AMEW 89 (to *pweraz); 
Zalizniak I 130; Onions 296 (to Gk 
aépipoq 'midge'); Kluge-Seebold 919. 

*dwinanan str.vb.: ON dvína 'to dwindle' 
(wk.), OE dwínan 'to pine, to fade, to 
dwindle', MDu dwinen 'to fade'. Based on 
*dewanan. Persson SVSU X 744; Torp- 
Falk 217; Holthausen AEE]\ t 81; 
Jóhannesson IEW 502-503; Pokorný I 
260-261; Vries AME1\' 89 (to *iawjanan); 
Lerchner 70-71; Seebold 171 (to Olr 
díth 'loss'). 

*dwulaz adj.: ON sbst. dul 'self-conceit, 
pride' (< *dwulo), OE dol 'foolish, erring', 
OFris dol id., OS dol id., OHG tol id. 
Related to *dwalaz. Torp-Falk 215; 
Holthausen AEE1V 74; Wissmann MP 
104; Pokorný I 266; Vries AME]V 87; 
Onions 293; Heidermanns 170; Kluge- 
Seebold 827. 

*eb5(i) ptcl., conj.: Goth ibai, iba 'whether, 
possibly', ON e/W, OS efid., OHG ibu 
id. A sequence of two Indo-European 
particles *e (like in Gk e-kei 'beside') and 
*bhe ~ *bho: Av ba 'indeeď, Lidi ba id. 
(Brugmann Dem. 115-117, Grundrifi II/2 
323-324). See Ha. Grienberger Got. 
125 (from IE *epi 'after, upon'); Bartho- 
lomae 912; Uhlenbeck TNTL XXV 281 
(samé as Brugmann); Kluge Urgerm. (a 
čase form in *-bh-)\ Feist 286—287; 
Pokorný I 113, 280-281; Fraenkel 28- 
29; Vries ANEW 94; Frisk I 475-476; 
Lehmann GED 202; Keuge-Seebold 595. 

*ebna-líkaz adj.: Godi ibna-leiks 'of equal 
substance, of similar form', OSwed jďm- 
liker 'homogeneous', OE ejk-líc 'equal', 
OHG eban-llh id. Compound of *etnaz 
and *likaz. Feist 287; Lehmann GED 
142, 202; Heidermanns 171. 

*ebnaz adj.: Gouh ibns 'flat, even', ON 
jqfn, jamn 'even, equal, samé', OE efen 
'even, equal', OFrís adv. even 'samé', OS 
efni 'fiat, even', OHG eban, ebano 'equal, 
samé'. Identical with MBret effen 'like', W 
iawn 'jusť < *epno- (Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 
92). Johansson PBB XV 229-230 (to 
Lat aemulus 'imitating', imago 'image'); 
Sommer IF XXXI 361-362 (from *ep- 
nó-, to IE *epi); Brugmann IF XXXVII 
161 (samé as Johansson); Torp-Falk 28; 
Feist 287-288; Holthausen AEEW 88; 
Thurneysen apud Feist 287 (to Mír 
emain 'twins'); Karsten NB II 211; 
Pokorný I 505; Vries ANEW 289; 

Mezger KZ LXXLX 45 (from 


'here'); Onions 331; Lehmann GED 202; 
Bammesberger Nom. 246; Heidermanns 
171-172; Kluge-Seebold 203. 
*ebnojanan wk.vb.: ON jafna 'to make 
equal, to compare', OFris evenia 'to 
smooth (the ground)', OHG ebanon 'to 
make equal, to make the samé'. Derived 
from *ebnaz. Vries ANEW 289; Leh- 
mann GED 202; Heidermanns 171. 

*eburaz sb.m.: ON jqjurr 'wild boar, king, 
warrior', OE eqfor 'boar', MLG ever id., 
OHG ebur id. Close to Lat aper id., Umbr 
acc. sg. abrunu id. (with a secondary a- in 
Itálie), Thrac EfSpoq' xprayoi;, Páxt|i;- Kal 
itoxanóc; 0páKT|5, Hes. (Fórsterman KZ I 
497). Cf. also Slav *vepn>, Latv vepris 'cas- 
trated boar' with an unexpected initial 
*u- (Pedersen KZ XXXVIII 311). 
Torp-Falk 25; Holthausen AEEW 92; 
Walde-Hofmann I 56, II 754-755; 
Detschew Thr. 163; Pokorný I 323; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 57; Vries ANEW 
294; Zalizniak I 130; Vasmer- 
Trubachev I 292. 

*edaraz sb.m.: ONjadarr 'edge', OE eodor 
'hedge, fence', OS edor, eder 'woven 
fence', OHG etar 'fence'. Probably related 
to Slav *oďrb 'wooden platform, beď 
(Uhlenbeck PBB XXVI 295) or to Slav 
*ědro 'net, cloth' (Trubachev Etim. 31— 
32). Torp-Falk 24, 559 (to Arm ezer 
'border, edge'); Meringer IF XVIII 256- 
258; Holthausen AEEW 91; Pokorný I 
290; Chemodanov SGGJa I 81; Vries 
ANEW 289; Golab Origins 145; Kluge- 
Seebold 236. 

*edi ~ *e\>i adv.: Goth ip 'but, however, 
if, ON pl. id-gjqld 'recompense', OE ed- 
cerr 'return', OS ed- id., OHG it-lonon 'to 
remunerate'. Gontinues IE *etv. Skt áti 
'beyond, very', Av aiti id., Gk eti 'further- 
more, still', OPhiyg eti 'and, also', Lat et 
'and', Gaul eti 'also', OPrus et-, at- 
(Jacobsohn KZ XLLX 194). Bartho- 
lomae 54; Torp-Falk 24; Holthausen 
AEEW 88; Walde-Hofmann I 421-422; 
Feist 297; Mayrhofer I 27; Pokorný I 
344-345; Vries ANEW 283; Lehmann 
GED 208; Orel Pbygian 429. 

*e3alaz sb.m.: Dan igle 'kind of worm, 
leech', Norw igle id., MLG egel, ile 'leech' 
(fem.), OHG egala id. (fem.). Related to 
Gk e^ívoc; id., Gk í%\c, 'snake', Arm iž id., 
Lith ezys 'hedgehog', Slav *ežp id. Fick 




BB XXIX 237; Torp-Falk 23; Traut- 
mann BS1V 73; Pokorný I 44; Fraenkel 
330; Frisk I 602; Vasmer-Trubachev 
II 10. 

*exwa-raidó ~ *exwa-rai<lan sb.f./n.: 
ON jó-reid 'horsemen(?)', OE eó-red 'cav- 
alry, legion', OLG eo-rid id. Compound 
of *exwaz and *raido. Structurally close to 
Olr fem. coll. echrad 'horses'. Carr Nom. 
comp. 46—47. 

*exwaz sb.m.: Goth aitva-tundi 'thornbush, 
bramble', ONjór 'stallion', OE eoh 'war- 
horse', OS ehu-skalk 'groom, ostler'. From 
IE *ekuos 'horše': Toch A yuk, B yakwe, 
Skt áéva-, Gk íjtjtoq, Lat equus, Olr ech 
(Forsterman K% I 493). Kock ANF 
XXXII 189; Torp-Falk 23; Holthausen 
AEEW92; Walde-Hofmann I 412-413; 
Feist 21; Mayrhofer I 62; Pokorný I 
301; Vries ANEW 293; Zalizniak I 138; 
Frisk I 733-735; Lehmann GED 15; 
Bammesberger Nom. 69; Adams TB 482. 

*ejja str.vb.: Goth pret. iddja 'wenť, OE 
pret. eóde id. Suppletive preterite of 
*3an3tman identical with Skt áyat and fur- 
ther continuing IE *ei- 'to go': Hitt pa-izi, 
Toch ABj>-, Skt éti, Av aati, Gk ei|ii, Lat 
eo, Olr pass. pret. etha, Lith eimi, eíti, Slav 
*iti. Bartholomae 147-154; Torp- 
Faek 27; Kluge Beitráge 124-127 (from 
an augmented aorist); Holthausen IF 
XIV 342 (to Lat vadere 'to go'); Collitz 
Brát. 142-148 (from perfect middle); 
Meillet MSL XXIII 257 (from an 
unaugmented imperfecť); Feist 288-289; 
Holthausen AEE]V 91; Cowgill 
Language XXXVI 483-501; Walde- 
Hofmann I 406-409; Mayrhofer I 128; 
Pokorný I 293-297; Fraenkel 119; 
Frisk I 462-463; Trubaghev ESSJa VIII 
247-248; Seebold 174-176; Lindeman 
Verschárfung 17.2; Burlak IFTJa 252. 

*eka pron.: Godr ik 'I', ON ek id., OE ic 
id., OFris ik id., OS ic id., OHG ih id. 
Continues IE *ego id.: Gk éycó, Arm es, 
Lat ego, OLith eš. Other Indo-European 
forms differ from *ego in phonetic and 
derivational details (Skt ahím, Av azsm, 
Slav *azb). Cf. also emphatic OHG ihha. 

Acc. sg. *meke (Goth mik, ON mek, mik, 
OE mec, mic, OS mik, OHG mih) contin- 
ues IE *(e)me ge, cf. Gk £|jéye id. Dat. sg. 
*mez: Goth mis, ON mér, OE mé, OFris 
mi, OS mí, OHG mir. Gen. sg. *mlna: 
Goth meina, ON min, OE min, OFris min, 
OS min, OHG min. Bartholomae 225- 
227; Torp-Falk 23, 300; Holthausen 
AEEW 185; Walde-Hofmann I 395-396; 
Feist 291-292; Porzig Gliedrung 128; 
Mayrhofer I 68; Pokorný I 418, 702; 
Fraenkel 18; Vries ANEW 98-99, 384, 
386-387; Frisk I 441; Schmidt Fron. 
21-48, 54-55; Trubachev ESSJa I 
100-103; Lehmann GED 204-205, 254; 
Kluge-Seebold 392; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*eli(J)) ~ eljó sb.m./f: ON il 'footsole', 
OE ile 'footsole, hard skin', OFris ili 
id., MLG ele, elde, elt id. Derived from IE 
*el-: Gk (rare) éXáw 'to drive', é^.aúvco 
id. Torp-Falk 28 (to Lat pl. ilia 'flanks, 
entrails'); Persson UUÁ 1891 78 (to OHG 
lim 'to hurry'); Holthausen AEE]V 187; 
Pokorný I 306-307; Vries ANEW 284; 
Frisk I 482-483; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*elmaz ~ *almaz sb.m.: ON almr 'elm- 
tree', OE elm id., OHG elm id. ON 
reflects an old o-grade. Related to Lat 
ulmus id. (< *lmos), Mír lem id. (< Hemos) 
and Slav *jblbmb id. < *(u)lmos with some 
irregularities in vocalism (Pedersen K£ 
XXXVIII 313-314). Uhlenbegk AfslPh 
XV 487 (Slav < Gmc); Torp-Falk 26; 
Holthausen AEE]V 90; Walde- 
Hofmann II 811-812; Pokorný I 303; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 57; Vries ANEW 
7; Zalizniak I 129; Onions 307; Vasmer- 
Trubachev II 126-127; Trubachev 
ESSJa VIII 222-223. 

*enaz pron.: ON def. art. (h)inn, OHG ener 
id. Related to Lith anás 'that one', Slav 
*on~b < *ono-. Cf. also Skt instr. anéna 
'drrough dris', Gk Ěvt] 'third day' < 
*'yonder day'. Mayrhofer I 32; 
Pokorný I 320; Fraenkel 10; Vries 
ANEW 286; Frisk 1514; Lehmann GED 
210; Kluge-Seebold 410. 

*endai adv.: Goth inna 'within, inside', 
ON inni 'indoors', OE inne 'in, within, 




inside', OFris inna 'inside', OS inna id., 
OHG inna- id. Locative of *enie (Feist 
293). Brugmann IF XXXIII 304 (from 
*eni-no); Holthausen AEE]\ 7 188; Feist 
293; Vries ANEW 287; Lehmann GED 
206; Keuge-Seebold 401. 

*enáaně adv.: Gouh innana 'from wiuhin, 
widiin, inside', ON innan 'from within', 
OE innan id., OFris inna id., OS innan id., 
OHG innan, innana 'inside'. Derived from 
*en£t. Holthausen AEEW 188; Feist 
294; Vries ANEW 286; Kluge-Seebold 

*enda-wardaz adj., adv.: ON innan-verdr 
'inwarď, OE innan-weard, in-weard id., 
MDu inne-wert, in-wert id., OHG in-wart 
'inside'. Compound of *enie and *wardaz. 
Onions 484. 

*end(ě) adv.: Goth inn 'in', ON inn id., OE 
inn 'in, within', OFris in 'in', OS in id., 
OHG in id. (wiuh secondary lengthening). 
Derived from *eni. Close to Gk ev8ov 
'within' (Collitz MLN XXXVII 215 
218), Hitt anda(n) 'in', Alb nde. Cf. also 
comp. *endizon > ON innri, ibri 'inmosť, 
OE innera, innerra 'inner, inwarď, OFris 
inra, innere 'inside, interior', OHG innan, 
inner id. Torp-Falk 25 (extension of *eni 
by means of a particle *ni)\ Holthausen 
AEEW 188; Feist 293; Pokorný I 311— 
314, 774; Frisk 1511-512; Vries ANEW 
286-287; Onions 466, 476; Tischler 
HEG I 33-34; Lehmann GED 206; Orel 
AED 284. 

*eni prep.: Goth in 'in', ON i id., OE in 
'in, within', OFris in id., OS in id., OHG 
in id. Identical with Gk áv, éví id., Lat in 
id., Olr in- id., OPrus en id., Lith j id., 
Slav *ubn id. Torp-Falk 25; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 188; Walde-Hofmann I 
687-688; Feist 292; Pokorný I 31 1-312; 
Fraenkel 181; Vries ANEW2S2; Frisk I 
508-509; Onions 466; Lehmann GED 
205; Kluge-Seebold 397. 

*enk5n sb.m.: ON ekki 'convulsive sob- 
bing', OE inca 'doubt, question, cause of 
complainť. Related to Lith éngti 'to stran- 
gle, to squeeze, to tormenť, Slav *gga ~ 
\za 'witch, illness, wradi' (Pogodfn RFV 

XXXIII 328; Lidén Studím 70-71) 
Torp-Falk 28; Trautmann BSW 70 
Holthausen IF XVII 295, AEEW 188 
Pokorný I 13; Fraenkel 10, 1163-1164: 
Vries ANEW 99; Stang LS 25; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa VI 68-69; Dybo BSA 201. 

*enkwaraz pron.: Goth igqar 'your (duál)', 
ON ykkar id., OE incer id., OS inca id. 
Derived from *enkwara (see *jutwo ~ 
*jitwó). Holthausen AEE]V 188; Feist 
291; Lehmann GED 204. 

*enkwaz sb.m.: ON ekkr 'glans, glandula'. 
Related to Gk á8r|v 'gland' < *ng"ěn, Lat 
inguen 'groin, abdomen' (Bugge BB III 
115). Saussure MSL VI 53; Torp-Falk 
25; Walde-Hofmann I 701; Pokorný I 
319; Frisk I 20. 

*enstran sb.n.: ON ístr 'fat of the paunch', 
MLG inster, inser 'intestines of a slaugh- 
tered animal'. Close to Latv istri 'kidneys', 
OPrus instran 'fať < *nstro- (Forstemann 
KZ XLX 355). Further to Gk évtóq 
'within, inside', Lat intus id. < *entos. 
See *enpran. Torp-Falk 25; Endzelin 
KZ Lil 121; Walde-Hofmann I 713; 
Trautmann BSW 69-70; Pokorný I 182, 
314; Vries ANEW 287; Fraenkel 188; 
Frisk I 525; Stang LS 25; Toporov PJa 
III 54-55. 

*enbran sb.n.: ON pl. idr, innr 'bowels, 
entrails'. Identical with IE *entro- > Skt 
neut. antrá- 'intestine', Gk ěvTEpoc id., 
Arm pl. mder-K id., Slav *etro 'liver, intes- 
tines'. Torp-Falk 25; Pokorný I 313; 
Mayrhofer I 36; Vries ANEW 283; 
Frisk I 524-525; Trubachev ESSJa VI 

*erkna-stainaz sb.m.: ON jarkna-steinn 
'gem', OE eorcnan-stán 'precious stone, 
pearl'. Compound of *erknaz and *stainaz. 
Holthausen AEE]V 92; Pokorný I 65. 

*erknaz adj.: Gouh un-airkns 'impure', 
OHG ercan 'holý, sublime'. Related 
to Toch A ydrk, B yarke 'adoration, 
reverence' but to be separated from the 
family of Skt árcati 'to shine, to adore'. 
Osthoff Morph. Unt. VI 33 (to Gk ócpyóq 
'white, quick'); Torp-Falk 26; Feist 25; 
Holthausen AEEW 92; Pokorný I 65 




("Kreuzung" of *arg- 'white' und *erk"- 
'to light, to shine'); Meid IF LXLX 245; 
Lacy JIES VII 287-296 (from IE *er-gnos 
'having a good birth'); Lehmann GED 1 8; 
Lůhr Expr. 339; Bammesberger jYom. 
246; Heidermanns 174-175. 

*erlaz sb.m.: ON jarl 'earl, leader, noble- 
man', OE eorl 'nobleman of high rank', 
OS ni id., OHG erl- id. (in cmpn.). 
Related to *eron. Probably can be direcdy 
compared with Thrac prn. 'OtaSpoc;, 
Oroles (Tomaschek Thr. 11/ 2 29; Kret- 
schmer Einleitung 214, 221) unless the lat- 
ter is to Slav *orbtb 'eagle'. Torp-Falk 
25; Holthausen AEE1V 92; Detschew 
Thr. 341; Pokorný I 326 (to *arón), 328; 
Vries AMEW 290; Zalizniak I 130; 
Onions 297; Lehmann GED 40. 

*ermena-3rundiz ~ *ermuna-3run- 
dan sb.f./n.: ON jqrmun-grund 'Earth', 
OE eormen-grund id. Based on *ermenaz ~ 
*ermunaz and *yunduz ~ *^runpuz. 
Carr Nora. comp. 58. 

*ermenaz ~ *ermunaz adj.: Goth prop. 
Ermeni-ricus, ON jqrmun-gandr 'great mon- 
ster, Jqrmunr (name of Odin), OE eormen- 
cyn 'mankind, human race', OS irmin-man 
'man', OHG irmin-súl 'tall column'. Of 
uncertain origin. Probably related to Gk 
opirevoq 'high', Slav *orměrrt> 'strong, 
large'. Bruckner KZ XLV 107-108 (to 
Gk iipvuju 'to urge, to incite'); Torp- 
Falk 18; Feist 132; Holthausen AEEI I' 
92; Walde-Pokorny I 183-184 (to Lat 
armentum 'cattle for plowing, herd'); 
Pokorný I 58; Beeler Festschr. h'olff 
9-21 (to *eron); Vries AMEW 295 (to Skt 
aryaman- 'companion, host, god of hospi- 
tality'); Vasmer-Trubachev III 441; 
Hilmarsson TIES III 65-75 (to Toch A 
yárm, B yarm 'size, measure'); Lehmann 
GED 100; Heldermanns 175-175. 

*erón sb.f: ON jara 'fight, battle'. 
Connected with Skt máti 'to arise, to 
move, to reach, to attack', Av srmaoiti 'to 
move', Gk iípvuiii 'to urge, to incite', Lat 
orior 'to rise, to get up'. Cf especially Skt 
sam-ará- 'fight, battle'. Bartholomae 
183-184; Walde-Hofmann II 222-223; 

Mayrhofer I 122; Pokorný I 332; Frisk 
II 422-424. 

*erpaz adj.: Burg *erps 'brown', ON jctrpr 
id., OE eorp 'dark, dusky, brown', OS 
prop. Erp-hund, OHG erpf 'dark brown'. 
Unclear. Hardly to Gk ópepvó^ 'dark 
brown' (~ Arm arjn id. < *org"hen-). 
Osthoff Etym. I 78-79 (< *ereb(h)-, cf. 
lAŮijérbé 'hazel-grouse'); Torp-Falk 332; 
Holthausen AEE1V 93; Karsten MB 
II 220; Pokorný I 334; Vries ANEW 
291; Frisk II 431-432; Kobler 709; 
Hetdermanns 176-177. 

*er|5a-bazjan sb.n.: Swed jord-bter 'straw- 
berry', OE fem. eoro-beri^e id., MDu erd- 
bere id., OHG erd-beri id. Compound of 
*erpó~ and *bazjan. Froehde BB XVII 
310 (to Lat arbutus 'wild strawberry-tree'); 
Carr Mom. comp. 47. 

*erjía-bur3z sb.f: ON jarS-borg 'earth 
strongholď, OE eord-burh 'eardi mounď, 
OHG erd-burg 'eardi strongholď. Com- 
pound of *erp>o and *bur^z. Carr Mom. 
comp. 47. 

*erna-fallaz sb.m.: ON jari-jall 'earth- 
slip', OFris erth-fall 'fall to the ground', 
MLG erd-jal id., OHG erd-fal 'earth-slip'. 
Compound of *erp>o and *fallaz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 75 (parallel formations). 

*er|5a-fastaz adj.: ON jard-fastr 'fixed in 
the earth', OE eorS-frest id., OFris erth-fest 
id., MLG erd-fast id., early G erdfest id. 
Compound of *erpó and *fastaz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 60. 

*erpa-xnutz sb.f: Swed jord-not 'earth- 
nuť, OE eoró-hnutu id., MDu erd-note id., 
OHG erd-nuz id. Compound of *erpo and 
*xnutz. Carr Mom. comp. 47. 

*erpa-xúsan sb.n.: ON jard-hús 'cave, 
underground home', OE eord-hús 'earth- 
house, den', OS erth-hus 'cave, under- 
ground home', OHG erd-hús id. 
Compound of *erpo and *xusan. Carr 
Mom. comp. 47. 

*erna-kunďaz adj.: Goth airpa-kunds 'of 
earthly birth', OE eoro-cund 'earthly, ter- 
restrial'. Compound of *erpó and *kundaz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 88 (calque of Lat terri- 




*erba-we3az sb.m.: ON jard-vegr 'earth', 
OE eord-wej 'earth, earth-way'. Com- 
pound of *erpó and *we^az. Carr Nom. 
comp. 54. 

*erpó sb.f.: Goth airpa 'earth', ON jqrd id. 
(partly < *erpiz), OE eorSe id. (< *erpbnj, 
eord id., OFris erthe id., OS ertha id., 
OHG erda id. Related to or derived from 
*erwbn (Bremer ~DADL XXXI 205-206). 
Torp-Faek 26, 560; Holthausen AEE1\' 
93; Feist 25-26; Pokorný I 332; Vries 
ANEW 295; Zalizniak II 195; Onions 
298; Lehmann GED 18; Bammesberger 
Nom. 116; Kluge-Seebold 228-229. 

*erwón sb.m.: ON jqtfi 'graveF, OHG ero 
'earth'. Close to Toch B yare 'graveF, W 
erw 'fielď, Corn erw id., OBret eru 'fur- 
row', Gk epa id. and probably to Phryg 
dat. sg. eipoi 'earth, earthly (?)' (Orel 
Phrygian 71). Schwyzer I 424; Torp- 
Falk 26; Pokorný I 332; Vries ANEW 
295; Frisk I 546-547; Chantraine 363; 
Lehmann GED 18. 

*erzibó sb.f.: Goth airzipa 'deception, 
delusion', OHG irrida 'heresy'. Derived 
from *erzjaz. Feist 27; Heidermanns 

*erzjanan wk.vb.: Goth airzjan 'to mis- 
lead, to delude', OS irrian 'to dissolve', 
OHG irren 'to entangle'. Derived from 
*erzjaz. Feist 27; Lehmann GED 19; 
Heidermanns 177. 

*erzjaz adj.: Goth airzeis 'deluded, erring, 
misleď, OE eorre 'angry, enraged, fierce', 
OFris Ire 'furious', OS irri id., OHG irú 
'stray'. Related to Lat erro 'to go astray', 
Arm eřam 'to be restíess' < *ersáio (Kret- 
schmer KZ XXXI 1 84). Torp-Falk 26; 
Walde-Hofmann I 416-417; Feist 27; 
Holthausen AEE]V 186-187; Pokorný I 
336-337; Lehmann GED 19-20; Heider- 
manns 177-178; Kluge-Seebold 406. 

*esti athem.: Goth ist 'is', ON es id., OE is 
id., OFris is, ist id., OS is, ist id., OHG 
ist id. Continues IE *es-ti id.: Hitt ěšzi, Skt 
ásti, Av asti, Gk ácrtí, Lat est, Olr is, Liťh 
ěsti, Slav *estb, Alb eshte. See *wesanan I. 
Bartholomae 266—279; Torp-Falk 27; 
Feist 292; Holthausen AEEW 92; 

Walde-Hofmann II 628-629; Kluge 
700-701; Lané Language XXX 113; 
Jóhannesson IE]V 78-79; Mayrhofer I 
67; Pokorný I 340-342; Fraenkel 124; 
Vries ANEW 101, 105; Frisk I 463-464; 
Seebold 176-178; Trubachev ESSJa VI 
32; Lehmann GED 205; Puhvel II 
285-291; Orel AED 156. 

*etanan str.vb.: Goth itan 'to eať, ON eta 
id., OE etan id., OFris eta id., OS etan id., 
OHG ezzan id. Related to Hitt e-id-mi 
id., Skt átti id., Gk fe'8co id., Arm utem id., 
Lat edd id., Olr ith id., Liťh ani id., Slav 
*édmb id. (Balto-Slavic lengthening due 
to Winter's law) Torp-Falk 24, 232; 
Brugmann Grundrifi II/3 96; Trautmann 
BSW 66; Feist 163, 296-297; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 94, 1 1 6; Walde-Hofmann 
I 392-393; Jóhannesson IEW 53-54: 
Mayrhofer I 28; Pokorný I 287-289 
Fraenkel 124-125; Vries ANEW 106 
Frisk I 444-445; Onions 298, 376 
Chantraine 312-313; Seebold 179-180 
Trubachev ESSJa VI 53-54; Lehmann 
GED 208; Puhvel II 315-320; Kluge- 
Seebold 235, 285. 

*etulaz adj.: ON etall 'consuming', OE etol 
'voracious, gluttonous', OHG Jilu-ezzal 
'greedy'. Derived from *etanan. 
Holthausen AEE]V 94; Seebold 
179-180; Heidermanns 178-179. 

*etunaz sb.m.: ON jqtunn 'gianť, OE eóten 
id. The meanings of *etulaz make a ten- 
tative connection witír *etanan probable. 
Schůtte IF XV 266 (to the ethnonym 
Etiones); Torp-Falk 24; Holthausen 
AEEW 93; Vries ANEW 295-296; 
Bammesberger Nom. 82. 

*ebbau conj.: Goth aippau 'else, or', ON 
eda id., OE edda, oddá id., OS ettho id., 
OHG edo id. An unclear compound, pro- 
bably continuing *ef pau (Grlenberger 
Got. 1 7) or *ex pau (Cercignani JIES XII 
315-344). Sghmidt Studím 85-95 (re- 
constructs *eft-pau)\ Johansson BB XIII 
120-122; Holthausen AEEW 94; Feist 
29; Pokorný I 344; Vries ANEW 93 
{*ep- to Lat et); Lehmann GED 21; 
Kluge-Seebold 597. 




*eudaran sb.n.: ON júgr 'udder', OFris 
jader id., OS geder id. A secondary ablaut 
variant of *údaran. Torp-Falk 29; 

Noreen SVSU V/3 39-43; Pokorný I 
347; Vries ^VETT 294; Zalizniak II 184; 
Onions 954; Kluge-Seebold 237-238. 

*ědmaz ~ *ěbmaz sb.m.: OE éím 
'vapor, breath, smell', OFris ethma 
'breath' (n-stem), OS ádum id., OHG dtum 
'spirit, life breath'. Continues IE 
*ět-mo- close to *ět-men- reflected in Skt 
dtmán- 'breath, soul, šelf. Torp-Falk 
24; Holthausen AEEW 13; Mayrhofer 
I 73; Pokorný I 39, 345; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 106; Zalizniak I 130; Schtn- 
dler Sprache XIII 202; Lloyd-Springer I 
391-393; Bammesberger Nom. 71-72; 
Kluge-Seebold 59; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*ěáraz adj.: ON adv. ádr 'ere, already, 
soon', OE adv. ďdre 'quickly, prompdy, at 
once', OS adv. adro 'early', OHG atar 
'swift, eager'. Related to Lith otrus 'lively', 
Latv dtrs 'swifť. Torp-Falk 559-560; 
Holthausen AEEW 9; Schneider K£ 
LXVI 249-251 (to Toch A atar 'hero'); 
Pokorný I 345; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
77; Fraenkel 518-519; Vries ANEW 
2; Lloyd-Springer I 379-381; Heider- 

MANNS 173. 

*ědró ~ *ěbr5 sb.f.: OE édre, ádr 'artery, 
vein, sinew', MLG ddere, áder 'sinew', 
OHG adra 'blood vessel, sinew'. Related 
to Gk Hom f|TOp 'hearť, Olr inathar 
'intestines' < *en-dtro- (Fick I 366). 
Cf. also ON fem. téír 'vein' < *ědiz. 
Schmidt Plur. 198; Torp-Falk 24-25, 
560; Holthausen AEE]V 9; Pokorný I 
344; Vries ANEW 680; Zalizniak I 221; 
Frisk I 645; Lloyd-Springer I 54-57; 
Kluge-Seebold 15. 

*Č3wjaz ~ *ě3wjó sb.m./f.: ON égir 
'sea, oceán', OE «5 'water, island', «je 
'island'. Long grade derivative of *axwo. 
Pokorný I 23; Vries ANEW 681; 
Szemerényi VJa 1967/4 19 (to Slav 

*ezero 'lake', OPrus assaran id. < *eghero-) . 

*ělaz I sb.m.: ON áll 'colored stripe along 
the horse's back'. Identical with Arm il 
'spindle' < *ělo-. Ltdén SHVS Uppsala 
VI 82 (to Skt dra- 'cavity'); Pokorný I 
308-310 (to Skt ali- 'row, line' but the 
latter is from *adi-)\ Vries ANEW 6; 
Zalizniak I 130. 

*ělaz II sb.m.: ON áll 'eel', OE él id., 
OFris ěl id., OS Si id., OHG al id. Histo- 
rically identical with *ělaz I (Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXXV 162). Schroder %DADL 
XLII 63 (from *edlo- 'eater'); Loewen- 
thal II 'uS X 144 (to Skt Slam 'discharge 
from a venomous animal'); Torp-Falk 
26; Holthausen AEE]V 10; Pokorný 
I 309-310; Vries ANEW 6; Zalizniak I 
130; Onions 302; Lloyd-Springer I 
133-135; Kluge-Seebold 1 (to *alino). 

*ělaz III sb.m.: ON alf 'awl' (< *alaz), OE 
d id., OS al id., OHG ala id. (< *elo). 
Identical with Skt ara id. Torp-Falk 
26; Holthausen AEEW 10; Mayrhofer 
I 78; Pokorný I 16; Vries ANEW 7; 
Dybo VSJa 26; Onions 66; Zalizniak II 
191; Lloyd-Springer I 135-136; Kluge- 
Seebold 20. 

*ěmaz ~ *5maz adj.: ON ámr 'black, 
loathsome (?)', OE sbst. óm 'rusť, G dial. 
sbst. ahm, ohm 'blast (in corn), erysipelas'. 
Of unknown origin. Wood Language 
VIII 213 (to Lat areo 'to be dry'); Holt- 
hausen AEKÍI" 241; Vries ANEW 8. 

*ěn(e)u prep.: Goťh inu 'widrouť, ON án 
id., OFris dne id., OS ano id., OHG dnu 
id. Related to Skt ánu- 'after, along', Av 
anu 'along', Gk avet) 'without, away from'. 
Brugmann Grundrijj II/2 837 (to Osset 
dna 'without'); Bartholomae 127; Torp- 



Falk 25; Wackernagel Festschr. Daniels- 
son 383—384 (to Skt dnu 'after, along'); 
Feist 295; Mayrhofer I 34; Pokorný I 
318; Vries ANEW 9; Mayrhofer I 34; 
Frisk I 106; Lehmann GED 207; Hamp 
JIES X 189-190; Lloyd-Springer I 
289-290; Kluge-Seebold 599; Adams 
TB 40 (adds Toch AB aňu 'rest, peace'). 
*ětan sb.n.: ON át 'act of eating', OE 
ét 'fooď (mase, fem.), OFris ět id., OS at 
id., OHG az 'carrion'. Together with 
Lith eda id., Latv pl. edas id., Slav *ěda id. 
continues IE *ědom ~ *ědá. For further 
connections see *etanan. Torp-Falk 24; 
Trautmann BS1 V 66; Holthausen AEE] I " 
13; Pokorný I 288; Fraenkel 125; Vries 
ANEW 17; Zalizniak I 139; Seebold 
180; Lehmann GED 4, 208, 385; Truba- 

chev ESSJa VI 38; Bammesberger Nom. 

*ětiz ~ *ětjaz adj.: ON atr 'edible', OE 
ofer-éte 'gluttonous'. Derived from *etanan. 
Holthausen ^££11" 13; Matzel Festschr. 
Schroder 103, 117, K? CV 112; Hetder- 
manns 178. 

*ětjón sb.m.: Goth af-etja 'glutton', OE self- 
éta 'cannibal'. Structurally similar to Skt 
ddyá- 'edible', Lith edžia 'fodder, glutton', 
Slav *ědja 'fooď. Derived from *etanan or 
directly from *etan. Holthausen AEE] V 
13; Feist 5; Mayrhofer I 74; Fraenkel 
125; Seebold 180; Lehmann GED 4. 

*ětón sb.m.: Goth uz-eta 'manger, erib', 
MLG or-ete, or-áte 'remainder of animal 
feed, straw'. Derived from *etan. Feist 
538; Lehmann GED 385. 

*faděr sb.m.: Goth voc.fadar 'father' (hap. 
leg.), ON fadir id., OE Jader id., OFris 
feder,fader id., OS fadar id., OHO^afer id. 
Identical with Toch A pacar, B pacer 
id., Skt pitar- id., Gk naxr|p id., Lat pater 
id., Arm hayr id., Olr athir id. Torp-Falk 
227; Holthausen ^££71' 95; Walde- 
Hofmann II 262-264; Feist 1 33; Mayrho- 
fer II 277-278; Pokorný I 829; Vries 
ANEW 109; Frisk II 481-482; Onions 
347; Benveniste IEL 1 69—1 70; Lehmann 
GED 101; Bammesberger jYom. 207-208; 
Kluge-Seebold 853; Adams TB 365. 

*fadiz sb.m.: Goth brup-faps 'bridegroom'. 
Identical widr Toch A pats, B pets 'hus- 
band', Skt páti- 'master, owner, husband', 
Av paiti- 'master, spouse', Gk jtogic; 'hus- 
band', Lat potis 'capable', Lith pats 'mar- 
ried man' (Meillet WuS XII 17-20). 
Bartholomae 821; Schrader II 337- 
340; Torp-Falk 227; Feist 109-110; 
Mayrhofer II 200-201; Pokorný I 
842; Fraenkel 551-552; Frisk II 584; 
Lehmann GED 82-83. 

*faďrÍ3az adj.: ON pl. feíigar 'father and 
son'. Identical with Gk jiatpiKÓc; 'fatherly'. 
Derived from *faier. Pokorný I 829; 
Vries ANEW 1 1 4; Frisk II 48 1 ; Lehmann 
GED 101. 

*fadurwjón sb.m.: OE jtedera 'father's 
brother', OFris federia id., OHG fatureo, 
fetiro id. Identical with Skt pitrvya- 'paternal 
uncle', Av tuiryo id., Lat patruus 'father's 
brother, paternal uncle' < *pDtruio-. See 
*faděr. Bartholomae 657; Holthausen 
AEEW 95; Walde-Hofmann II 263; 
Mayrhofer II 278-279; Pokorný I 829; 
Lehmann GED 101; Kluge-Seebold 863. 

*fa3anaz ~ *fa3enaz adj.: ON jeginn 
'glad, joyful', OE jce^en 'glad, joyful', 
OS fagan, fagin 'glad', OHG gi-jagan 
'contenteď. Participle of *fexanan. Gut- 
macher Btrg. Gesch. XXXLX 69-71; 
Torp-Falk 225; Feist 134; Holthausen 
^££71' 95; Wissmann j\T 14; Pokorný I 
796-797; Vries ANEW 1 15; Onions 342; 
Seebold 189; Lehmann GED 102; Hei- 
dermanns 180-181. 



*fa3anójanan ~ *fa3enójanan wk.vb.: 
Goth faginon 'to feel happy, to rejoice', 
ON fagna 'to be fain, to rejoice', OE 
fie^enian 'to rejoice', OS faganon id., OHG 
feginon id. Derived from *fa^anaz ~ 
*fa3enaz. Zupitza Gutt. 188; Torp-Falk 
225; Holthausen AEEW 95; Feist 134; 
Vries ANEW 109; Onions 348; Seebold 
189; Lehmann GED 102. 

*fa3raz sb.m.: Goth^ř^w 'proper, suitable', 
ON fagr 'fair, brighť, OE fce^er 'fair, 
beautiful', OS fagar id., OrIG/«^«r 'beau- 
tiful, bright, splendiď. Identical with 
Toch A pakdr, B pákri 'manifest, appar- 
enť, Skt pajrá- 'firm, solid', Umbr pacer 
'benť (Brugmann IF LX 349). See *fan- 
xanan, *fexanan. Schweizer K^ I 155; 
Braune PBB XLIII 369; Zupitza Gutt. 
188; Karsten NB II 252; Torp-Falk 
224; Feist 134; Holthausen AEEW 95; 
Wissmann NP 14, 109, 123; Mayrhofer 
II 186; Pokorný I 796-797; Vries 
ANEW 109 (to *fanxanan or *ft>3ojanan)\ 
Mayrhofer II 186; Onions 342; Leh- 
mann GED 101; Bammesberger Nom. 248; 
Heidermanns 181-182. 

*fa3rij5Ó sb.f: ON fegrS 'beauty, fair- 
ness', OS gi-fagiritha 'ornament'. Derived 
from ^fajraz or *fi3rjanan ~ *faxrjanan. 
Heidermanns 182. 

*fa3iin sb.f: ON fegri 'beauty', OHG fagarí 
'splendor'. Derived from *fa3raz. Hei- 
dermanns 181. 

*fa3rjanan ~ *faxrjanan wk.vb.: Goth 
ga-fahrjan 'to put in proper condition, 
to make suitable', ON fegra 'to adorn'. 
Derived from *fa3raz. Feist 180; Vries 
ANEW 115; Heidermanns 182. 

*faxez sb.f: ON far 'sheep'. Close to Gk 
tiÓkoc, 'wool, fleece' (Fick BB I 60) fur- 
ther related to *fexu. Schmidt Plur. 149; 
Torp-Falk 225; Pokorný I 797; Vries 
ANEW 149; Frisk II 492-493. 

*faxsan sb.n.: ON fax 'mane', OE feax 
'hair', OFris fax id., OS fahs id., OHG 
fahs id. Based on an originál j-stem as in 
Gk 7t£KO<; 'fleece'. Derived from *faxez. 
Zupitza Gutt. 189; Torp-Falk 225; 
Holthausen AEEW 100; Pokorný I 

797; Vries ANEW 114; Zalizniak II 
167; Frisk II 492-493; Kluge-Seebold 

*faxtiz sb.m.: OSwed fat 'wool, fleece', 
OE feht, fieht 'sheepskin with wool', OFris 
fecht 'wool, fleece', Du vacht id. Related 
to *faxsan. Cf. also *fextanan. Torp-Falk 
225; Holthausen AEEW 103; Pokorný I 
797; Vries ANEW 149. 

*faÍ3az adj.: ON feigr 'death-bounď, 
OE fa3e 'fated, doomed', OS flgi 
'death-bounď, OHG feigi id. Related to 
*faixaz II (Bezzenberger BB XXVII 
176; Wiedemann BB XXVIII 36-38). 
Osthoff KZ III (NF) 427-428 (to Skt 
pakvá- 'cooked, baked, ripe'); Schůtt 
ZdWf XI 274-275; Zupitza Gutt. 189; 
Torp-Falk 223 (to Lith paíkas 'stupid'); 
Holthausen AEEW 95, 420; Kluge 
207-208; Karsten NB II 444; Pokorný I 
795; Vries ANEW 115; Onions 353; 
Lehmann GED 68; Huld apud Jones- 
Bley Festschr. Puhvel I 2 1 4-2 1 5 (to *faixaz 
I); Heidermanns 182-183; Kluge- 
Seebold 256. 

*faÍ3Ípó sb.f: ON feigd 'approaching 
death', OE fa3& 'hostility'. Derived from 
*faÍ3az. Cf. faixipo. Holthausen AEE\ V 
95; Vries ANEW 115; Heidermanns 

*faixaz I adj.: Goth flu-faihs 'multicolored, 
manifold', ON blá-fár 'in blue speckles', 
OEfáh,fá 3 'coloreď, OSfěh id., OHG fěh 
id. Identical widi Skt péšas- 'shape, form, 
color', Av paes- 'to color, to ornament', 
Gk jioikÍA.o<; 'colorful', Toch A peke 'tab- 
let, painting' < *poiko-. Zupitza Gutt. 
132; Bartholomae 817; Torp-Falk 241; 
Feist 153-154; Holthausen AEEW 97; 
Karsten NB I 45-46; Porzig Gliederung 
1 36 (short form of the originál *filu-faixaz 
'with many stains'); Mayrhofer II 342; 
Pokorný I 794-795; Vries ANEW 112; 
Frisk II 572-573; Lehmann GED 116; 
Bammesberger Nom. 237; Heidermanns 
183-184; Kluge-Seebold 255. 

*faixaz II adj.: OE fáh 'guilty, criminal, 
hostile, inimical', OFris fach 'criminal', 
MDu see 'hostile, inimical', OHG gi-fěh 




'hostile'. Identical with Lith pdikas 'stupiď 
(Zupitza KZ XXXVII 401). Any connec- 
tion with *faixaz I? Zupitza Gutt. 189 
(to Jaixaz I); Torp-Falk 240-241; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 97; Wissmann Postu. 79- 
81; Pokorný I 795; Fraenkel 525; 
Lehmann GED 68; Heidermanns 184-185; 
Kluge-Seebold 255; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*faixjanan wk.vb.: ON fá 'to draw, to 
painť, OHG féhen 'to decorate'. Derived 
from *faixaz I. Torp-Falk 241; Vries 
AMEW 108; Lehmann GED 116; Heider- 
manns 183. 

*faiknan sb.n.: ON feikn 'fright, misfor- 
tune', OE fácen 'deceit, frauď, OS Jekán 
'guile, malice', OHG feihhan id. Sub- 
stantivized *faiknaz. Zupitza Gutt. 161; 
Torp-Falk 241; Holthausen AEEW 
94; Pokorný I 795; Vries AMEW 115 
(to "faixaz II); Zalizniak I 139; Heider- 
manns 185. 

*faikna-stabaz sb.m.: ON pl. feikn-stafir 
'baně, eviT, OE fácen-stďj 'deceitful deeď. 
Compound of *faiknan and *stabaz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 54. 

*faiknaz adj.: ON feikn 'perishable', OE 
fécne 'deceitful, fraudulent, wickeď, OS 
fěkni 'guileful, malicious', OHG feihhan 
'insidious'. Related to Lat impers. piget 'to 
annoy' (Curtius Gr. Et. 164). Karsten 
MB II 449; Torp-Falk 241; Holthausen 
AEEW 94-95; Walde-Hofmann II 300- 
301; Feist 89-90; Pokorný I 795; Vries 
AMEW 115; Krause Run. 122; Lůhr 
Expr. 337-338 (to Jaixaz II); Heider- 
manns 184-185. 

*faiman sb.n.: Norw dial.feim 'foam', OE 
fám id., OHG mase. feim id. Related to 
other phonetically diverging words for 
'foam': Skt phéna- 'foam, froth', Sogd 
pym'kh id., Lat spuma id., putnex 'pumice', 
Slav *péna 'foam', Lith spalné id. Weem- 
hold KZ I 247; Persson Beitrdge 690; 
Pedersen IF V 80; Meillet Etudes 445; 
Torp-Falk 224; Trautmann BSW 227- 
228; Holthausen AEEW 98; Walde- 
Hofmann II 388-389; Mayrhofer II 
399; Pokorný I 1001 (reconstructs 
*spoimno-)\ Fraenkel 858; Onions 366; 

Vasmer-Trubachev III 231; Kluge- 
Seebold 256. 

*faimnjo sb.f.: ON fáma 'bashful girl, 
young lass', OE fémne Virgin, maid, 
woman', OYús famne 'young woman', OS 
femea id. Fem. of unattested faimSn 'shep- 
herd, herder' related to Gk jtoi|i,r|v id., 
Lith piemuo id. Cf. in particular Lith 
piemené 'female shepherď. Torp-Falk 
240 (to Av paéman- 'milk'); Fraenkel 585; 
Frisk II 573. 

*faitaz adj.: ON fair 'fať, MLG veet id., 
MHG veiz id. Related to the IE adjective 
reflected in Skt píván- 'swelling, fat, 
strong', Gk nicov id. Torp-Falk 241; 
Holthausen AEEW 97; Karsten MB I 
59; Mayrhofer II 297-298; Pokorný I 
794 (to Gk 7n8íi(o 'to gush forth'); Vries 
AMEW 115-116; Frisk II 532; Onions 
346-347; Heidermanns 186-187; Kluge- 
Seebold 257, 261. 

*faitín sb.f: ON feiti 'fatness', MHG veize 
id. Derived from *faitaz. Heidermanns 

*faitjanan wk.vb.: ON feita 'to fatten', OE 
part. fát id., OHG feizen id. Derived from 
*faitaz. Holthausen AEE]\ t 97; Vries 
ANEW 116; Onions 346-347; Heider- 
manns 186. 

*falaz adj.: ON fair 'for šale', OHG foli 
'saleable'. Related to Gk nco^-éco 'to seli', 
Lith pelnas 'profit, yielď. Torp-Falk 
237; Kartsen MB I 66; Pokorný I 804; 
Fraenkel 567-568; Vries AMEW 110 
111; Frisk II 633; Matzel KZ CV 110; 
Heidermanns 187; Kluge-Seebold 256. 

*falčta-líkaz adj.: ON marg-faldligr 'mani- 
folď, OHG ein-faltlih 'simple'. Derived 
from faldaz. Heidermanns 188. 

*faldaz adj.: Goth -falps '-folď, ON -fale 
id., OE -feald id., OFris -fald id., OS -fald 
id., OHG -falt, -falto id. Appears only as 
the second element of adjectival com- 
pounds (see *aina-faldaz). Derived from 
*falpanan. Torp-Falk 238; Feist 23; 
Holthausen AEEW 99; Wissmann MP 
33; Onions 366-367; Heidermanns 1 87 — 
188; Kluge-Seebold 247-248; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 




*falďiz sb.m.: ON feldr 'cloak', OE jyld 
'fold, volume'. May be related to Gk 
7téA.TT| 'small shielď and probably (with 
phonetíc difficulties) to Skt pata- Hvoven 
clo tli, garment, blanket'. In any čase, fur- 
ther related to *falfianan. Mayrhofer II 
190; Vries AMEW 117; Frisk II 501; 
Seebold 184. 

*falďójanan wk.vb.: ON marg-falda 'to 
multiply', OE je-meni^-fealdan id., OHG 
manag-falton id. Derived from *faldaz. 
Vries AMEW 110; Seebold 184; Heider- 

MANNS 188. 

*falxaz sb.m.: ON fair 'socket of a spear's 
head in which the handle is puť, OJLfealh 
'harrow' (fem.). Derived from *felxanan 
(Lidén apud Vries). Zupitza Gutt. 132; 
Holthausen AEEW 99; Vries AMEW 

*falkon sb.m.: ON fálki 'falcon', MLG 
falke id., OHG falco id. Reflects *pol-g-, a 
variant of *pol-k- in Lith pálšas 'pale', 
Latv palss id. See *falwai (Torp-Falk 
239). Pokorný I 805. 

*fallan ~ *fallaz sb.n./m.: ON/afl 'fall', 
OE fem. (?) feal 'trap, pitfalT, OFris fal 
id., OS fal id., OHG fal 'fall'. Directly 
derived from *fallanan 'to fall' or substan- 
tivized *fallaz. Torp-Falk 239; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 99; Vries AMEW 110; 
Zalizniak II 1 86; Bammesberger Mom. 54. 

*fallanan str.vb.: ON folia 'to fall', OE 
fallan id., OFris falla id., OS fallan id., 
OHG fallan id. Reflects *pol-n- or *pol-. 
Connected with Arm p c laiúm 'to fall', Lith 
púolu, půlti id., Latv pult id., OPrus au-pal- 
lai 'to finď. Wood GR I 309 (to Gk 
jtÍTtxco 'to fall'); Bugge KZ XXXII 28- 
30; Torp-Falk 238-239; Holthausen 
AEEW 99; Jóhannesson IEW 582-583; 
Pokorný I 851; Fraenkel 666; Vries 
AMEW 110; Onions 343; Seebold 181 — 
182; Toporov PJa I 159-160; Kluge- 
Seebold 247; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*fallaz adj.: ON vá-fallr 'making a danger- 
ous fall, tottering', OFris pl. gers-falle 'cut 
off, fallen'. Derived from *fallanan 'to fall'. 
Karsten j\B I 79-80; Heidermanns 

*falliz adj.: ON hug-fellr 'pleasing', OFris 
gars-felle 'falling into the grass, hewn off'. 
Derived from fallanan. FsArsten MB I 
111; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 1 06, K~^ 
CV 127; Heidermanns 189; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*falljanan wk.vb.: ON fella 'to fell, to 
make fall', OF, fllan 'to fell, to cut down', 
OFris fella, falla 'to fell', OS fellian id., 
OHG fellen id. Causative of *fallanan. 
Torp-Falk 238; Holthausen AEEW 
119; Vries AMEW 118; Onions 350; 
Kluge-Seebold 247; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*fal|)anan str.vb.: Goťh falpan 'to fold', 
ON falda 'to cover one's heaď, OE feal- 
dan 'to fold up', MLG volden id. (wk., with 
str. part.), OHG faldan id. Continues 
*pel-t- further connected with Gk á-jt^-óoq 
'simple', Lat sim-plus id. (Brugmann IF 
XXXVIII 128-130). Torp-Falk 238; 
Feist 141-142; Holthausen AEEW 99; 
Walde-Hofmann II 540; Kluge 182- 
183; Jóhannesson IE]\ t 557; Pokorný I 
802-803, 834-835; Vries AMEl\ r 110; 
Frisk I 121-122; Onions 366; Seebold 
183-184; Peeters IF XCIV 295; Leh- 
mann GED 107-108; Fsxuge-Seebold 

*faludaz sb.m.: Dan fald 'herd of sheep', 
OE falod, feald 'fold, enclosure for ani- 
mals, fold' (neut.), OS faled id., OHG 
fald,falt 'fold'. Derivationally close to Slav 
*pol~btb 'side, layer' < *pol-uti- further 
related to alb pale 'pair, fold', slav *poh> 
'half. Torp-Falk 236; Marstrander 
MTS VII 347-349 (to Mir aile, gen. ailed 
'fence'); Holthausen AEE}[' 97; Onions 
366; Vasmer-Trubaghev III 316; Leh- 
mann GED 107; Orel AED 309. 

*falwaz adj.: burg *falus 'fallow', on fqlr 
'wan, pale', OÍLfealu 'fallow, yellow', OS 
falu 'pale yellow', OHG Jalo 'pale, reddish 
yellow'. Identical wiur Lidr palvas 'wan, 
pale', Slav *polub 'yellow, whitish' (Kuhn 
K^ I 516). Further connected with Gk 
7to^.ió<; 'gray' < *noX\fóq, Arm alik' 'white 
hair' and other continuants of IE 
*pel-. FvArsten MB II 194-195; Persson 
SVSU X 32, BeiMee 808; Schwentner 




FB 83-86; Torp-Falk 239; Schwyzer 
ZDADL LXVI 95-96; Trautmann BSW 
213; Holthausen AEE]V 99; Porzig 
Glieckrung 204; Pokorný I 804; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 68; Fraenkel 534; Vries 
ANEW 150; Frisk II 575-576; Onions 
343; Vasmer-Trubachev III 313; 
Bammesberger Nom. 243; Kóbler 710; 
Heidermanns 189-190; Kluge-Seebold 

*falwisk5(n) sb.m./f.: ON fqlski 'ash over 
burning ambers', OHG falawisca 'hot 
ashes'. Derived from falwaz. Torp- 
Falk 239; Vries ANEW 150. 

*fan3an ~ *fanxan sb.n.: Goth ga-fah 
'catching, catch', ON fang 'catching fish', 
OE fan3 'booty' (mase), OHG gifang 
'clouhing'. Related to *fanxanan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 98; Feist 179-180; 
Porzig Gliederung 104, 127; Vries ANEW 
110, 117; Onions 344; Seebold 185; 
Lehmann GED 102; Bammesberger Nom. 

*fan3Íz I sb.m.: ON fengr 'gain, booty', 
OE feri3 'grasp, spán', OFris basa-fang 
'obscene grip', OS ana-fang 'touch', OHG 
ant-Jang 'reception, acceptance'. Sub- 
stantivized *fan3Íz II. Torp-Falk 224; 
Holthausen AEEW 100; Seebold 185- 
186; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*fan3Íz II adj.: ON brád-fengr 'hot, hasty', 
OE and-fen^e 'acceptable, approved, fiť, 
OFris fensze 'suitable', OHG ant-fengi 
'acceptable, pleasanť. Derived from *fan- 
xanan. Karsten NB I 111-112; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 100; Vries ANEW 118; 
Seebold 186; Matzel Festsckr. Schroder 
106, A"^CV 127; Heidermanns 190. 

*fanxanan str.vb.: Goůifahan 'to catch, to 
capture', ON fá 'to fetch, to catch', OE 
fón 'to grasp, to catch, to seize', OFris fa 
id., OSfáhan id., OHG fahan id. Related 
to Lat pangB 'to fortify', Gk jiT|yvrj|ii 
'to stick, to fix in' (Froehde BB XVI 
189). Furuher connected with fa^raz. 
Zupitza Gutt. 6, 189; Brugmann Grundrift 
11/ 3 291; Torp-Falk 224; Feist 134- 
135; Holthausen AEEW 112; Walde- 
Hofmann II 245-246; JÓHANNESSON IEW 

531-532; Pokorný I 788; Vries ANE1V 
108; Frisk II 525-526; Onions 344; 
Seebold 185-186; Lehmann GED 102- 
103; Kluge-Seebold 249; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 
*fanjan sb.n.: Goth fani 'clay, muď, ON 
fen 'fen, quagmire', OE fen 'fen, marsh, 
mud, dirť (mase. and neut.), OFris fenne 
'wet meadow' (mase, fem.), OS feni,fenni 
'svvamp, fen', OHG fenni id. Etymo- 
logically connected with Thrac pln. 
náviov, Gaul anam 'paludem', Mír en 
'water', an id., enach 'swamp', OPrus 
pannean 'quagmire' (Bopp Glossarium 224; 
Lidén BB XXI 93; Buga Roczn. Slaw. VI 
37). Sohulze Kl. Schr. 716 (to funěn, as 
'fire-coloreď); Kuhn (Ti 7 XII 7; Endzelin 
KZ Lil 116; Torp-Falk 228; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 101; Feist 142; Pokorný 

I 807-808; Vries ANEW 118; Zalizniak 

II 174; Stang LS 40-41; Durtdanov 
Trakite 44; Lehmann GED 108; Kluge- 
Seebold 258. 

*fanón sb.m.: Goth fana 'piece of cloth, 
rag', ON -fani 'flag' (in compounds), OE 
fana 'flag', OFris fana, fona 'flag', OS fano 
'cloth', OHG fano 'flag'. Related to Gk 
rcrjvoc;- íSipoano Hes., 7tr|vr| 'cloth', Lat 
pannus id. (Curtius Gr. Et. 275—276; 
Osten-Sacken IF XXXIII 238). Torp- 
Falk 227; Holthausen AEEW 98; 
Walde-Hofmann II 247-248; Feist 142; 
Specht Festschr. Voretzsch 40 (samé as 
Curtius and Osten-Sacken); Trier Lehm 
27-28 (to *fanjan); Pokorný I 788; Vries 
ANEW 111; Zalizniak I 153; Frisk II 
529-530; Lehmann GED 108; Kluge- 
Seebold 245. 

*fantaz adj.: ON fattr 'bowed backwarď. 
Identical with Lat pandus 'bent, crooked, 
curveď (Bugge A£ XIX 437-438; 
Vaniček 333). Torp-Falk 228 (to 
fenpanan); Holthausen IF XLVIII 255 
(to náv8apoi; in Asia Minor); Walde- 
Hofmann II 245; Pokorný I 788; Vries 
ANEW 114; Heidermanns 190-191. 

*fara-alčtan sb.n.: ON far-ald journey', 
OE fer-eld 'way, going, motion, journey'. 
Compound of *faran and *alian (see 




*aliaz). Torp-Falk 229; Holthausen 
AEEW 96; Vries ANEW 112. 

*faran sb.n.: ON far 'travel, ship', OEfer 
'journey, vehicle, ship', OHG far 'haven 
Derived from *faranan. Torp-Falk 229 
Holthausen AEE1V 96; Pokorný I 816 
Vries ANEW 112; Zalizniak I 140: 
Onions 345; Seebold 187. 

*faranan str.vb.: Goth faran 'to pass over, 
to wander, to travel', ON fara 'to travel', 
OFris fara id., OE faran id., OTris fara id., 
OS faran id., OHG faran id. Related to 
Skt píparti 'to bring over, to savé, to sur- 
pass', Av par- 'to bring over', Gk jtepáto 
'to penetrate', Tteípto 'to pierce, to run 
through', Slav *pbrq, *perti 'to move, 
to fly'. Brugmann IF XXXII 173-175 
(*-«- from farjanan); Bartholomae 851; 
Torp-Falk 229; Melllet MSL XEX 135; 
Trautmann BS] V 215-216; Feist 142- 
143; Holthausen AEEW 98; Jóhannes- 
son IEW 548-551; Benveniste BSL LI 
36-41; Mayrhofer II 284; Pokorný I 
816-818; Vries ANEW 112; Frisk II 
491-492; Onions 345; Seebold 186-188; 
Vasmer-Trubachev III 240; Lehmann 
GED 108-109; Kluge-Seebold 245. 

*farďiz sb.f.: Burg *fards 'journey, way', 
ON ferb 'travel, journey', OJLfyrd 'army, 
expedition', OFris ferd 'military expedi- 
tion', OS fard 'way', OHG fart id. 
Derived from faranan. Torp-Falk 229; 
Pokorný I 817; Vries ANEW 119; 
Zalizniak I 150; Seebold 187; Lehmann 
GED 136-137, 381; Bammesberger Nom. 
144-145; Kóbler 710; FCluge-Seebold 

*farďjan sb.n.: ON fiam-ferbí 'proceduře, 
conducť, MLG ^e-verde 'ride, way', OHG 
gi-ferti 'way'. Derived from *fardiz. 
Vries ANEW 118. 

*farxaz sb.m.: OEfearh 'litde pig, farrow', 
OHG neut. farah, farh id. Identical with 
Lat porcus 'pig', Mír orc 'young pig', Lith 
pařšas 'gelded pig', Slav *porsg 'pigleť 
(Kirchhoff K£ I 39). Zupitza Gutt. 
190; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 91; Torp-Falk 
234; Trautmann BS1\' 207; Holthausen 
AEEW 99; Walde-Hofmann II 341; 

Chemodanov SGGJa I 58; Pokorný I 
841; Trubachev ^hiv. 63; Fraenkel 542 
Vries ANEW 113; Trubachev ^hiv. 63 
Onions 345; Vasmer-Trubachev III 332 
Bammesberger Nom. 52; FCluge-Seebold 

*farxwaz adj.: OHG faro 'coloreď. Rela- 
ted to Skt písni- 'spotted, variegateď, Gk 
7topKvó<; 'dark', Mír erc 'spotted, dark 
reď (Hamp IF LXXVIII 142-143). Cf. 
also *furxno. Torp-Falk 234; Mayrho- 
fer II 336; Pokorný I 820-821; 
Szemerényi Language XLVIII 5-9 (with 
metathesis, to Lat corpus 'body'); Lehmann 
GED 109; Bammesberger Nom. 49-50. 

*farxw5 sb.f: Goth mase. or neut. farma 
'form, appearance', OFris ferwe id., MDu 
verwe id., OHG farawa id. Substantivized 
farxwaz (Meid Wortbild. 75). Torp- 
Falk 234; Szemerényi Language XLVIII 
5-9 (metathesis of *k'erp-: Skt kfp- 'shape, 
beautiful appearance', Lat corpus 'body'); 
Lehmann GED 109 (against Szemerényi); 
ICluge-Seebold 249. 

*farjanan wk.vb.: Goúífarjan 'to travel, to 
go by sea', ON fetja 'to ferry, to trans- 
port', OE ferian 'to carry, to bear, to 
leaď, OFris feria 'to lead, to ferry across', 
OS ferian 'to travel by ship', OHG ferren 
'to sail'. Causative/iterative of *faranan. 
Torp-Falk 229; Holthausen AEE~W 
102; Feist 142-143; Vries ANEW 118; 
Onions 352; Seebold 187; Lehmann 
GED 108; ICluge-Seebold 245, 259. 

*farjón sb.f: ON fetja 'ferry', MLG vere 
id., MHG vere id. Derived from *faranan. 
Torp-Falk 229; Vries ANEW 118; 
Onions 352. 

*farmaz sb.m.: ON farmr 'freight, cargo', 
OE fearm id., OS farm 'stampede', OHG 
farm 'fast ship'. Identical with Slav *pormb 
'ferry' (Fick I 475; Persson Beitrage 
641). Derived from *faranan. Hirt RFV 
XXIII 336 (Slav < Gmc); Torp-Falk 
229; Trautmann _B.SII'216; Holthausen 
AEEW 99; Pokorný I 816-817; Che- 
modanov SGGJa I 80; Vries ANE1T 112; 
Zalizniak I 131; Stang LS 43; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 331-332; Seebold 187. 




*farnan sb.n.: OE fearn 'fern', MLG farn 
id., OHG/om id. Related to phonetically 
diverging IE words for 'fern': Gk jitépu; 
id., Alb far id. < PAlb *sper(n)a, Olr 
raith id. (< *prati-), Lith papártis id., 
Slav *paportb id. Further connected with 
and exactiy corresponding formally to Skt 
parná- 'wing', Av panna- id. Bartho- 
lomae 869-870; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 91; 
Torp-Falk 234; Holthausen AEEJV 99; 
Pokorný I 826; Fraenkel 538; Frisk 
II 611; Onions 351; Kluge-Seebold 
249-250; Orel AED 96. 

*faró sb.f.: ON fqr journey', OE faru id., 
OFriesfera id., MHG far id. Derived from 
*faranan. Torp-Falk 229; Holthausen 
AEEW 98; Vries ANEW 151; Onions 
345; Seebold 187; Bammesberger Nom. 

*faron sb.m.: ON -fari 'sea-farer', OE je- 
fara 'companion', OFris rum-fara 'pilgrim, 
traveler to Róme', OHG -faro 'traveler'. 
Derived from *faranan. Identical with 
Toch B akwam-pere 'sprout and stalk' < 
*-porom. Holthausen AEE\Y 98; Vries 
ANEW '112; Seebold 187; Bammesberger 
Nom. 176; Adams TB 5. 

*farz5n sb.m.: ON farri 'bullock', OFfearr 
'bull, ox' (from farzaz), MLG vane id., 
OHG farro id. Deverbative based on IE 
*pers-\ Skt pfsan 'spotteď, Tokh AB pdrs- 
'to sprinkle'. For the semantic develop- 
ment cf. Latv vepris 'boar', Slav *veprb id. 
~ Skt lupati 'to throw (out), to eject, to 
excrete'. Paul ]\'uS XX 38; Osthoff 
PBB XX 90-91 (to Skt prthuka- 'boy, 
young of an animal', Arm orť 'calf'); 
Torp-Falk 235; Holthausen AEE]\' 
99; Martinet Gem. 178; Mayrhofer II 
336; Pokorný I 818, 823; Trubaohev 
Zhiv. 42-43 (to Slav *porzb 'bull, hog' < 
*porso-)\ Vries ANEJV 112; Zalizniak II 
195; Bammesberger Nom. 50; Kluge- 
Seebold 250. 

*fas(u)laz sb.m.: ON fqsull 'brooď, OE 
fesl 'offspring, progeny' (mase. or neut.?), 
MLG vasel 'mature bull', OHG fasal 
'offspring, progeny, kin' (neut.). Con- 
nected with Skt neut. pásas- 'membrum 

virile', Gk Ttéoc; id., Lat penis id. < *pes- 
ni-s (Grimm apud Aufreght K^ I 288). 
Torp-Falk 239; Holthausen AEE1V 96; 
Walde-Hofmann II 281; Mayrhofer II 
241; Pokorný I 824; Zalizniak II 167; 
Frisk II 507; Kluge-Seebold 250-251. 

*fasta-xaldaz adj.: ON fast-haldr 'fast- 
holding', OE fest-heald 'firmly frxeď. 
Compound of *fastaz and *xaliaz (see 
*xaláanan). Carr Nom. comp. 63. 

*fasta-líkaz adj.: ON fast-ligr 'strong, 
fasť, OE fest-líc 'firm', OHG fast-llh 
'solid, firm, safe'. Derived from *fastaz. 
Heidermanns 192. 

*fastaz adj.: Burg *fastis 'fast, firm', ON 
fastr id., OFLfest id., OFris fest id., OS fast 
id., OHG fasto id. identical with Arm 
hast 'firm' (Hůbschmann ASt I 38; Solta 
Arm. 439-440), probably from *po-stH-o- 
'standing firm' based on *sta- 'to stand, 
to seť. Karsten NB II 373-374; 
Uhlenbeck PBB XX 328 (to Skt pastva- 
'dwelling, abode'); Torp-Falk 239; Feist 
143-144; Holthausen AEEW 96; 
Pokorný I 789; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
107; Vries ANEW 113; Onions 346; de 
Lamberterie Sprache XXVI 133-144 (to 
Hitt pahš- 'to protéct', Slav *pasti 'to pas- 
ture'); Lehmann GED 109—110; Seebold 
Festschr. Rosenfeld 499-503; Kobler 710; 
Heidermanns 1 92—1 93; Kluge-Seebold 

*fastěnan wk.vb.: Goth fastan 'to hold 
fast, to fasť, ON fasta 'to fasť, OE festian 
'to entrust, to commiť, OFris festia 'to 
fasť, OS festian 'to strengdien', OHG 
fastěn 'to fasť. Derived from *fastaz. The 
semantic development from 'keeping, 
observing' to 'fasting' is explained by 
calquing Lat (iňúnium) observáre (Wessén 
ANFXLTV 104-105: ON < OE; Velten 
JEGP XXLX 502-503). Torp-Falk 
239; Feist 143-144; FalkXVFXLI 116; 
Hoffler ANF XLVII 285 (ON < MLG 
vasten); Pisani AGIt LVI 19-28 (the cultic 
meaning of *fastěnan is based on Lat sta- 
tio); Lamberterle Sprache XXVI 139-144 
(from IE *pa-); Vries ANEW 113; Onions 
346; Mazzuoli Porru AGI LVI 19- 




28; Solari RIL CEK 433-436 (calque 
of Gk (prAácroro); Lehmann GED 109— 
110; Seebold Festschr. Rosenfeld 493-505 
(from *puos-to-, to Lat púrus 'clean' < 
*puss-); Heidermanns 193; Kluge- 
Seebold 251. 

*fastinojanan wk.vb.: ON fastna 'to 
pledge', OE festnian 'to fasten', OFris 
festna id., OS fastnon id., OHG festinon, 
fastinon 'to strenguhen'. Derived from 
*fastaz. Holthausen AEEW 97; Vries 
ANEWW&; Onions 346. 

*fastín sb.f.: ON stad-festi 'steadfastness', 
ODu festi 'solidness', OHG festi 'strength, 
mighť. Derived from *fastaz. Vries 
AJ(EW 118; Heidermanns 192. 

*fastjan sb.n.: OSwed feste 'fortress', 
OFris feste 'contract, treaty'. Derived 
from *fastaz. Heidermanns 192. 

*fastjanan wk.vb.: ON festa 'to fasten', 
OE festan id., OFris bi-festa 'to entrusť, 
OS part. gi-festid 'fasteneď, OHG festen 
'to strengthen, to fasten'. Derived from 
*fastaz. Torp-Falk 239; Holthausen 
AEEW 96; Vries AMEW 118; Heider- 
manns 192. 

*fast5n sb.f: ON fasta 'fasting', OS fasta 
id., OHG fasta 'fast, parsimony'. Con- 
nected with *fastěnan. Vries AMEW 1 13; 
Lehmann GED 109. 

*fastubnjan sb.n.: Goth fastubni 'fasting, 
observance, vigilance', OS fastunnia 'fast- 
ing'. Derived from *fastenan or directly 
from *fastaz. Feist 144; Lehmann GED 

*fatan I sb.n.: ON fit 'vat', OEfet 'vessel', 
OFris fet id., OS fit id., OHG/fl/ id. ON 
fit 'clothes, dress' is a historically different 
word (see *fatan II). Identical with púodas 
'poť (an originál neuter with a lengthen- 
ing due to Winter's law). Probably further 
related to Lith pedas 'sheaf, Latv peda 
'bunch'. Torp-Falk 226; Holthausen 
AEEW 97; Trier %DPh LXX 353-355; 
Pokorný I 790; Fraenkel 563; Vries 
ANE1V 113; Zalizniak I 140; Onions 
971; Lehmann GED 113 (to *ped- 'fboť); 
Fvluge-Seebold 251; Dybo BSA 130- 

*fatan II sb.n.: ON fit 'clothes, dress'. 
An isolated form. Probably an old Orien- 
tal loanword, cf. NCauc *HpádV: Avar 
hebét 'linen', Lak pata 'old clothes', Rutiil 
hadu 'trousers'. Vries AMEIV 113; 
Nikolayev-Starostin MCED 600. 

*fatilaz sb.m.: ON fetill 'strap', OE fetel 
'girdle, belť, MDu vetel 'fetter', OHG 
fizzil 'girdle, band' (also neut.). Derived 
from *fatan II. Hardly related to *feturaz 
~ *feturo(n). Torp-Falk 226; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 102; Vries AMEW 118-119; 
Onions 352; Kluge-Seebold 260. 

*fatjanan wk.vb.: OFris fatia 'to grasp', 
OE fetian 'to fetch, to marry'. Derived 
from *fetanan. Torp-Falk 226; Po- 
korný I 790-791; Onions 352. 

*fat5janan wk.vb.: ON fáta 'to step', OE 
fitian 'to fetch', OHG sih fazzon 'to rise, 
to exalť. Derived from *fetanan. Torp- 
Falk 226; Holthausen AEE]V 98; Vries 
AMEWIU; Seebold 196; Lehmann GED 
113; Kluge-Seebold 251. 

*faj)maz sb.m.: ON fadmr 'fathom', OE 
fiebm 'embracing arms, lap, cubit, fathom', 
OFris fethm 'fathom', OS pl. fathmós 
id., OHG fadam 'yarn, fathom'. Etymo- 
logically related to W etem, NW edau 
'threaď < *petima and, witír certain 
difficulties, to Slav *pasm{ 'thread bundle' 
(< *pot-s-md). Further see *fap>5 (Merin- 
ger Festschr. Heinzel 174; Lané Language 
LX 249). Torp-Falk 226; Holthausen 
AEEir 97; Pokorný I 824-825; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 97; Vries ANEl\ r 109; 
Zalizniak I 131; Onions 347; Truba- 
chev Rem. 102—103; Vasmer-Trubaohev 
III 212; Lehmann GED 110; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 71; Fvluge-Seebold 244. 

*faj)mjanan wk.vb.: ON feSma 'to spán', 
MLG vedemen 'to measure with outspread 
arms'. Derived from *fapmaz. Vries 
ANEW 114. 

*faj5mójanan wk.vb.: ON fiSma 'to 
embrace', OE fedmian 'to fathom, to 
embrace', MDu vademen 'to threaď, 
OHG fadamon 'to spin, to sew'. Derived 
from *fapmaz. Vries ANEJV 109. 

*faj)5 sb.f: Goth fipa 'hedge', ON pln. 




Fo5, MHG vadě 'hedge'. Related to Gk 
jtexávvi>|ii 'to spread ouť, Lat pateó 
'to stand open' (Grienberger Got. 65). 
Uhlenbeok PBB XXX 274-275 (to IE 
*pa- ~ *po- 'to protéct'); Grienberger 
Got. 65; Olsen AMF XXIII 90-94 (adds 
ONorw theon. FqS, originally — 'border'); 
Torp-Falk 226; Walde-Hofmann II 
262; Feist 144; Trier Z ssr lxv 
242-243 (follows Uhlenbeok); Pokorný I 
824-825; Vries AMEW 150; Frisk II 
520-521; Lehmann GED 110. 

*fauxaz ~ *faxwaz adj.: Goth pl. fawai 
'few', ON fár id., OTLJeáwa id., OSJa,Jao 
id., OHG Jo 'rare, few'. Related to Lat 
paucus id., and further to Lat paullus id., 
Gk TtaÍJpog 'small' (Kuhn KZ I 515). 
Bugge KZ XXXII 31 (adds Arm p'ok'r 
'small'); Torp-Falk 239; Walde- 
Hofmann II 265-266; Feist 147; 
Pokorný I 842-843; Vries AMEW 112; 
Frisk II 482-483; Onions 353; Lindeman 
Verschdrjung 16.6; Lehmann GED 112; 
Bammesberger Mom. 239. 

*fausaz ~ *fauzaz adj.: Norw dial Jeyr 
'rotten', Du voos 'spongy'. Derived from 
*Júanan. Torp-Falk 242-243; Vries 
AMEW 114; Pokorný I 790; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 414. 

*fedurez num.: Goth fidur- 'four' (in 
cmpn.), ON mase. Jjórir, neut. JJQgur id., 
OE Jeder-Jóte 'foor-footeď. Continues 
*k"etur-, cf. Skt catúr-aňga- 'four-mem- 
bereď, Gk xexpa-, Myc qe-to-ro-, Lat 
quadru-. See *Jedwmez. Torp-Falk 227; 
Holthausen AEE]V 103; Walde- 
Hofmann II 706; Feist 149; Mayrhofer 
I 372; Pokorný I 642-644; Frisk II 
883-884; Szemerényi Mumerals 79-85; 
Lehmann GED 1 1 3; Ross-Berns Mumerals 

*fedur-skautjaz ~ *fe<iw5r-skautjaz 
adj.: ON Jer-skeyttr 'four-cornered, 
square', OE Jeówer-scýte id., OHG fior- 
seozi id. Compound of *Jedurez, *Jedworez 
and *skautjaz (see *skautaz). Carr Mom. 
cotnp. 65. 

*fedur]36n num.: ON JjórSi 'fourth', OE 
Jeórča, Jeówerda id., OFris fiarda id., OS 

fiordo id., OHG fiordo id. Derived from 
*fedworez, *Jedurez. In WGmc *jeiur\>čm > 
*Jeurpón. Identical with Toch A Start, B 
starte id., Gk xÉxapxoi; id., Skt caturthá- id., 
Lat quartus id., Lith ketviftas id., Slav 
*čeťobrtb id. Torp-Falk 227; Traut- 
mann BSW 132; Meillet MSL XIV 382, 
BSL XXLX 34, 36-37; Walde-Hofmann 
II 399; Mayrhofer I 371; Fraenkel 247 
Vries AMEW 124; Frisk II 883-884: 
Onions 373; Trubachev ESSJa IV 95 
Ross-Berns Mumerals 627; Adams 77? 641 
Burlak IFTJa 258. 
*feďw5rez num.: Goth Jidwor 'four', OE 
Jeówer id., OFris fiuwer,fiower id., OS Jiwar, 
jiuwar id., OHG^or id. Phonetically trans- 
formed by analogy witír *JenJe (Zupitza 
Gutt. 7). Related to IE *k"etuSr id.: Toch 
štwar, B štwer, Skt catvara-, Gk xéoaapec;, 
Alb katěr, Olr cethir, Lat quattuor, Lith 
keturi, Slav *četyri. Meillet MSL VII 
162, LX 158-159; Scheftelowitz BB 
XXVIII 301; Torp-Falk 227; Traut- 
mann BSJV 131; Holthausen AEE]V 
102; Walde-Hofmann II 400-401 
Feist 149-150; Mayrhofer I 371-372 
Pokorný I 642-644; Fraenkel 247-248 
Hamp MGS II 1; Vries AMEW 124; Frisk 
II 883-884; Onions 373; Lehmann GED 
113-114; Trubachev ESSJa IV 97-98; 
Ross-Berns Mumerals 582—584; Kluge- 
Seebold 864; Orel AED 173-174; 
Adams TB 641-642; Burlak IFTJa 258. 
*fexanan str.vb.: OE y-Jeón 'to be glad, to 
rejoice', OHG gi-Jehan id. Probably rela- 
ted to *Janxanan. Fick I 471 (to Lat pSx 
'peace'); Zupitza Gutt. 188-189 (samé as 
Fick); Torp-Falk 224-225; Wood JEGP 
XIII 504 (to *Jextanaii); Holthausen 
AEEW 101; Pokorný I 796-797; See- 

BOLD 189. 

*fextanan str.vb.: OE Jeohtan 'to fighť, 
OFris fiuchta id., OS Jehtan id., OHG 
Jehtan id. Identical with Lat pecto 'to comb' 
(Zupitza Gutt. 189; Specht K^ LXVIII 
205-207), further to Gk jiekco id. (notě 
7tEKxéco 'to shear, to clip'), Lith pešú, peští 
'to pluck'. Osthoff Etym. 369-371 (to 
Lat pugnus 'fist'); Torp-Falk 225; Holt- 




hausen AEE\V 101; Walde-Hofmann II 
269-270; Specht K~ LXVIII 507, 613 
(on the influence of *fiextanan)\ Pokorný I 
797; Fraenkel 580-582; Ader Festschr. 
Trier KG 146-159; Frisk II 492-493; 
Onions 355; Seebold 190-191; Kluge- 
Seebold 254. 

*fexu sb.n.: Goth jaihu 'money, movable 
goods', ON Jé 'cattle, property', OE fieoh 
id. (< *fexan), OFris^a id. (mase, neut.), 
OS fehu id., OWG Jihu id. Identical with 
Skt pašů- 'cattíe, animal', Av pasu- 'cattie', 
Lat peču id., Umbr pl. pequo 'pecua', Lith 
pěkus 'catde', OPrus pecku id. Osthoff 
Etnu. I 214, 256-257 (adds Slav *pbsb 
'dog' as *' catde guarď); Zupitza Gutt. 
190; Schulze ií^XL 412; Bartholomae 
879-880; Torp-Falk 225; Fránkel 
ZfslavPh XI 49-51; Holthausen AEEW 
101; Walde-Hofmann II 270-271; 
Feist 135-136; Mayrhofer II 239- 
240; Pokorný I 797; Fraenkel 564- 
565; Vries AMEW 114; Zalizniak II 
199; Benveniste IEL 39, 47-48, 
155; Lehmann GED 102-103; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 156; Kluge-Seebold 

*fexu-frekaz adj.: Goth fiaihu-friks 'cov- 
etous, greedy', ON Jé-fiekr 'greedy for 
money'. Compound of *fexu and *frekaz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 67. 

*fexu-3ernaz adj.: Goth faihu -gaims 'cov- 
etous, avaricious', ON fé-gjarn 'greedy', 
OE feoh-^eorn 'avariciuos, covetous'. 
Compound of *Jexu and *3ernaz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 59. 

*fexu-xúsan sb.n.: ON fi-hús 'stali', OE 
feoh-hús 'treasury', MLG ve-hus 'stali'. 
Compound of *fexu and *xúsan. Carr 
Mom. comp. 71 (parallel formations). 

*felxanan str.vb.: Goth filhan 'to bury, to 
conceal', ON jela 'to hide, to conceal', 
OE fiolan 'to cleave, to stick, to reach', 
OFris bi-fella 'to conceal, to commiť, 
OS bi-fielhan 'to commiť, OHG felahan 
'to transmit, to entrust, to bury'. Of 
unknown origin. Kjrchhoff KZ I 39; 
Ebel KZ VI 217 (to OHG felga 'bend, 
rim'); Uhlenbeck PBB XXVII 118 (to 

Gk ná.XKoq- nr\Xóc„ Hes.); Grlenberger 
Got. 68 (to Slav *fn>lkb 'warfare, troop') 
Zupltza Gutt. 130; Torp-Falk 237 
Helnertz ESt. 29-46; Feist 151-152 
Holthausen AEEW 101; Trier Lehm 
24-30; Jóhannesson IEW 557-558; 
Pokorný I 803-804; Vries AMEW 117 
(to IE *pel- 'cover, skin'); Seebold 
191-193; Benveniste IEL 128-129; 
Lehmann GED 1 1 5; Kluge-Seebold 90 
(to Lat appello 'to drive to, to move 
towarď, Latv pat 'to vilify'). 
*fellan sb.n.: Goth pruts-fill 'leprosy', ON 

jjall 'skin', OE Jeli id., OFris Jeli id., OS 

jeli id., OHG/f/ id. Identical with Gk acc. 
pl. nkXko.^ id., Lat pellis id. < *pel-n- 
(Bugge KZ XLX (1870) 409-410). Cf. 
also WGrnc Jeltaz > OE felt 'felť, MLG 

fit id., OMGfilz id. and *speltaz ~ *spelto 
> OE mase. (?) spelt 'spelť, OS spelta 
'spelť, OHG spelza 'spelť. Curtius Gr. 
Et. 276 Cfeltaz to Lat pilleus 'felt cap'); 
Schrader KZX 479-481; Hoops Wald- 
bdume 420 (*speltaz ~ *spelto to * spalianari)\ 
Sohrader-Nehrtng II 648 (*speltaz ~ 
*spelto to Lat pollen 'fine flour, fine 
powder' < *(s)plden); Torp-Falk 236— 
238; Holthausen ^££11' 100; Walde- 
Hofmann II 275-276; Feist 503-504; 
Pokorný I 801-803 (Jeltaz to Lat pello 
'to beat, to push'); Vries AMEW 123; 
Zalizniak I 140; Frisk II 499; Onions 
349-350, 852; Lehmann GED 114-115; 
Kluge-Seebold 258, 265, 776. 
*fellínaz adj.: Goth filleins 'leathern', OE 

fellen 'made of skin', OHG fellin id. 
Derived from *fellan. Structurally close to 
Lat pellinus id. Holthausen AEEW 105; 
Walde-Hofmann II 275; Feist 152; 
Lehmann GED 114. 
*felmaz sb.m.: OE film 'skin, husk'. 
Derivationally close to Gk jtéX|ia 'sole of 
fooť. Furdrer related to *fiellan. Torp- 
Falk 235; Holthausen AEE]V 100; 
Pokorný I 803; Frisk II 499-500; 
Onions 356. 
*felbuz ~ *felbaz sb.m.: OE field 'fielď, 
OFris Jeli id., OS jdi id., OHG neut. 

jeli id. Continues *peltu-, a secondary 




transformation of the originál zero grade 
*pltu-\ Skt prthú- 'broad, wide', Av pmfhi- 
id., Gk 7rtaxrúc; 'flať. Related to *fiuldo(nj. 
Bartholomae 892-893; Torp-Falk 237; 
Holthausen AEEW 100; Mayrhofer 
II 333; Pokorný I 806 (to *peh-. *pla- 
'wide'), 833; Vries ANEW 137; Zaliz- 
niak II 199; Frisk II 553-554; Onions 
354; Bammesberger Jíom. 155; Kluge- 
Seebold 257. 

*felu adv., adj.: Goth filu much, very', ON 
jjql-auSigr Very rich', OE jela, feala, feola 
'many, much', OFris Jelo, fiul id. (< *Julú), 
OS filu id., OHG filu, filo id. Identical 
with Skt purít- 'much, many, abundanť, 
Av pauru- 'much, many', Gk noků id. 
Osthoff PBB XIII 444-445; Bar- 
tholomae 854-855; Torp-Falk 235; 
Holthausen AEEW 100; Feist 152-153; 
Benveniste Origines 54; Mayrhofer II 
311; Pokorný 799-800; Vries ANE1\' 
125; Frisk II 577-578; Lehmann GED 
116; Bammesberger Nom. 262-263; 
Kluge-Seebold 864. 

*felzan ~ *fel(e)zaz sb.n./m.: ON Jjall 
'rock, mountain', OS fielis id., OHG jí& 
'rock, cliff'. Closely related to Gk ntXka' 
Xí9oq (Hes.) < *pelso-, Olr all 'cliff, stone' 
< *plso- (Vendryes RC XXXVIII 184). 
Pokorný I 807; Vries ANE1V 123; Frisk 
II 499; Kluge-Seebold 258. 

*fenfe num.: Goth fimfi 'five' , ON fimm id., 
OE^fid., OFris fiifi id., OS/^id., OHG 
fimfi id. From *fienxwe identical with Toch 
A pán, B piš id., Skt páňca id., Av panča id., 
Arm hing id., Gk jtévre id., Arm hing id., 
Alb pese ~ pese id., Lat quínque id., Olr cóic 
id., Lith penki id., Slav *petb id. < *penkř- 
ti-. Sabler KZ XXXI 280 (to *fien 3 raz); 
Pedersen KZ XXXII 272, Kelt. Gr. I 37; 
Zupitza Gutt. 7-8; Helten IF XVIE 84; 
Bartholomae 844-845; Lané JEGP 
XXXVIII 192-193; Torp-Falk 228; 
Trautmann BSW 213; Holthausen 
AEEW 104, AWN 61; Walde-Hofmann 
II 407-408; Feist 154; Mayrhofer II 
187; Pokorný I 808; Fraenkel 570; 
Vries ANEW 120; Zalizniak II 206; 
Frisk II 506-507; Onions 358; Vasmer- 

Trubaohev III 426; Lehmann GED 
117; Ross-Berns Numerals 584—585; 
Kluge-Seebold 290-291; Orel AED 
316; Adams TB 388; Burlak IFTJa 248. 
*fenfe-faldjan ~ *fenfe-fald(j)5n 
sb.n./f.: ON fiifrildi 'butterfly', OE 
fiifi f)ealde id., OS fifialdra,fiifioldara id., MDu 
viveltere id., OHG fiífialtra id. Compound 
based on *fenfe and *faldaz, *'(creature) of 
five folds' (cf. OE fifi-Jeald 'five-fold'), 
tabooed and modified in various ways 
in different Gmc languages. Hardly a 
descriptive stem similar to Lat pápilio 
'butterfly'. Bezzenberger BB VII 75 
(to Lat papilió 'butterfly, moth'); Noreen 
Abrifi 228 (samé as Bezzenberger); Torp- 
Falk 238; Holthausen AEEW 104; 
Walde-Hofmann II 249-250; Pokorný I 
801; Vries ANEW 119; Zalizniak I 222; 
Kluge-Seebold 248 (reconstructs *fifial- 
*fenft5n num.: Goth fimfita- 'fifth' (in 
cmpn.), ON fimti, fimmti id. (for *fifiti), OE 
fifita id., OFris fifita id., OS fifito id., OHG 
fimfito id. Close to Toch A pant, B piňkte 
id., Av puxSa- id., Gk ní\iirmq id., Lat 
quíntus id., Olr cóiced id., Lith peňktas 
id., Slav *petb id. Further see *fenfe. 
Bartholomae 908-909; Torp-Falk 
228-229; Trautmann BS]V 213; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 104; Walde-Hofmann II 
408; Feist 154-155; Pokorný I 808; 
Fraenkel 570; Vries AMEW 120; 
Szemerényi Numerals 27-44, 71-76; Frisk 

II 506-507; Onions 358; Vasmer- 
Trubaghev III 426; Lehmann GED 117; 
Ross-Berns Numerals 628; Adams TB 385; 
Burlak IFTJa 248. 

*fenftiz num.: ON fimt 'number of five'. 
Identical with Skt paňkti- 'group of five', 
Alb pese' ~ pese 'five', Slav *petb id. 
Torp-Falk 229; Mayrhofer II 185; 
Vries AfifElV 120; Vasmer-Trubachev 

III 426; Orel AED 316. 
*fen3ra-3ulban sb.n.: Goth figgra-gulps 

'finger-ring', ON fingr-gull id. Compound 
of *fien 3 raz and *gulfian (Carr Nom. comp. 
67, 276). Feist 150; Carr JVom. comp. 
67; Lehmann GED 161. 




*fen3raz sb.m.: Goth figgrs 'finger', ON 
fingr id. (contamination of a-stem and root 
stem), OE finger id., OFris finger id., OS 
fingar id., OHG fingar id. Together with 
Olr cóicer 'set of five persons' and Arm 
hinger- (in hinger-ord 'fifth'), continues 
*penk>rós (Meillet MSL LX 151, BSL 
XXDÍ 36). Further connected with *Jenfe 
(Stewart BB XXX 238). Grimm DG II 
60 (to Janxanarí); Bugge BB XIV 79 
(from *penk"res); Pedersen KZ XXXII 
272; Grienberger Got. 67 (with com- 
parative suffix *-ero-); Loewenthae AMF 
XXXV 229 (to *fimiz); Zupitza Gutt. 73; 
Torp-Falk 228; Holthausen AEE]V 
105; Feist 150; Schulze Kl. Schr. 193 
(follows Grimm); Pokorný I 808; Vries 
AMEW 120; Zalizniak II 206; Onions 
357; Lehmann GED 114; Bammesberger 
JVom. 75; Ross-Berns Numerab 661; 
Kluge-Seebold 266. 

*fenj5 sb.f.: Goth-Lat fenea (= Goth *finjci) 
'pearl barley, barley dish'. Related to 
Lat penus 'sto re of fooď, Lith penas 
'nouríshmenť. Walde-Hofmann II 283; 
Pokorný I 807; Fraenkel 569; Lehmann 
GED 112. 

*fenbanan str.vb.: GoÚifinpan 'to find out, 
to recognize, to learn', ONfinna 'to finď, 
OE findan id., OFris finda id., OS findan 
id., OHG findan id. A secondary verb 
derived from *pontHo-\ Skt pánthá- 'path', 
Gk 7tóvxoQ 'sea ! , Arm hun 'ford', Lat póns 
'bridge', OPrus pintis 'way', Slav *potb id. 
(Bailey-Ross TPS 1961 138). Cf. also 
*pntHo- 'one pertaining to the way' in 
Toch B amdks-pdnte 'wagon-master (?)' 
(Adams TB 19). The originál meaning 
was better preserved in WGmc *Jan$jdn > 
OE Jeda 'troop, band, company', OHG 
Jendo 'soldier, pedestrian' reflecting an 
underlying verbum movendi. Sůtterlin 
Btrg. Gesch. XVIII 261; Torp-Falk 228; 
Bartholomae 732 (to Gk jtanxaívco 'to 
peer'); Pedersen KZ XXXIX 366; 
Trautmann BS]V 205-206; Holthausen 
AEE1\ T 105; Walde-Hofmann II 336- 
337; Feist 155; Benveniste WordX 257; 
Jóhannesson IE]V 543; Pokorný I 

808-809; Mayrhofer II 210-211; Vries 
AMEW 120; Hamp Lingua XXXIV 229- 
234; Frisk II 578-579; Onions 356; 
Seebold 193-194 (to *pet- 'to fall'); 
Vasmer-Trubachev III 413; Lehmann 
GED 117; Kluge-Seebold 266. 

*fer(e)rai ~ *fer(e)rót adv.: Goth Jairra 
'far', ON jjarri id., OEJeorr id., OFris Jer 
id., OS Jen, Jerro id., OHG Jerro id. 
Derivative of IE *per- (Skt pára 'away, 
off', Av para id.) similar to IE *up-ero- 
(Brugmann IF XXXIII 300-301). 
Grienberger Got. 64 (comparative *Jeri- 
zot); Bartholomae 852-853; Torp-Falk 
231 (reconstruct *-ai); Kluge Urgerm. 
247; Holthausen AEEl\ r 102; Feist 141; 
Mayrhofer II 215; Pokorný I 811; 
Vries ÁNE]V 123; Onions 345; Lehmann 
GED 107; Kluge-Seebold 259; Adams 
TB 359 (identical with Toch A parné, B 
parna 'outside' < *pereno- < *perero- with 

*fer(e)rjanan wk.vb.: ONfirra 'to deprive, 
to savé', OE afirran 'to remove, to také 
away', OFris fira id., OS firrian id., OHG 
firren id. Derived from *Jer(e)rai ~ *Jer(e)rot. 
Torp-Falk 231; Vries AME]\' 121. 

*fer3(w)unjan ~ *fer3(w)unjó sb.n./f.: 
Goth Jairguni 'mountain, mountain 
range', ON JJQrgyn 'mother-earth', OE 
firgen 'mountain, mountain-woodlanď, 
OHG mtn. Fergunna. Identical with 
(Much ZDADL XXXII 454-458) or bor- 
rowed from (Kossinna IF VII 284-285) 
Celt 'EpKtivicx; 8p\)|ió<;, Hercynia silva, cf. 
further Lith perkunas 'thunder god; thun- 
der', OPrus Percunis 'thunder' (Grimm 
DM I 156-157). Derived from *Jerxwuz. 
Schweizer KZ I 155-157; Hirt IF I 
479-483 (samé as Much); Zupitza Gutt. 
130; Zimmer ZDADL XLX 164-166 (to 
Skt Parjánya- 'raincloud, god of rain'); 
Kretschmer Einleitung 81 (Celt < Gmc); 
Wiedemann BB XXVIII 8-9 (to Slav 
*porgt> 'threshold, rapids' and mnt. *per- 
gyni); Muller PBB XXVI 282 (samé as 
Kossinna); Feist 137-138; Karsten GFL 
75—76 (Lith perkunas < EGmc); Můllen- 
hoff II 241-242 (originally, the name of 




the Alps); Torp-Falk 234; Jóhannesson 
IEW 557 (to Jerxwan); Feist 137-139; 
Jakobson Word XI 616 (to Slav *pergyni 
'wooded hill'); Porzig Gliederung 195; 
Pokorný I 822 (from pre-Celtic); Fraen- 
kel 575; Vries ANEW 126; Zalizniak II 
216; Friedrich Trees 133—140; Vasmer- 
Trubaohev III 246-247; Hamp JL III 
83-90 (follows Karsten); Lehmann GED 

*ferxwa-3efoon sb.m.: ON Jjor-gjafi 'one 
who saves another's life', OE feorh-^ifa 
'giver of life'. Gompound of *ferxwan and 
*3eton. Carr Nom. comp. 80 (parallel 
formations; OE is a calque of Lat largitor 

*ferxwa-rě<lan ~ *ferxwa-rěťiiz sb.n./ 
m.: ON Jjgr-rád 'plotting against one's 
life', OE jeorh-réd 'life-benefiť. Com- 
pound of *ferxwan and *rěian ~ *rědiz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 80 (parallel formations). 

*ferxwa-seukaz adj.: ON Jjqr-sjúkr 'sick 
unto death', OE feorh-seóc 'mortally 
woundeď. Compound of *ferxwan and 
*seukaz. Carr Nom. comp. 61. 

*ferxwan sb.n.: ON jjor 'life', pl. mase. 
Jjqwar 'men', OE feorh 'life, soul', OFris 
ferch id., OS ferah id., OHG ferah id. 
Related to *ferxwuz (Grimm-Grimm III 
1527). Kjrchhoff K^I 39; Wiedemann 
BB XXVIII 14-15 (to Skt parm- 'rib; 
siekle'); Zupitza Gutt. 63; Torp-Falk 234; 
Holthausen AEE\Y 101; Feist 139; 
Johannson apud Vries (to Gk npaníSet; 
'midriff; understanding, minď); Torp- 
Falk 234 (samé as Wiedemann); Specht 
R'Z LXVIII 200 (follows Grimm); 
Vendryes RC XLIV 313-315 (follows 
Grimm); Pokorný I 822; Vries ANEW 
125; Zalizniak II 199; Friedrich Trees 
1 37 (samé as Grimm); Meid Germ. Rek. 98— 
100; Lehmann GED 105-106; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 155. 

*ferxwjaz sb.m.: Crim. Goth fers 'man', 
ON pl. firar id., OE pl.firas 'living beings, 
men', OS firihos 'people', OHG gen. pl. 
u[i]rho, dat. pl. mit firahim 'people'. 
Derived from *ferxwan (Diefenbach FIT I 

(Goth fers compared with OE ferhi 'soul, 
spirit, minď); Wledemann BB XXVIII 1 ; 
Zupitza Gutt. 64; Kisch KVSL XLVIII 2 
(Crim. Goth < Hung férj 'man'); Feist 
148; Vries ANE]V 121; Meid Germ. Rek. 
98-100; Lehmann GED 105-106, 113. 

*ferxwuz sb.m.: Goth fairtvus 'worlď, 
OHG fereh-eih 'oak'. Identical with Lat 
quercus id. (Htrt IF I 479). Wtedemann 
BB XXVIII 3; Torp-Falk 234; Walde- 
Hofmann II 402-403; Pokorný I 822- 
823; Metd Festschr. Oberhuber 159-170. 

*ferina-werkan sb.n.: ON firin-verk 
'lechery', OE firen-weorc 'wicked work', 
OS firin-werc 'act of violence'. Compound 
of *ferino and *werkan. Carr Nom. comp. 
47; Vries XVEir 121. 

*ferinó sb.f: Goth fahina 'fault, offence, 
reproach', ON Jim 'abomination' (neut. < 
*ferinu-), OE firen 'wicked deed, sin, 
erime', OFris firne id., OS Jiřina id., OHG 
Jiřina id. Connected with *feran ~ *fěro. 
Uhlenbeck Got. IVb. 41 (preíixal form 
related to Skt inóti 'to advance upon, to 
press upon', iná- 'strong, mighty'); Grien- 
berger Got. 63 (to Gk jteTpa 'attempt, 
undertaking'); Weisweiler IF XLI 29-30 
(samé as Uhlenbeck); Torp-Falk 231; 
Meillet BSL XXII 224 (to Irán par- 'to 
go through'); Schneider KZ LXVI 253 
(to Toch A pare, B peri 'debť); Feist 139 
140; Holthausen AEEW 105, AWN 62 
(to Toch A pare , B peri 'guilť); Vrtes 1 2 1 
(to *fer(ejrai ~ *fer(e)rot); Pokorný I 10, 
818; Zalizniak I 174; Lehmann GED 106. 

*ferinójanan wk.vb.: Goth jairinon 'to 
blame, to aceuse, to reproach', ON/raa 
'to blame', OE Jirenian 'to sin', OHG 
firinón 'to stain (by erime)'. Derived from 
*ferino. Holthausen AEE]\ 7 105; Feist 
139; Vrtes ANEW 121; Lehmann GED 

*fernaz adj.: Goth Jairns 'previous (of 
year)' (affairnin jera = ánb jtépuai), OS fer- 
nun gěre id., MHG verne id. Identical with 
Umbr perné 'before' < *pernai, Lith pl. pér- 
nai id., Latv ppns id. Probably to be 
explained from *per- 'previous' and zero 
grade of *eno- 'year'. Meillet BSL 




XXIX 229-230, MSL XXIII/IV 274- 
275; Torp-Falk 231; Feist 140-141; 
Schulze Kl. Schr. 537—540 (from *per-no-, 
with suffix *-no-); Karsten NB II 210- 
211; Chemodanov SGGJa I 77; Fraenkel 
576; Pokorný I 810-811; Stang LS 42; 
Lehmann GED 106—107; Bammesberger 
Nom. 246; Kluge-Seebold 267. 

*fernjaz adj.: Goth faimeis 'olď, OE jym 
'ancient, olď, OHG jimi 'old, erstwhile, 
former'. Derived from *fernaz. Torp- 
Faek 231; Feist 140; Vries ANEW 123 
(to *fer(ejrai ~ *fer(e)rot); Lehmann GED 
106; Heidermanns 196; Kluge-Seebold 

*fersn5 ~ *ferznó sb.f.: Goth fairzna 
'heel', OE fiersn id. (< *fersniz), OS fersna 
id., OHG fersana, fersna id. Gonnected 
with Hitt paršina 'upper ťhigh', Toch B 
porsno 'ankle (?)' < *persn-, Skt parsni- 
'heď, Av pásna- id., Gk jtxépvT| 'heď, Lat 
perná 'haunch' < *persná (Fick I 81-82). 
Bartholomae 891; Torp-Falk 234- 
235; Holthausen AEE]\' 104; Walde- 
Hofmann II 289-290; Feist 141; 
Kjeckers HG 27 [*e > *e before sonorant 
followed by obstruent); Pokorný I 823; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 106; Zalizniak II 
193; Frisk II 611-612; Lehmann GED 
107; Bammesberger Nom. 147; Kluge- 
Seebold 260; Adams TB 404. 

*fertanan str.vb.: ONfreta 'to break wind' 
(with metathesis), MLG verten id., OHG 
ferzan id. Cf. OE feortinj 'pedatio'. 
Related to Skt párdate id., Gk 7tÉp5o|Mxi 
id., Alb pjerdh, Lith pérdžiu, pérsti id., Slav 
*pbrděti id. Torp-Falk 234; Trautmann 
BSW 220; Holthausen AEEW 102; 
Jóhannesson IEW 554; Mayrhofer II 
225; Pokorný I 819; Vries ANEW 
142; Fraenkel 577; Frisk II 511-512; 
Onions 346; Seebold 194-195; Vasmer- 
Trubaghev III 235-236; Kluge- Seebold 
250; Orel AED 330. 

*fertaz ~ *furtaz sb.m.: ON fretr 'farť 
(with metathesis), MLG vort id., OHG 
firz, furz id. Derived from *fertanan. 
Torp-Falk 234; Vries ANEW 142, 147; 
Kluge-Seebold 292. 

*feručti adv.: ON í jjqro 'in the previous 
year', MHG vert 'previous year'. Identical 
with Skt parút 'last year', Arm heru id., Gk 
Att 7téprjcji id., Olr ónn-urid 'ab anno 
priore'. (Brugmann Grundrijl II/2 708). 
Torp-Falk 231; Holthausen IF XXV 
148; Mayrhofer II 219; Pokorný I 
810-811; Vries ANEW 124; Frisk II 
518-519; Bammesberger Nom. 199-200; 
Griepentrog ]Vurzelnomina 444—445. 

*festiz sb.m.: MLG visi 'foist, farť, MHG 
vist id. Identical with Gk né^iq 'bullfist, 
Lycoperdon Bovista', Lat pedis 'louse', 
further to Gk PSem 'to break wind', Lat 
pedoiá., Liuh bezdú, bezdeti 'to break wind', 
Slav *p b zde'h id. Fick BB VII 270; 
Schmidt K£ XXVII 320; Trautmann 
BSW 221; Walde-Hofmann II 272-273; 
Pokorný I 829; Frisk I 230; Vasmer- 
Trubachev I 163; Fvluge-Seebold 268. 

*fetan sb.n.: ON/ei 'step, páce'. Continues 
IE *pedó-, cf. Hitt pedan 'pláce', Toch A 
pats, B patsa 'bottom', Skt padám 'step, 
footstep', Av paSi>?n id., Gk 7té8ov 
'ground, earth', Arm het 'foot trace', Lat 
peda id., Olr ed 'period', Liuh pedd 'foot, 
sole'. Thematization of IE *ped- 'fooť. 
See *fotz. Bartholomae 842; Torp- 
Falk 225; Trautmann BSW 209-210; 
Walde-Hofmann II 293-294; Mayrho- 
fer II 204-205; Pokorný I 790-791 
Fraenkel 561-563; Frisk II 485-486 
Bammesberger Nom. 59; Adams TB 362 
Dybo BSA 134 (lengthening in Baltic due 
to Winter's law). 

*fetanan str.vb.: ON Jeta 'to step', OE 
pret. 3e-fat 'to falT, OHG pret. faz id. 
Related to IE *ped- id.: Skt padyate 'to 
falT, Slav *padq, *pasti id. (Meillet MSL 
XrV 336). Torp-Falk 225; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 102; Jóhannesson IEW 541- 
542; Mayrhofer II 206-207; Pokorný I 
790-792; Vries ANE1V 118; Seebold 
195-196; Vasmer-Trubachev III 184; 
Kluge-Seebold 251. 

*fetj5 sb.f: ONJtí 'webbed foot of water- 
birds', OE/// 'song, poem', OS Jittea 'sec- 
tion', OHG fizza 'hem, skein of yarn'. 
Structurally close to Toch B paiyye 'fooť 




< *podio-, Gk 7ié^a 'foot, edge', Skt padya- 
'related to fooť (Bugge BB III 116). 
Further connected with *fetan. Torp- 
Falk 226; Holthausen AEEJT 106; 
Pokorný I 791; Vries ANEW 122; Frisk 
II 486; Van Windekens 82; Kluge- 
Seebold 268. 

*fetjojanan wk.vb.: ON fitja 'to web, to 
kniť, MDu vittm 'to be suitable', OHG 
fizzon 'to surrounď. Derived from *fetjo. 
Vries ANEW 122. 

*feturaz ~ *feturó(n) sb.m./f.: ON 
fjoturr 'fetter, shackle', OE fetor, feter id., 
OS pl.feteros id., OHG fezzara id. Derived 
from *fót z (Richter KZ XXXVI 118). 
Torp-Faek 226; Holthausen AEEW 
103; Trier Z dph LXX 354 (reconstructs 
the originál meaning as 'forked piece of 
řirewooď); Pokorný I 792; Vries ANEW 
127; Zaeizniak I 174; Onions 352. 

*fetur5janan wk.vb.: ON jjqtra 'to fetter', 
OE se-feterian 'to fetter, to binď, OFris 
fiteria 'to binď, MDu veteren id., OHG 
fozzaron id. Derived from *feturaz ~ 
*feturo(n). Holthausen AEEW 102; 
Vries ANEW 127. 

*febra-xamaz ~ *febra-xam5n sb.m.: 
ON jjadr-hamr 'winged haunch', OÍLfedei'- 
hama 'wings, plumage', OS fedar-hamo id. 
Compound of *fepro and *xamaz, *xamon. 
Carr Nom. comp. 47. 

*febrjan sb.n.: ON fidri 'feathers, plum- 
age', OF, f dere 'wing', MDu ge-vedere 'plum- 
age', OHG gi-federi id. Derived from 
*fepro. Torp-Falk 227; Holthausen 
AEEW 106; Vries ANEW 119. 

*febr(j)6janan wk.vb.: ON fora 'to 
feather', OE ^e-fiderian 'to give wings', 
G be-jiedern 'to feadier'. Derived from 
*fepijan, fejpro. Torp-Falk 227. 

*febró sb.f: ONJJQÓr 'feadier', OEfeSer id., 
OFris /ethere id., OS feSara id., OHG 
federa id. Related to Hitt pattar 'wing', 
Skt patará- 'flying', Gk jtTEpóv 'feather, 
wing', OW peterin 'birď (Pedersen KZ 
XXXII 245), further connected with *pet- 
'to fly'. Saussure Recueil 420 (from 
*pet-tro-); Torp-Falk 226-227; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 103; Mayrhofer II 199; 

Pokorný I 826; Vries ANEW 124-125 
Zalizniak I 146; Frisk II 612-613 
Onions 348; Bammesberger Nom. 1 1 8 
Kluge-Seebold 254. 

*fe3Ójanan wk.vb.: ON fága 'to polish, to 
clean', OFris fěgia 'to clean', MDu vagen 
id., OS fegon id., OHG JegSn 'to sweep'. 
Despite phonetic difficulties, related to 
*fanxanan. Vries ANEW 109 (to Lith 
púošiu, pudšti 'to decorate'); Pokorný I 
797; Kluge-Seebold 255. 

*fera-lÍ3az adj.: ON fár-ligr 'disastrous', 
OE fiér-líc 'sudden, unexpected, quick', 
MHG vier-lic id. Derived from *firan ~ 
*feraz. Onions 351. 

*feran ~ *feraz sb.n./m.: ON^aí' 'harm, 
evil passion, bale', OE fér 'fear, danger, 
peril', OS far 'ambush, lurking danger' 
(fem.), OHG far 'ambush', fem. fára 
'ambush'. Compared with Arm p'orj 
'attempť, Gk neípa id. (Fick BB II 
210). Meillet BSL XXXVI 110; Torp- 
Falk 230; Holthausen AEEW 96 
Pokorný I 818; Vries ANEl\ r 112 
Zalizniak II 174; Frisk II 489-490 
Solta Arm. 342-343 (isolates Arm p'orj) 
Onions 348; Lehmann GED 112; Kluge- 
Seebold 305. 

*fe ró sb.f: Goth fera 'side, limb', OHG 
fera 'ham'. Probably derived from IE 
*(s)pěi-, cf. Skt sphayate 'to grow fat, to 
increase', Lith spěti 'to be fast enough', 
Slav *spěti 'to flourish, to ripen' (Uhlen- 
beck BBB XXX 275; Sghulze Kl. Schr. 
54). Structurally close to Lith sperus 
'rapid, energetic'. Grienberger Got. 66 
(to Gk 7tépa<; 'exit, enď); Stokes KZ XL 
248 (to Olr triu 'land'); Gůntert WuSXl 
139 (to Gk jtr|pa 'satchel'); Torp-Falk 
567; Feist 148; Mayrhofer III 541-542; 
Pokorný 983-984; Fraenkel 865-866; 
Vasmer-Trubachev III 734; Lehmann 
GED 112. 

*ferjanan wk.vb.: ON fera 'to slighť, OE 
féran 'to terrify, to frighten', MHG feren 
'to readjusť. Derived from *fěran ~ *fěro. 
Torp-Falk 230; Holthausen ^££7^96; 
Vrles ANEW 149; Onions 348; Lehmann 
GED 112. 




*fetjanan wk.vb.: Goth fetjan 'to adorn', 
ON_/iř« 'to manage, to deal', OTLfiétan 'to 
equip'. Long grade variant of *fiatqjanan. 
The samé ablaut grade is found in Lith 
pedas 'sheaf, Latv péda 'bunch'. Torp- 
Falk 226; Persson Beiíráge 224-225 (to 
Skt palla- 'large granary, barn'); Bezzen- 
berger BB XXVII 175 (to Latv pěda 
'armful, bunch'); Holthausen AEE]\ t 
97; Feist 148-149; Pokorný I 790; 
Fraenkel 563; Vries ANE1V 149; Leh- 
mann GED 113; Kluge-Seebold 305. 

*fijab(w)5 sb.f.: Gothfijapwa 'enmity', OE 
Jeo^aú 'hatreď. Derived from *fljěnan. 
Holthausen AEE]V 101; Feist 151; 
Lehmann GED 114. 

*fimiz adj.: ON fimr 'nimble, agile'. Close 
to Olr éim, ém 'quick, fasť < *pe(i)mi- 
(Lidén BB XXI 95). Torp-Faek 228; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 100; Vries ANEW 

*finxló sb.f.: OE fieól 'filé (instrument)', 
MLG filé id., MHG vile id. Related to 
Skt pimšati 'to hew out, to carve', Gk 
heÍko) 'to scratch', Lith piešiu, pwšti 'to 
draw lineš wiuh coal', Slav *pbsati 'to 
write'. Zupitza Gutt. 64; Torp-Falk 
241; Holthausen AEEW 105; Mayr- 
hofer II 267-268; Fraenkel 587; Vries 
ANE1V 117; Onions 355; Kluge-Seebold 

*finkiz ~ *finkon sb.m.: OJLfinc 'finch', 
MDu vinke id., OHG finc,finco id. Related 
to Gk cmíyyoc, id., W pinč id. Suolahti 
DVN 109-110; Torp-Falk 241-242; 
Holthausen AEE]V 105; Onions 356; 
Kluge-Seebold 266. 

*finnaz sb.m.: ON Finnr 'Finn', OE pl. 
Finnas id., G Finne id. Attested as Gk 
Oívvoi, Lat Fenni. Unclear. Karsten 
GFL 230 (to Jenpanan); Ltndroth NB V 
45—50 (to G mtn. Finne and, eventually, 
to Celt *penn- 'hill'); Zaohrisson Festschr. 
A. Koch 312 (to Olr cenn 'head'); Holt- 
hausen AEEW 105; Vries ANEW 120- 
121; Onions 357. 

*finnaz ~ *fin(n)5n sb.m./f: OSwed 
jiná 'fin', OJLfinn 'fin', ML,G finne id. Pro- 
bably related to Toch A spin- 'hook', Skt 

sphyá- 'splinter, staff'. Torp-Falk 240 
(to Lat pinna 'feather', Olr ind 'point, 
tip' < *pinno-); Holthausen AEEW 105; 
Pokorný I 981; Onions 356; Kluge- 
Seebold 266. 

*fiskaz sb.m.: Goůxfisks 'fish', ONfiskr id., 
OE fisc id., OFris fisk id., OS fisk id., 
OHG fisc id. Etymologically related to 
Lat piscis id., Olr íasc id. < *peiskos (Wood 
MLN XV 95). Mikkola RFV XLVEI- 
XLLX 279-280 (to Slav *piskar'b ~ 
*piskor'b 'a kind of river fish, gudgeon'); 
Torp-Falk 242; Fírogmann K^ LXII 
267; Holthausen AEE1\ t 105; Walde- 
Hofmann II 310; Feist 155; Porzig 
Gliederung 110, 193; Pokorný I 796; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 59; Vries ANEW 
121-122; Zalizniak I 131; Onions 358; 
Lehmann GED 1 1 8; Kluge-Seebold 

*fiskójanan wk.vb.: Goth fiskon 'to fish', 
ONfiska id., OF.fiscian id., OFris fiskia id., 
OS fiskon id., OHG gi-fiskon id. Deno- 
minative based on *fiskaz. Derivationally 
similar to Lat piscor 'to fish'. Torp-Falk 
242; Feist 155; Walde-Hofmann II 310; 
Porzig Gliederung 110; Pokorný I 796; 
Vries ANE]V 121-122; Lehmann GED 

*fltjó sb.f: ON fit 'meadow lanď, EFris fit 
'muddy pool'. Related to Gk 7ií8a^ 
'spring, fountain', Olr iath 'meadow' < 
*peito-. Torp-Falk 241; Vries A]ÍE]\ t 
122; FriskII 533. 

*fijěnan wk.vb.: Goth fijan 'to hatě', ON 
jjá id., OE fión, Jeófejan id., OHG^en id. 
Related to Skt píjati 'to revile, to blame' 
(Schulze KZ XXVII 426). Hoffmann 
BB XVIII 149-151 (from *kueio, to Lat 
pio 'to punish', Gk xeíco 'to respecť); 
Torp-Falk 240; Holthausen AEEW 
105; Feist 150-151; Mayrhofer II 
294-295; Pokorný I 792-793; Vries 
ANEW 122; Onions 354; Lehmann GED 
114; Kluge-Seebold 257. 

*fijěnďz sb.m.: Goth fijands 'enemy, fienď, 
ONJjándi id., OJLfieónd id., OFris fiand id., 
OS fiiond id., OHG fiiant id. Present par- 
ticiple of *fíjěnan. Holthausen AEE]V 




105; Feist 150-151; Vries ANEW 123; 
Onions 354; Lindeman Verscharfimg 1 .4; 
Lehmann GED 1 1 4; Bammesberger Nora. 
215; Kluge-Seebold 257. 

*físanan str.vb.: ON fisa 'to farť, 
MHG visen 'to farť. An imitative stem. 
Persson JVurzelerw. 199 (to Lat splro 'to 
breathe'); Torp-Falk 242; Pokorný I 
796 (to Slav *piskati 'to squeak'); Vrtés 
ANEW 121. 

*fla3an sb.n.: ON flag 'spot where a turf 
has been cut ouť, LG flag, flagg 'fiat lanď. 
Related to *flax Z . Vries ANEW 128 (to 

*fla3Ď(n) sb.f.: Norw dial.y/ňí? 'open sea', E 

flaw 'gust of winď, MLG vlage 'procella'. 

Derived from *flaxanan. Torp-Falk 250; 

Pokorný I 832; Vries ANEW 128 (to 


*fla35n sb.f: ON flaga 'slab', MLG vlage 
'layer of earth'. Derived from *fla^an. 
Zupitza Gutt. 130; Torp-Falk 250; Vries 
ANEW 128 (to *flaxz or *flaxanan). 

*flaxanan str.vb.: ON flá 'to flay, to strip 
off the skin', OE fleán id., MDu vlaen id. 
Related to Lith plešiu, plésti 'to tear', Latv 
plést id. (Zupitza Gutt. 190). Fick I 487 
(to Lat plecto 'to beat, to punish'); Persson 
Beitrdge 232-234; Torp-Falk 250; Holt- 
hausen AEE]\ T 107; Jóhannesson IEW 
580-581; Pokorný I 835; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 71; Fraenkel 619; Vries ANEW 
127; Onions 361; Stang LS 42-43; 
Seebold 198. 

*flaxsan sb.n.: OE Jkax 'flax', OFris flax 
id., MLG flas id., OWGflahs id. (mase). 
Identical with Alb plafwool blanket, rug' 
< PAlb *plaxa < *plokso-. Further see 
*flextanan. Torp-Falk 251; Pokorný I 
834-835; Frisk II 557-558; Onions 361; 
Fvluge-Seebold 269; Orel AED 331. 

*flaxto(n) sb.f: Goth flahta 'braiď, ON 
flátta 'mať. Derived from *flextanan. In 
vocalism close to Slav *plotb 'fence' but 
structurally reminding of Gk nA,eKTT| 'coil, 
twisted ropě'. Torp-Falk 251; Feist 
156; Vries ANEW 129; Seebold 199; 
Lehmann GED 1 1 8; Vasmer-Trubachev 
III 285. 

*flaxz sb.f: ONflá 'strip of meadow lanď. 
Structurally close to Gk nXá^ 'fiat land, 
fiat stone'. Further to Lat placeo 'to please, 
to be pleasing', Latv plakt 'to become flať 
(Zupitza Gutt. 130). Torp-Falk 250; 
Walde-Hofmann II 313-314; Pokorný I 
835; Vries ANEW 127; Frisk II 550- 

*flaixanan ~ *flaixjanan str./wk.vb.: 
Goth ga-plaihan 'to comfort, to admonish' 
(str.), MLG vlěn 'to ask', OHG flěhen 
'to fondle, to caress'. Related to *flaixaz. 
Osthoff PBB XIII 399 (to Lat léna 
'bawď < *tlaic-sna); Torp-Falk 195 (to 
Gk ^.ouKá<; 'whore'). 

*flaixaz adj.: ON flár 'falše, insidious', 
OE fláh 'insidious, artful, deceitful'. Of 
unknown origin. Osthoff PBB XIII 
399 (to Lat léna 'bawd, procuress'); van 
Wijk IF XXIV 236-238 (from *fléwa Z ); 
Zupitza Gutt. 210; Torp-Falk 195; 
Holthausen AEE]V 106; Karsten NB I 
59; Nordmeyer Language XI 219 (to Gk 
ájteiA.é(o 'to promise, to threaten'); Vries 
ANEW 129; Heidermanns 198. 

*flainaz sb.m.: ON fleinn 'bayonet-like 
pike, shaft, darť, OE flán 'dart, arrow' 
(fem., mase). Derived from *fllnanan. 
Torp-Falk 252; Trautmann APSpr. 400 
(to OPrus playnis 'barn, stable', Lith plienas 
id.); Holthausen AEEW 106; Vries 
ANEW 129-130 (to *(s)pd- 'to spliť). 

*flaiskaz sb.n.: ON flesk 'pork', OE fliésc 
'meať (z-stem), OFris flask id., OS flesk 
id., OHG fleisc id. Of uncertain origin. 
Cf. also OE flíéc id. < *flaik- suggesting 
*flaiskaz < *flaik-sk-. Osthoff PBB XIII 
401-403 (reconstructs *plaiskiz, to Lat 
láridum 'fat of bacon, lard'); Torp-Falk 
252 (to *flikkjan); Holthausen AEEh' 
106; Pokorný I 835 (to *fliko)\ Vries 
ANEW 130 (to ON flís 'splinter'); 
Zalizniak II 216; Onions 362. 

*flaizon adj. comp.: ON fleiri 'more'. 
Related to Skt prayah 'more', Gk jtXeícov 
id., Lat plus id. (a contamination of 
*plei-s- and *pleu-s-). Torp-Falk 235; 
Walde-Hofmann II 327-328; Pokorný I 
800; Frisk II 556. 




*flakaz ~ *flakuz adj.: Goth plaqus 'sup- 
ple, tender', MLG vlak 'flať, OHG flah id. 
See *flakan. Zupitza Gutt. 214; Torp- 
Falk 249; Walde-Hofmann II 314; Feist 
499; Pokorný I 832; Onions 364; 
Lehmann GED 363; Heidermanns 199; 
Kluge-Seebold 269, 271. 

*flakk5janan wk.vb.: ON flakka 'to rove 
abouť, MDu vlacken 'to blaze', G dial. 
flacken id. Related to Gk iikáX^m 'to turn 
aside, to turn away' < *nXayyico, with an 
unclear geminate, Lat plango 'to strike, to 
beať. Walde-Hofmann II 315-316; 
Martinet Gém. 170; Pokorný I 832; 
Vries ANEW 128 ("intensive gemina- 
tion"); Frisk II 548-549. 

*flakon sb.m.: ON flaki, fleki 'hurdle, 
shield wicker-work', ME flake, fleke 'stick- 
ing point, hurdle', EFris flake 'floe', OS 
fláka 'foot sole' (fem.). Related to Gk 
Herakl jtXáyo? 'side', Lat plaga 'region, 
quarter, tracť. Torp-Falk 249; Walde- 
Hofmann II 314; Pokorný I 832; Vries 
ANEW 128 (to febcanan). 

*flakuraz adj.: Icel e-m verSur flijkurt 'to feel 
sick', OE flacor 'flickering'. Related to 
*flokanan. Berneker IF LX 364 (to Lat 
flagro 'to fláme, to blaze'); Torp-Falk 
249; Holthausen AEEW 106; Jóhan- 
nesson IEW b!1\ Heidermanns 200 (sec- 
ondary derivation from *flakurqjan). 

*flakur5janan wk.vb.: ON flqkra 'to 
flutter', ME flakeren 'to tremble', MDu 
flackeren 'to flutter', MHG vláčkem 'to 
flicker'. Derived from *flakuraz. Heider- 
manns 200; Kluge-Seebold 269. 

*flasko(n) sb.f.: ON/«á« 'flask', OEflaxe 
id., OHG flasca id. Close to Lith plókščias 
'flať, Slav *ploskb id. or direcdy derived 
from *flataz. Sohróder An~T)A XXIII 
157 (to IE *plě- 'full, to fiU'); Pokorný I 
831; Pisani KZ XC 18-19; Kluge- 
Seebold 270 (from *flaxt-ska-). 

*flataz adj.: ON flatr 'flať, OS flat id., 
OHG flaz id. An irregular continuant 
of IE *plet(s)- 'wide' in the full grade, 
cf. Skt práthas- 'width', Av JiaOah- id., 
Gk Tikáioq id., W llei id. See *flapo(nj. 
Bartholomae 983; Karsten NB II 

372-373; Torp-Falk 251; Mayrhofer II 
364; Pokorný I 834; Vries ANEW 
129 (to Latv plade 'placenta'); Frisk II 
553—554; Onions 360; Heidermanns 

*flatjan sb.n.: ON flet 'set of benches or 
rooms', OJLflet 'floor, dwelling', OFrisyfett 
'building, house', OS flet, fletti 'quarters, 
chamber', OHG flezzi 'direshing-floor, 
halí'. Derived from *flataz. Torp-Falk 
251; Holthausen AEEW 108; Pokorný I 
834; Vries AMW 130-131; Zalizniak I 
145; Onions 360; Heidermanns 200; 
Kluge-Seebold 275. 

*flatjanan wk.vb.: ON fletja 'to cut open', 
WGmc *flatjan > Frflatir id. Derived from 
*flataz. Gamillsoheg Rom. Germ. I 158; 
Vries ANE1\ T 131. 

*flaj)5(n) sb.f: Norwflade 'small valley, flat 
fielď, OHG flada 'a kind of thin and wide 
cake', mase. flado id. A regular reflex of 
IE *plet(d)- 'wide', cf. *flataz. Torp-Falk 
251; Pokorný I 834. 

*flaj)r5janan ~ *flej3rojanan wk.vb.: 
ON fladra 'to fawn', MHG vladem 'to 
flutter', OHG flediron 'to be careless, 
mindless'. Of imitative origin. Torp- 
Falk 251; Vries ANEW 127 (to MDu 
vleder, a crossing of *fepro and *fleu3an). 

*flau3iz adj.: ONjkygr 'able to fly', OHG 
wint-flougi 'flying, soaring'. Derived from 
*fleu3anan. Torp-Falk 254; Matzel 
Festschr. Schroder 96, AŽTJ CV 98; Heider- 
manns 200-201. 

*flau3Janan wk.vb.: ON fleygja 'to cause 
to fly, to throw', OFris flágia 'to flee'. 
Probably also Goth usflaugjan 'to carry 
abouť if this reading is to be preferred to 
us-walugjan (see *walyjanan ~ *wal3qjanan). 
Causative of 'fleujanan. Braune LGRP 
XXLX 328 (on the reading of the Gothic 
word); Torp-Falk 254; Feist 530; Vries 
ANElť 131; Seebold 201, 518; Lehmann 
GED 381. 

*flauxz sb.m./f: ONjío 'flea', OE/m id., 
MLG vlo id., OHG floh id. Somehow dis- 
tandy related to Skt plúsi- id., Arm lu id., 
Alb plesht id. < *pleu-s-ta. The influence 
of *fleuxanan is possible. Meillet MSL 




XXII 142; Torp-Falk 195-196 (to 
*jieuxanan); Holthausen AEE1\' 107 
Mayrhofer II 386-387; Pokorný I 102 
Vries ANEW 132; Zalizniak II 207 
Onions 361; Lehmann GED 363; Kluge- 
Seebold 274; Orel AED 333. 

*flaumaz sb.m.: ON flaumr 'eddy, crowď, 
OHG weralt-floum 'transitoriness of the 
woriď. Derived from *flowarum. Struc- 
turally similar with Gk nkv\ia 'water 
in which somediing has been washeď. 
Zupitza Gutt. 74; Torp-Falk 253; 
Pokorný I 836; Vries ANEW 129 (recon- 
structs *flau3maz); Seebold 204. 

*flautaz adj.: Goth flauts 'boastful, con- 
ceiteď, OHG adv. flóz-líhlw 'effusive'. 
Derived from *fleutanan (Grienberger Got. 
70). Holthausen AnzZJiA XXIV 34 (to 
Lat plaudo 'to slap, to beať); Endzelin K^ 
LI 258 (to Latv plaudis 'bream, Gyprinus 
brama'); Feist 156; Pokorný I 837; 
Lehmann GED 118; Heidermanns 201. 

*flautjanan wk.vb.: ON jteyta 'to float, to 
lift', MLG floten 'to drive', OHG flozzen 
'to flow'. Causative of *fleutanan. Torp- 
Falk 255; Vries ANEW 131; Seebold 

*flautiz ~ *flautjon sb.f: ON pl. Jlautir 
'a kind of whipped milk', OF.fliéte 'cream, 
curds'. Derived from *jteutanan. Torp- 
Falk 255; Holthausen AEE]\ r 108; 
Vries ANEW 129. 

*flawjan sb.n.: ON fley 'a kind of ship'. 
Identical with Toch B plewe 'ferry, ship', 
Gk rcXolov 'ship'. For further connections 
see *floduz. Torp-Falk 253; Porzig 
Gliederung 186; Pokorný I 836; Vries 
ANEW 131; Frisk II 559-560; Lehmann 
GED 119; Burlak IFTJa 250. 

*flawjanan wk.vb.: OHG flewen 'to rinse'. 
Glose to Skt plaváyati 'to cause to swim, to 
bathe, to submerge', Slav *plujq, *ploviti 
'to swim'. See *flóiuz. Torp-Falk 253- 
254; Mayrhofer II 384-385; Pokorný I 
835-837; Vasmer-Trubaohev III 271 

*flextanan str.vb.: OE flohten-fóte 'web- 
footeď, OS flehtan 'to braiď, OHG flehtan 
id. Related to Lat plectó 'to plait, to 

braiď, Slav *pletq, *plesti 'to weave'. 
Further connected with Gk nkíyna 'to 
weave, to braiď, Lat plico 'to fold to- 
gether' (extracted from prefixal verbs, cf. 
ex-plico). Persson Beitráge 346; Zupitza 
Gutt. 190; Torp-Falk 250-251; Traut- 
mann £511^224; Holthausen AEEW 107; 
Walde-Hofmann II 321; Jóhannesson 
IEW 580; Pokorný I 834-835; Vries 
ANEW 131; Frisk II 557-558; Seebold 
198-199; Vasmer-Trubaohev III 280; 
Lehmann GED 118; Kluge-Seebold 

*flext5n sb.f./m.: ON flétta 'braiď, OE 
fieohta 'hurdle', OHG flehta 'braiď. De- 
rived from *flextanan. Torp-Falk 251. 

*flekkaz sb.m.: ON flekkr 'spot, fleck', 
MLG vleke 'plot of lanď (fem.), OHG flec 
'stain, fleck'. Probably related to *flakaz ~ 
*flakuz. Torp-Falk 250; Martinet Gém. 
197; Vries ANEW 130 (to *felxanan); 
Sommer Schr. 15 (to *flíko); Lůhr Expr. 
216-218; Kluge-Seebold 271. 

*flekkójanan wk.vb.: ON jiekka 'to fleck, 
to stain', MDu vlecken id., OHG gi-fleckón 
id. Derived from *flekkaz. Vries ANEIV 

*fleu3anan str.vb.: ON fljúga 'to fly', OE 
fleó^an id., OFrisyfragň id., MLG vlegen id., 
OHG fliogan id. Derivationally close to 
Lith plaukiu, plaůkti 'to swim' (Fraenkel 
IF L 229). Further related to Toch A />/«- 
'to fly', Skt pláváte 'to float, to swim', Gk 
TÍkítň 'to swim (on a ship)', Lith pláuju, 
pláuti 'to rinse, to wash', Slav *plovq, *pluti 
id. Zupitza Gutt. 130; Torp-Falk 254; 
Trautmann BS]\ t 223-224; Feist 530- 
531; Holthausen AEEW 107; Jóhannes- 
son IEW 575-578; Mayrhofer II 383- 
384; Pokorný I 837; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 76; Fraenkel 608; Vries ANEW 
132; Frisk II 559-560; Onions 365; 
Stang LS 42; Seebold 201-202; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 288-289; Lehmann GED 
130; Kluge-Seebold 272. 

*fl(e)u3Ón sb.f.: ON fluga 'fly, moth', OE 
fleó 3 e 'fly', MLG vlěge id., OHG flioga 
id. Derived from *fieu 3 anan. Zupitza 
Gutt. 130; Torp-Falk 254; Holthausen 




AEEW 107; Pokorný I 837; Vries 
ANEW 134; Zalizniak I 155; Onions 

*fleuxanan str.vb.: Goth pliuhan 'to flee', 
ON pret. fló id., OE fleón id., OFris flia 
id., OS fliohan id., OHG fliohan id. Cf. also 
ON wk. flýja id. < *fleuxjanan. The com- 
parison with *fleu^anan (Zupitza Gutt. 
131) of which *fleuxanan is an early lexi- 
calized variant is decisive in postulating 
the Gothic change *fl- > pl- in unknown 
phonological conditions. Osthoff PBB 
XIII 412—415 (to Lat locusta 'grasshopper, 
shellfish, lobster'); Loewenthal ANF 
XXXV 238-239 (to Slav *tblpa 'crowď), 
PBB XLLX 419; Torp-Falk 195-196; 
Feist 499-500; Holthausen AEEW 107 
(samé as Zupitza); Jóhannesson IEW 
578; Pokorný I 837; Fraenkel 608; 
Vries ANE]V 134; Onions 361; Seebold 
517-518; Lehmann GED 363; Kluge- 
Seebold 273. 

*fleutan sb.n.: ON fljót 'river' (mainly in 
rvn.), OJLfleót 'bay, gulf, river; raft, ship' 
(mase), MLG flět 'river' (mase, neut.). 
Derived from *fleutanan. Substantivized 
*fleutaz? Torp-Falk 255; Holthausen 
AEEW 107; Vries ANEW 132; Onions 
361; Lerchner 253. 

*fleutanan str.vb.: ON fijóta 'to floať, OE 
fleótan id., OFris fliáta id., OS fliotan id., 
OHG fliozan id. Related to Lith plustu, 
plusů 'to flow, to stream', Latv plustu, plůst 
'to pour out, to flow' continuing *pleud-, 
an extension of IE *pku- (Aufrecht KZ I 
119), cf. also Olr luaidid 'to move'. See 
*flowanan. Torp-Falk 255; Holthausen 
AEEW 107; Jóhannesson IEW 575-578; 
Pokorný I 837; Fraenkel 634; Vries 
A/VET T 132; Onions 361; Seebold 202- 
204; Lehmann GED 1 19; Kluge-Seebold 

*fleutaz adj.: ON fljót 'fleet, swifť, Efleet 
'quick, fasť, MDu adv. vliet, vliete 'swift, 
hurrieď. Derived from *fleutcinan. Struc- 
turally close to Olr lúath id. (Windisch 
KZ XXI 431). Torp-Falk 255; Kar- 
sten M II 401-402; Vries ANEW 132; 
Heidermanns 202. 

*flikkjan sb.n.: ON flikki 'flitch (of bacon)', 
OE fikce id., MLG vlicke id. Related to 
*flíkó. Torp-Falk 252; Holthausen 
AEEW 108; Vries ANEW 131; Onions 

*flintaz sb.m.: OE flint id., MLG vlint-sten 
'flintstone'. Cf. also MLG vlins id., OHG 
flins id. (Kuhn KZ I 380). Borrowed from 
the samé unknown source as Gk jiXív9o<; 
'brick, tile'. Torp-Falk 253; Gúntert 
Labyrinth 22; Kretschmer Glotta XXIII 
12; Holthausen AEEW 108; Vries 
ANEW 131; Frisk II 562-563; Onions 

*flíkó sb.f: ON flík 'tatter, rag'. Deri- 
vationally close to Lith plyša 'tear, break, 
spliť, further connected to Lith plýšti 
'to burst, to tear'. Torp-Falk 252 (to 
Lith pléikéti 'to become rough (of a face)'); 
Pokorný I 835; Fraenkel 625; Vries 
ANEW lil. 

*flínanan str.vb.: Norw dial. flinci 'to 
whine'. Related to Lith plýnas 'even, bald' 
(Torp-Falk 252). The meaning in Gmc 
is secondary as attested by the derivative 
*fiainaz. Pokorný I 834. 

*flódan sb.n.: ONflód 'lide, flooď, OEflód 
'flow, wave, tide', OFris flod id. Derived 
from *flowanan. Torp-Falk 254; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 109; Seebold 204. 

*flódiz sb.f: ON flmSr 'flood-tide, high 
water', OS flod 'tide, torrenť, OHG fluot 
id. See *flóduz. Torp-Falk 254; See- 
bold 204. 

*fl5djanan wk.vb.: ON flada 'to flood 
over', OE flédan id., MDu vloeden id., 
MHG vlúeten id. Derived from *floduz. 
Holthausen AEEW 109; Vries ANE]\ t 

*flóáuz sb.m.: Goth jlodus 'stream', OEflód 
'flow, wave, tide', OS flod id., OHG fluot 
id. Close to Gk nXanóq 'floating'. Further 
derived from *flowanan. Torp-Falk 254: 
Holthausen AEEW 109; Feist 156-157 
Pokorný I 836-837; Vries ANEW 133 
Zalizniak II 216; Onions 363; Frisk II 
565-566; Seebold 204; Lehmann GED 
118; Bammesberger Nora. 159—160; 
Fvluge-Seebold 277. 




*fl5xo sb.f.: ON fló 'layer', OE flóh 'frag- 
ment, piece', OHG Jtuoh 'rock, clifF. 
Related to *flaxanan. Zupitza Gutt. 130; 
Holthausen AEEW 109; Vries AMEW 
132; Rluge-Seebold 276. 

*flókanan str.vb.: Goth jiokan 'to bewail, 
to mourn', ON flókinn 'bewilclered, unset- 
tleď, OE flocan 'to clap, to strike', OS 
jiokan 'to curse', OHG widarfluohhan 'to 
revile'. Related to Gk nXaífň 'to make 
roam, to misleaď, Lat plango 'to bewail, 
to strike'. See *flakkojanan. Torp-Falk 
250; Feist 157; Holthausen AEEW 109; 
Walde-Hofmann II 3 1 5-3 1 6; Jóhannes- 
son IEW 573; Pokorný I 832-833; Frisk 
II 548-549; Seebold 205-206; Lehmann 
GED 119; Kxuge-Seebold 275. 

*flókanaz ~ *flókenaz adj.: ON flókinn 
'clotted, entangleď, OFris ur-fldkin, OS 
far-flócan 'curseď. Derived from *flokaiian. 
Lehmann GED 119. 

*flókon ~ *flókan sb.m./n.: ON flóki 
'felt, hair', OEflóc id. Related to *flakai ~ 
flakuz. Zupitza Gutt. 214; Holthausen 
AEEW 109; Vries AMEl\ r 133; Onions 

*flóraz sb.m.: ON flór 'floor, pavemenť, 
OE>V 'floor', MDu vloer id., MHG vluor 
'fielď. Related to Olr lár 'floor', W llawr 
(Fick KZ I 366-367: further to Lat 
plánus 'flať, Lith plóti 'to flatten'). Cf. also 
Lat ex-ploro 'to search out, to examine' 
based on *plóro- 'grounď. Kuhn ]VF 
XII 8; Torp-Falk 249; Holthausen 
AEEW 109; Walde-Hofmann I 430-431; 
Porzig 119; Pokorný I 806; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 98; Vries AMEW 133; 
Onions 363; Kluge-Seebold 276. 

*fl5wanan str.vb.: OTLflówan 'to flow'. Cf. 
also ON wh.flóa 'to overflow' < *flowenan. 
Long grade of IE *pleu-, see *floáuz. Cf. 
in particular Gk Ion TÍkám 'to sail', 
Slav *plavati 'to swim'. Torp-Falk 254; 
Trautmann BS]V 223; Holthausen 
AEEW 1 10; Jóhannesson IEW 575-578; 
Pokorný I 835-837; Vries AMEW 132; 
Frisk II 565-566; Onions 364; Seebold 
204-205; Vasmer-Trubachev III 271; 
Lehmann GED 119. 

*flówěn sb.m.: ON flói 'marshy moor'. 
Derivationally close to Olr ló 'water' < 
*plouo-. Further see *flowanan. Saxén 
SNF 1/3 60; Torp-Falk 254; Vries 
AMEW 133. 

*flu3an sb.n.: ON flog 'flighť, OE 3e-flo3 
'infectious disease', MLG vloch 'flighť. 
Derived from *fleuyinan. Torp-Falk 254; 
Holthausen AEEW 109; Vries AMEW 

*flu3Íz sb.m.: ON flugr 'flighť, OEflj>3e id., 
OS flugi id., OYíG flug id. Derived from 
*fleu3anan. Torp-Falk 254; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 110; Pokorný I 837; Vries 
AMEW 134; Zalizniak II 186; Seebold 
201; Lehmann GED 363; Bammesberger 
Mom. 130. 

*flu3Jan sb.n.: ON flygi 'flying insecť, E 
fledge id., MHG adj. vliicke 'fledged, flying'. 
Cf. also *flu3án > ON fluga 'fly'. Derived 
from *fleu3anan. Pokorný I 837; Vries 
AME1\' 134; Zalizniak I 155. 

*flu3ulaz adj.: ON flogall 'volatile', OE 
flu3ol 'apt to fly, flying swiftiy, swifť. 
Derived from *fleu3anan. Karsten MB 
II 276, 286; Holthausen AEEII' 110; 
Heidermanns 204. 

*fluxton ~ *fluxtjaz sb.m.: ON flótti 
'flighť, OE flyht id., OFris flecht id., OS 
fluht id., OHG íem.fluht id. Derived from 
*fleu3anan. Holthausen AEEW 110; 
Vries AMEW 134; Onions 362; Lehmann 
GED 363. 

*flukkaz sb.m.: ON flokkr 'troop, band, 
crowď, OE flocc 'flock, band, company', 
MLG vlocke 'flock'. Historically identical 
with WGmc *flukkon 'snowflake': MLG 
vlocke, OHG flocko (Torp-Falk 254) 
further compared with Lith pláukas 
'hair', Latv pl. plauki 'snowflakes'. Mat- 
zenauer LF LI 125-126; Holthausen 
AEEW 109; Martinet Gém. 197; 
Pokorný I 837; Vries AMEW 133 (to 
*fleu3anan)\ Onions 363; Lerchner 253. 

*flunpron ~ *flunprjon sb.f: ON flydra 
'flounder', MLG vlundere 'thin boarď. 
Somehow connected with Lat pluteus 
'penthouse, sheď, Lith plautas 'porch of 
the beehive', Latv plauts 'shelf. Torp- 




Falk 251 (to *flapo(n)); Pokorný I 838; 
Vries ANEW 134. 

*flutan sb.n.: ON á flot 'afloať, OE flot 
Vater deep enough for sustaining a ship, 
sea', MDu slot 'flow', OHGJluz 'current, 
flow' (mase). Derived from *fleutanan. 
Torp-Falk 255; Holthausen AEEW 
109; Vries ANEW 134; Seebold 203. 

*flutójanan wk.vb.: ON flota 'to floať, 
OE flotian id., OS floton id. Derived from 
*flutan. Holthausen AEE}V 110; Vries 
ANEW 134; Onions 363. 

*flutón sb.m.: ON fioti 'fleet, floať, OE 
flota 'ship, fleeť, MLG slote id. Derived 
from *fleutanan. Torp-Falk 255; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 109; Vries ANEW 134; 
Seebold 203; Kluge-Seebold 275. 

*flúj3Ď sb.f: ONy?áá 'low skerries flooded 
by the sea'. Derivationally close to 
Skt pluta- 'floated, swimming in', Latv 
pluts 'rafť. Further related to *fleutanan. 
Torp-Falk 253; Holthausen AEE~W 
107; Mayrhofer II 386; Pokorný I 
835-836; Vries ANEW 134. 

*fnasan sb.n.: Norw fnas 'awn (of corn)', 
OE fnďs 'fringe'. Of unknown origin. 
Torp-Falk 245 (to ON fnasa 'to sneeze, 
to snorť). 

*fneusanan ~ *fnúsanan str.vb.: ON 
fnýsa 'to sneeze', OE fnisan 'to sneeze', 
MDu Jniesen id., MHG pjkusen id. Pro- 
bably related to Gk jrvéco 'to blow'. 
Torp-Falk 245; Holthausen AEE1\ t 
110; Pokorný I 839; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 109; Vries ANEW 136; Frisk II 

*fodisló(n) sb.f: ON>~/a 'fooď, OEfédesl 

'feeder', MDu voetsel 'fooď, OHG neut. 

fuotisal 'fodder, grazing'. Derived from 

*fodjanan. Holthausen AEEW 111; 

Vries ANEW 150. 

*foďjanan wk.vb.: Goth fodjan 'to feed, to 
nourish', ONfada id., OE/édan id., OFris 
fodia id., OS fódian id., OHG fuoten id. 
Derived from *foddn. Torp-Falk 223; 
Feist 157; Holthausen AEE]V 111; 
Pokorný I 787; Vries ANEW 149; 
Onions 349; Lehmann GED 1 1 9; Kluge- 
Seebold 293. 

*foďon sb.m.: OE fóda 'food, nourish- 
menť. An archaism based on IE *pá-\ 
Hitt pahš- 'to defend, to guard', Toch A 
pas-, B pásk- 'to guard', Lat pasco 'to feed, 
to pasture'. Holthausen AEEW 110; 
Walde-Hofmann II 260; Pokorný I 787; 
Onions 368; Lehmann GED 119; Burlak 
IFTJa 248. 

*fočtran I sb.n.: Goůifodr 'casing, sheath', 
ON fóúr 'lining' (*-p-), MLGfóder 'casing, 
sheath', OHG fuotar id. Identical with 
Hitt pattar 'basket', Toch B patro- 'vessel 
for alms', Skt neut. patra- 'receptacle, ves- 
sel'. Torp-Falk 223; Feist 157-158; 
Mayrhofer II 252-253; Pokorný I 839; 
Vries ANEW 136 (identical with *f odrati 
II); Zalizniak I 140; Onions 370; 
Lehmann GED 120; Bammesberger Nom. 
86; Kluge-Seebold 293. 

*foďran II sb.n.: ON fóir 'fodder' (*->-), 
OE Jódder id., MLG voder id., OHG fuotar 
id. From IE *pa-tro- also attested in Arm 
hawran 'herd' and belonging to IE *pa- 'to 
graze'. See *fodon. Holthausen AEE]\ t 
110; Pokorný I 787; Vries ANE]V 136; 
Zalizniak I 140; Onions 366; Kluge- 
Seebold 293. 

ío3Janan wk.vb.: OE fé^an 'to join, to 
bind', OFris jóga id., OS fogian id., OHG 
fuogen id. Derivationally close to Skt 
pasáyati 'to bind'. Further cf. Gk 7tr|yvt)|ji 
'to stick, to fix', Lat pango 'to fasten, to 
fix', Lith pudšti 'to adorn'. See *Janxanan. 
Holthausen AEEW 111; Walde- 
Hofmann II 245-246; Pokorný I 797; 
Fraenkel 669; Frisk II 525-526; Leh- 
mann GED 102; Kluge-Seebold 289- 

*foljanan wk.vb.: OEfélan 'to feel', OFris 
jela id., OS gi-folian id., OHG fuolen 
id. Derivative of *fallanan semantically 
similar to such phrases as E to jali in 
love. Of. in particular the meanings in 
Baltic: Lith púolu, púlti 'to falF, Latv 
pult id. as opposed to OPrus au-pallai 'to 
finď. Holthausen AEE]\ t 111; Onions 
349 (to *fulmo 'palm'); Kluge-Seebold 
290 (to Lat palpo 'to stroke, to touch, to 




*fóriz adj.: ON fitrr 'able, capable', OE 
fere 'passable', OFris fere 'conducive', 
OHG gi-Juori 'appropriate, suitable'. 
Derived from *faranan. Karsten MB I 
112-113; Torp-Falk 230; Holthausen 
AEEW 111; Vries AMEW 150; Seebold 
188; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 104, KZ 
CV 119; Heidermanns 205-206. 

*forjan sb.n.: ON tor-firi 'difficult pas- 
sage', OFris fere 'utility', OS gi-fori id., 
OHG gi-fuori 'favorable condition, utility, 
house'. Derived from *foriz. Torp-Falk 
230; Vries AMEW 150; Seebold 188; 
Heidermanns 206. 

*forjanan wk.vb.: ON fara 'to bring', OE 
féran 'to go, to travel, to march', OFris 
fěra 'to bring', OS forian 'to lead, to 
convey', OHG fuoren id. Causative of 
*faranan. Cf. Skt paráyati, causative of 
píparti 'to bring over', Slav *pariti 'to soar'. 
Torp-Falk 230; Holthausen AEE1\' 
111; Vries AMEW 150; Seebold 188; 
Lehmann GED 108; Vasmer-Trubachev 
III 207; Kluge-Seebold 290. 

*forjón sb.f: ON ó-fmra 'dangerous situa- 
tion', OHG un-gi-fuora 'unfavorable condi- 
tion'. Derived from *foriz. Heidermanns 

*f5stra-br5běr sb.m.: ON fóstr-bródir 
'foster-brother, OE fister-bródor id. Com- 
pound of *fb~stran and *brope>: Carr 
Mom. comp. 54. 

*fostra-faděr sb.m.: ON fistr-fadir 'foster- 
father', OE fister-feder id. Compound of 
*fostran and *faděr. Carr Mom. comp. 54. 

*fostra-lančtan sb.n.: ON fistr-land 
'native lanď, OE fister-land 'land assigned 
for the procuring of provisions'. Com- 
pound of *fostran and Handan. Carr 
Mom. comp. 80 (parallel formations). 

*fostra-launan sb.n.: ON fóstr-laun 
'reward for fostering', OE fóster-leán 
'remuneration for rearing a foster-chilď. 
Compound of *fostran and *launan. 
Carr Mom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*fostra-m5děr sb.m.: ON fóstr-módir 
'fostermother', OE fóster-módor id., OLG 
fóstar-muoder id. Compound of *fostran and 
*moděr. Carr Mom. comp. 47—48. 

*fostran sb.n.: ON fóstr 'fostering', OE 
fóster id., MLGfóster id. Related to *fodon. 
Goes back to *p5t-tro-, cf. Gk jtaxáo|jai 
'to eat and drink', Lat pasco 'to feed, 
to pasture', Mír ás 'growth' < *pát-to-. 
Torp-Falk 223; Holthausen AEEW 
113; Walde-Hofmann II 260; Pokorný 
I 787; Vries AMEW 139; Frisk II 
480; Lehmann GED 1 1 9; Bammesberger 
Mom. 87. 

*f5stra-swestěr sb.f: ON fóstr-systir 
'fostersister', OE fóster-sweostor id. Com- 
pound of *fostran and *swester. Carr 
Mom. comp. 54. 

*fotiďaz adj.: ON -fmttr 'wiťh feeť, OE 
-féted id., MLG -vceted id. Derived from 
*fótz ~ *fotuz. Holthausen AEEW 111; 
Vries AME1\ t 150. 

*fót(u)-burdan sb.n.: Goth fotu-baurd 
'foot-stool', ON fót-bord id. compound of 
*jbtz ~ *Jotuz and *purdan. Carr Mom. 
comp. 67. 

*fot(u)-spuran sb.n.: ON fót-spor 'foot- 
prinť, OE fót-spor 'foot-track, foot-trace', 
MLG vbt-spor id., OHG fuozspor id. 
Compound of *fotz ~ *fotuz and *spuran. 
Carr Mom. comp. 72 (parallel formations). 

*fot(u)-werkaz sb.m.: ON fót-verkr 'gouť, 
OE mase. fót-uxerc 'pain in the fooť. 
Compound of *fotz ~ *fotuz and *werkaz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*fotz ~ *fotuz sb.m.: Goth fotus 'fooť, 
ON fotr id., OE fit id., OFris fot id., 
OS fot id. (sg. z-stem), OHG fuoz id. (sg. 
z-stem). Related to Hitt pata- id., Toch A 
pem, B paiyye id., Skt pad- id., Av pad- id., 
Arm pl. ot-k' id., Gk Jtoúq, Dor nmq id., 
Lat pes id. Bartholomae 842; Torp- 
Falk 225-226; Holthausen AEEW 113; 
Walde-Hofmann II 293-294; Feist 
159-160; Specht 82; Mayrhofer II 249 
Pokorný I 790-791; Vries AMEW 139 
Zalizniak II 207; Frisk II 587-588 
Onions 368; Sommer Schr. 13-15 
Lehmann GED 121; Bammesberger Mom. 
198; Griepentrog I Vurzelnomina 153- 
170; Kluge-Seebold 293; Adams TB 

*fra3Janan wk.vb.: Goth fiagjan 'to ask, to 




tesť. Alternatively can be reconstructed 
as str. *jra^anan. Identical with UiŮi prašýti 
'to ask, to requesť, Slav *prositi id. See 
*fřexnanan ~ *Jrejnanan. Grienberger 
Got. 72; Feist 160; Pokorný I 821-822; 
Fraenkel 647; Lehmann GED 121. 

*fraisanan str.vb.: Goth jřaisan 'to put to 
the test, to tempť. Cf. WGmc *Jrais5: 
OFris Jřase 'danger, hazard', OS jrěsa 
'damage', OHG freisa 'setting, down- 
fall, destruction'. Derived from *fraipaz. 
Bugge PBB XXIV 435-436 (from *per- 
ei); Brugmann Grundújt I 925 (compound 
*Jřa-isanan, to ON eisa 'to shower down 
(embers)'); Hoffmann Festschr. Fick 38 
(compound related to *aiskdjanan)\ Torp- 
Falk 245; Holthausen AEE]V 1 15; Feist 
162-163; Seebold 207 (to Gk jteípa 
'trial, attempť); Lehmann GED 123. 

*fraibaz adj.: OS fiěthi 'renegade, run- 
away', OHG Jřeidi 'run-away, heretic'. 
Identical with Skt préta- 'deaď < *pro-i- 
to-, cf. further OPhryg proitavos (a title). 
Hirt IF XXXVII 235-236; Mayrhofer 
II 353; Pokorný I 295; Heidermanns 
207-208 (secondary jn-stems). 

*fraiwan sb.n.: Goůifraiw 'seeď, ONjřf, 
Jijó id. Of unknown etymology. Meyer 
KZ VIII 248 (to Gk aTteípco 'to strew'); 
Diefenbach V\V I 398; Wiedemann BB 
XXVIII 43—44 (to Lat praegnans 'preg- 
nanť); Osthoff PBB XX 95-96 (< IE 
*pro-iuom, to *ei- 'to go'); Bugge PBB 
XXrV 457 (to Lat pário 'to bring forth'); 
Wiedemann BB XXVIII 43-44 (recon- 
structs *jřaÍ3wan, to Lat praegnans 'preg- 
nanť); Petersson Aufs. 50 (from 
*JraÍ3wan, to Gk jtépKT| 'bass', with the 
originál meaning 'sprayed ouť); Torp- 
Falk 245; Feist 163; Vries AMEW 145; 
Onions 379; Lehmann GED 123; 
Bammesberger Nom. 70. 

*fraiwjaz adj.: ON Jřjór 'fertile'. Derived 
from *Jřaiwan. Wiedemann BB XXVIII 
43 (from *JraÍ3wjaz, to Lat praegnans 'preg- 
nanť); Torp-Falk 245; Onions 379. 

*frak(k)az adj.: ONorw frakkr 'brave', OE 
Jřac 'voracious, greedy', MLG vrak id. An 
ablaut variant of *frekaz. Forster EngS 

XXXLX 327-339; Holthausen AEE\Y 
114; Vries AMEl\ r 139; Lehmann GED 
103; Heidermanns 208-209. 

*frama prep.: Goth prep. Jřam 'forward; 
from', ON Jřá, Jřam id., OE Jřam 'from', 
OS Jřam 'forward; from', OHG Jřam 
id. See *Jramaz. Torp-Falk 232; Holt- 
hausen AEE1\ T 114; Feist 164; Onions 
378; Pokorný I 814-815; Vries A]ÍE]\ 7 
139-140; Lehmann GED 124. 

*framaj}janan wk.vb.: Goth Jramapjan 
'to estrange', OE á-Jemdan 'to alienate', 
MLG ent-vromeden id., OHG Jremiden id. 
Derived from *Jramapjaz. Feist 164; 
Lehmann GED 124. 

*framaj)jaz adj.: Goth fiamapeis 'strange, 
foreign', OE Jřemde id., OFris Jřemethe id., 
OS Jremithi id., OHG Jremidi id. Based on 
unattested *fiamapaz, further connected 
with *Jramaz. Holthausen AEE]V 115; 
Feist 164; Lehmann GED 124; Kluge- 
Seebold 285. 

*framaz adj.: Goth comp. adv.Jřamis 'far- 
ther, further', ON jřamr, comp. Jřemr 'for- 
ward', OE Jřam 'valiant, stout, firm', 
MHG Jřam 'forward'. Related to Gk 
7tpónoi; 'foremost man, chief, Umbr 
promom 'primům'. Maybe, further con- 

nected with *fru 



BB XXIII 321 (to Olr riam 'beforehanď); 
Torp-Falk 232-233; Feist 164; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 1 14; Karsten MB II 442; 
Sohulze Kl. Schr. 310 (derives Jtpónoq 
from Ttpónaxoq); Pokorný I 814-815; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 109; Vries ANE\V 
140-141; Frisk II 600; Onions 378; 
Chantratne 941; Lehmann GED 124; 
Bammesberger JVom. 245; Heidermanns 
209; Kluge-Seebold 287. 

*framjanan wk.vb.: ON Jřemja 'to further, 
to promote', OE Jřamian 'to avail, to 
profit', OFris Jřema, jřemma 'to promote', 
OS Jremmian id., OHG Jremmen id. 
Derived from *Jramaz. Holthausen 
AEEW 115; Vries AMEW 141. 

*frankón sb.m./f: ON Jřakka 'javelin, 
dart', OKJranca 'javelin, laňce'. Unclear. 
Cf. also ON Jurkr 'spear'. Torp-Falk 
246 (to Lat-Gmc Jřamea 'spear, javelin'). 




*frastiz sb.m.: Goth fiasts 'child, offspring'. 
Together with Slav *prostb 'simple, free' 
continues IE *pro-sta- (Uhlenbeck PBB 
XXVII 119), a prefixal derivative of 
*stá- 'to stanď (cf. Tornovist SJV XIII 
305—307). For the semantic connection 
between Gmc and Slav cf. Lat liberi 
'children' (Benveniste IEL 262-272). 
Grimm-Grimm TV/ 1/1 64 (to Goth fiap- 
jan 'to perceive, to understanď — semanti- 
cally plausible in view of Slav *otrokb)\ 
Kluge R'Z XXV 313 (to Lat prales 
'descendanť); Kógel ~DADL XXXVII 
218 (to Lat pário 'to give birth'); Char- 
pentier KZ XL 456 (from *prod-ti-)\ 
Osthoff PBB XX 89-91 (to *sň- 'to 
sow', from *pro-s(s)tis, or to Lat prósápia 
'stock, family'); Meillet MSL XII 219 
(reconstructs *pro-s)—ti-, to *sa- 'to sow'); 
Charpentier A~^XL 456 (to Avfiad- 'to 
cultivate'); Petersson Aufs. 13 (to Slav 
*proso 'milleť); Torp-Falk 232; Feist 
165; Mezger Language XLX 262-263 
(from *pro-s-tio-)\ Vasmer-Trubachev III 
380; Lehmann GED 125-126 (a nursery 
word or cognate of *fraw(j)ori). 

*fratwjanan wk.vb.: Goth us-fratwjan 
'to make wise, to instrucť, OE fitetwian 
'to adorn, to deek, to embroider'. De- 
rived from *fiatwo. Holthausen AEEH r 
114; Feist 531; Sturtevant JEGP 
XXXVI 181-182 (on the semantic devel- 
opment in Gothic); Lehmann GED 381 — 

*fraťw5 sb.f: OE pl. fietwe 'ornament, 
adornment, decoration'. Unclear. Prob- 
ably continues IE *pro do-. Grien- 
berger Got. 231 (prefixed form related to 
*těwó); Hollander ZP>Yf VII 301 (to 
Hawjanan); Holthausen AEE\V 114; 
Feist 474-475; Lehmann GED 381-382. 

*frabaz adj.: OHG fiad 'strong, able'. Cf. 
also Goth frapi 'understanding' < *frapjan. 
Related to *frodaz. Trautmann BS)V 
230; Feist 165-166; Pokorný I 845; 
Lehmann GED 126. 

*frajíjanan str.vb.: Goth frapjan 'to per- 
ceive, to understanď. Derived from *fra- 
paz. Fick KZ XX 449; Torp-Falk 246; 

Feist 165-166; Seebold 208; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 65. 

*fraut>5(n) sb.f: ON fraud 'froth', ME 
frode id. Derived from *fiawaz. Torp- 
Falk 248. 

*frawa-líkaz adj.: ON frá-ligr 'swift, 
quick', OHG frawa-líh 'happy, merry'. 
Derived from *jrawaz. Heidermanns 

*frawaz adj.: ON^/ra?" 'swifť, ME adv.jrow 
'hurriedly', OFris fiě 'glad, happy', OS 
fra id., OTTQ fró id. Probably related to 
Av fiavi- 'mobile (?)', Slav *pra~ďb 'right, 
straighť < *pr5uos. Osthoff Etym. 336— 
340 (to Skt práváte 'to spring up' < *pleu-)\ 
Torp-Falk 233; Pokorný I 845; Vries 
AjVEW 140; Onions 378; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 352; Abaev VJa XXXI/2 
22 (on Av); Heidermanns 211-212; 
Kluge-Seebold 287. 

*fraw(j)5n sb.m.: Goth ji auj a 'lord, mas- 
ter', ON theon. Freyr, OTLjřeá 'lord, mas- 
ter', OFris fia id., OS fióho,fia : ho id., fióio 
id., OHG fid id. Derived from IE *pro 
'forward' > Gmc *fra- (Streitberg PBB 
XIV 186). Budenz KZ VIII 289 (to 
Lat prouincia 'province'); Schmidt KZ 
XXVI 15, Voc. I 107 (samé as Budenz); 
Osthoff IF VIII 53 (follows Streitberg); 
Mikkola Festschr. Streitberg 270 (to Slav 
*pravo 'right, law'); Marstrander NTS III 
123-124, 153 (compound close to Skt 
pra-avati 'to be merciful'); Torp-Falk 233 
(from *frawaz); Holthausen AEE]V 1 15 — 
116; Feist 166; Langenhove LSTT 56-59 
(compound of *per- 'to possess' and *Heu- 
'vital force'); Pokorný I 813-815 (related 
to *pfuo- 'firsť); Vries AMEW 142; 
Zalizniak II 216; Lindeman Verschdrfung 
16.8; Benveniste IEL 274; Lehmann 
GED 126-127; Bammesberger Nom. 183; 
Kluge-Seebold 283. 

*frawjon sb.f: ON jřeyja 'lady', Freyja 
(name of goddess), OS jřúa id., OHG 
jřouwa id. Cf. also *frow6n > OS Jřúa 
'lady, mistress'. Derived from *fraw(j)on. 
Pokorný I 815; Vries ANE1V 142; 
Zalizniak II 216; Kluge-Seebold 283. 

*fre3nanan ~ *frexnanan str.vb.: Goth 




fraihnan 'to question, to ask', 0¥i fiegna 'to 
ask', OE fie^nan 'to inquire', OS pret. 
Jřagn id. Continues IE *prek-\ Toch AB 
park- 'to ask', Skt prccháti 'to ask, to ques- 
tion', Av pmsaite id., Arm harc'anem id., 
Lat posco id., precor id., Mír ano id., Lith 
peršu, pifšti 'to arrange a marriage', Slav 
uprositi 'to ask'. Further related to 
*frazganan and *fursko. Sohweizer K£ I 
150; Zupitza Gutt. 190; Torp-Falk 
245-246; Meillet MSL XV 98-100 (««- 
present); Marstrander NTS II 103-106 
(innovation built on the basis of preterite 
*fraxa); Bartholomae 997-1000; Peder- 
sen Kelt. Gr. I 44; Trautmann BS1\' 
216; Holthausen AEE]V 115; Walde- 
Hofmann II 346-347; Feist 161-162; 
Jóhannesson IEW 551-552; Mayrhofer 
II 329; Pokorný I 821; Fraenkel 598- 
599; Vries ANEW 140-141; Seebold 
208-210; Vasmer-Trubachev III 377- 
378; Lehmann GED 122-123; Kluge- 
Seebold 282; Adams TB 372. 

*frextiz sb.f.: ON frétt 'enqtiiry', OEjreht, 
fryht 'prediction'. Related to *frejrianan ~ 
*frexnanan. Torp-Falk 246; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 114; Vries ANEW 142; 
Seebold 209. 

*frekaz adj.: Goth faihu-jliks 'covetous, 
avaricious', ON frekr 'greedy', OE Jřec 
'desirous, greedy, gluttonous, audacious', 
MDu vrec 'mean', OHG jřeh 'greedy'. 
Related to Slav *pragnqti 'to desire'. See 
*jřak(k)a Z . Kauffmann PBB XII 514 (to 
Lat precari 'to requesť); Grienberger Got. 
62 (to Lith piřkti 'to buy'); Forster EngS 
XXXIX 327-339; Torp Festschr. Unger 
183-185 (to Gk ojtapyáco 'to swell, to be 
full'); Hirt PBB XXIII 352; Torp-Falk 
245; Feist 136; Holthausen AEEf V 115; 
Iíarsten NB 127; Lané Language LX 258 
(to W rhewydd 'lascivious'); Pokorný I 
845; Vries ANEW 141; Lehmann GED 
103; Heidermanns 212-213; Kluge- 
Seebold 283. 

*frekín sb.f.: Goth faihu-jřikei 'avarice, 
cupidity', OE scyld-frecu 'guilty greeď, 
OHG frehhi 'avarice'. Derived from 
*fiekaz. Feist 13; Heidermanns 213. 

*frekon sb.m.: ON poet. freki 'wolf ', OE 
jreca 'bold man, warrior'. Derived from 
*Jřekaz. Holthausen AEE]\' 115; Vries 
ANEW 141; Heidermanns 213. 

*frestan ~ *frestaz sb.n./m.: ON fiest 
'delay', OY,fyrst,jirst 'space of time, time' 
(< *Jřestiž), OTrhfiist 'respite', OSfirst id., 
frist id. An old compound *pres-sto- struc- 
ttirally similar to Skt purah-sthátár- 'stand- 
ing on the top' < *p r ws-shto- and Olr 
arsaid 'old, ancienť < *p/os-shti- (Brug- 
mann IF XIII 164). Heinertz apud 
Vries (to Jripuz); Torp-Falk 233-234; 
Holthausen AEEW 117; Trier NGWG 
III (NF)/4 128-129 (to G First Tence, 
ridge'); Mayrhofer II 309; Pokorný I 
813; Vries ANEW 141-142; Zalizniak II 
186; Lehmann GED 129. 

*freusanan str.vb.: ON frjósa 'to freeze', 
OE freósan id., MDu vriesen id., OHG 
friosan id. Related to Skt prusva 'rime, ice', 
Lat prulna 'frosť (Bugge KJ? XLX 440). 
Schmidt KZ XXVII 328; Woods MP V 
272-273; Torp-Falk 248; Holthausen 
AEEW 116; Walde-Hofmann II 378- 
379; Jóhannesson IEW 569; Mayrhofer 
II 381-382; Pokorný I 846; Vries 
ANEW 143; Vendryes R-24-25 (to Olr 
réud 'cold'); Seebold 210-211 (to *preus- 
'to sprinkle'); Hamp JIES I 215-223; 
Lehmann GED 129; Kluge-Seebold 

*frě3Íz adj.: ON jrtep 'famous', OE je- 
'known, renowned, famous', OS gi- 
'known'. Related to *fřexnanan ~ 
*jre^nanan. Torp-Falk 246; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 1 14; Vries ANEW 145; Leh- 
mann GED 122; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 
103, A'~CV 112; Heidermanns 212. 

*frijaďwó sb.f: Gothfri(j)apwa 'love', OE 
Jřeódo 'peace'. Identical with latě Skt 
priyatva- 'being dear, being bélo veď. Fur- 
ther see *fiijaz. Torp-Falk 247; Holt- 
hausen AEElť 116; Feist 168 (OE fríod 
equivalent to Skt priyáta 'love'); May- 
rhofer II 379 (against the comparison 
with Skt); Benveniste IEL 266; Leh- 
mann GED 128; Bammesberger Nom. 




*frija-xalsa-3ebón sb.m.: ON frjáls-gjafi 
'freed-man', OE freóls-sefa 'giver of 
freedom'. Compound of *jřija-xalsaz and 
*3eton. Carr Nom. comp. 81 (parallel for- 

*frija-xalsaz adj.: Goth sbst. freihals 
'freedom', ONfijáLs 'free', OVjfríols 'free, 
freedom', OFris sbst. fii-hals 'freedom', 
OHG frihals 'free'. Originally, *'having 
a free neck, neck unhampered by a 
yoke'. A compound of *frijaz and *xalsaz. 
Neckel PBB XLI 405 ('Schonhals'); 
Torp-Falk 247-248; Holthausen 
AEEW 117; Feist 167; Carr Nom. comp. 
65—66; Porzig Gliederung 119; Pokorný I 
844, 1021; Vries ANEW 143; Onions 
375; Lehmann GED 127-128; Heider- 

MANNS 215. 

*frija-xalsín sb.f: ON frelsi 'freedom', 
OFris fríhelse id., OHG fiihalsi id. Derived 
from *jřija-xalsaz. Torp-Falk 247-248; 
Vries ANEW 141. 

*frijaz adj.: GoŮi freis 'free', OE freó id., 
OFris fit id., MLG m id., OHG fit id. 
Etymologically close to Skt priyá- 'own, 
dear, beloveď, Avfrj'5 id., Lat pro-prius 'to 
own', W rhydd 'free', Slav *prijati 'to be 
disposed, to fa vor'. Froehde BB LX 1 10 
(to Lat pňuus 'single, each, private'); 
Arbois de Jubainville MSL VII 291 
(Ceftic loanword); Bartholomae 1026; 
Karsten NB I 90; Wood M/JVXVI 310 
(from *pro-ei- 'to go forwarď); Torp-Falk 
247-248 (follow Froehde); Hirt Z dph 
XXLX 301; Neckel PBB XLI 403-405; 
Trautmann BS1V 231; Feist 167— 
168; Holthausen AEEW 116; Walde- 
Hofmann II 373-374; Soheller 20-23, 
90-91 (semantics); Porzig Gliederung 119; 
Mayrhoeer II 378-379; Pokorný I 844; 
Onions 375; Vasmer-Trubaohev III 
369-370; Lindeman Verschárfung 124-125; 
Mezger KZ LXXrX 32-38; Benveniste 
IEL 266; Lehmann GED 128; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 242; Hetdermanns 2 1 5 — 
216; Kluge-Seebold 284. 

*frijjo sb.f: ON theon. Fngg, OHG theon. 
Frija. Substantivized feminine of *frijaz 
with Verschárfung. Identical with Skt fem. 

púyd 'own, dear, beloveď, Av fem. fiyá 
id. Mikkola Festschr. Streitherg 268; Bar- 
tholomae 1026; Torp-Falk 247; Vries 
ANE]V 143; Lindeman Verschárfung 9.5, 
17.9; Onions 377. 

*frijódelaz sb.m.: ON fridill 'lover, gal- 
lanť, OS Jřiuthil 'loved one', MLG vridel 
id., OHG Jřiudil id. Corresponds to Slav 
*prijatelb id. At the samé tíme may be 
identical widi Dac 7ipiá8iXa, jtpiá8r|Aa 
PpDravia iiéXaiva'. Further see *frijojan. 
Torp-Falk 247; Detschew Thr. 556 
(Dac 7tpiá-8iA.a as a compound of *priio- 
as in *frijaz, and *dhal- 'to bloom'); Vrles 
ANEW 142. 

*frij5čteló(n) sb.f.: ON fridla 'loved 
one, mistress', OHG Jřiudila id. Derived 
from *jřijódelaz. Torp-Falk 247; Vries 
ANEW 142. 

*frijójanan wk.vb.: Goth jřijon 'to love', 
ONfiia 'to deliver', OE freó^an 'to free, to 
respect, to love', OFris friaia 'to love', 
MDu vrien 'to marry', MHG vrien id. 
Derived from *frijaz. Structurally identi- 
cal with Skt priyayáte 'to make friends 
with', Slav *prijati 'to favor'. Torp-Falk 
246; Holthausen AEE] V 117; Feist 168; 
Mayrhofer II 379; Pokorný I 844; 
Vries ANEW 143; Mezger LZ LXXTX 
32-38; Onions 377; Benveniste IEL 
266-267; Lehmann GED 128-129; 
Vasmer-Trubachev III 369-370; Het- 
dermanns 215-216; Kluge-Seebold 284. 

*frijón sb.m.: ON jrí 'lover', OHG frio 
'free man'. Derived from *frijaz. Het- 
dermanns 215-216. 

*frijónd-xulbaz adj.: ON fnend-hollr 
'faithful to one's kinsmen', OHG friunt- 
hold 'friendly'. Compound of *frijonÍz and 
*xulpaz. Carr Nom. comp. 90 (parallel 

*frijóndz sb.m.: Goůijřijonds 'frienď, ON 
jřiendi 'relative, frienď, OE jreónd 'frienď, 
OFris Jřiónd id., OS fiiund id., OHG friunt 
id. Participle of *frijojan. Torp-Falk 246 
Holthausen AEEW 117; Feist 168 
Pokorný I 844; Vries ANEW 145 
Onions 377; Benveniste IEL 266 
Metzger R'Z LXXIX 32-38 (non 




participial formation from *fřijo); Leh- 
mann GED 128; Bammesberger Nom. 215; 
Rluge-Seebold 285-286. 

*friskaz adj.: ON ferskr 'fresh', OE fersc 
id., MLG vrisch id., OHGjSúf id. Related 
to *frijaz. Torp-Falk 248; Feist 163; 
Holthausen AEEW 102; Buga II 302 
(against the comparison with Lith preskas 
'unleaveneď, Slav *prěsm> id.); Mentz KZ^ 
LXV 263-265 (to Lat prlscus 'previous, 
former'); Vries ANEW 118; Heider- 
manns 216-217 (reconstructs *pr-isko- vs. 
Lat priscus < *pri-isko- vs. Balto-Slav *pro- 
isko-); Kluge-Seebold 287. 

*frip5janan wk.vb.: Goth ga-jřipon 'to rec- 
oncile, to establish peace', ON jrida 'to 
restore peace', OE fri&ian 'to keep the 
peace, to protéct', OFris Jřethia id., OS 
Jřithón id., MHG vriden 'to bring to peace'. 
Derived from *jřipuz. Torp-Falk 247; 
Holthausen AEEW 11 7; Feist 180-181; 
Vries ANEW 142; Lehmann GED 137. 

*fripu-lausaz adj.: ON friS-lauss 'out- 
laweď, OE jrid-leás 'not included in the 
treaty of peace', OFris fietho-las 'out- 
laweď, MLG vrede-los id., MHG vride-los 
id. Compound of *fiipuz and Hausaz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 89 (parallel formations). 

*fripu-mannz sb.m.: ON pl. jřid-menn 
'men of peace', OHG fiidu-man 'peace- 
ful man'. Compound of *fripuz and 
*mannz. Carr Nom. comp. 83 (parallel 

*fripuz sb.m.: Godr prop. Fredu-mirus, ON 
fridr 'peace', OE Jřii id. (mase, neut.), 
OFris fretho id., OS jřithu id., OUG Jndu 
id. Derived from *frijaz. Torp-Falk 
247; Holthausen AEEW 117; Feist 169; 
Pokorný I 844; Vries ANEW 142-143; 
Zalizniak I 151; Lehmann GED 129, 
153; Bammesberger Nom. 159; Kluge- 
Seebold 286. 

*frldaz adj.: ON fridr 'fair, beautiful', OE 
fríd-hengest 'stately horše'. Related to *frijaz. 
Structurally identical with Skt prítá- 
'satisfieď, Av friOa- 'glad, happy'. Bar- 
tholomae 1025; Karsten NB II 302-303; 
Torp-Falk 247; Feist 167; Holthau- 
sen AEE1\' 116; Mayrhofer II 380; 

Pokorný I 844; Vries ANEW 143; Leh- 
mann GED 127; Heidermanns 214-215. 

*fridjanan wk.vb.: Goth freidjan 'to keep 
safe, to také care', ON Jřída 'to adorn', 
OHG friten 'to také care of, to peť. 
Derived from *jřliaz. Torp-Falk 247; 
Feist 167; Vries ANE]V 142; Lehmann 
GED 127; Heidermanns 214; FCluge- 
Seebold 286. 

*frísaz sb.m.: ON pl. Frísir 'Frisian', OE 
pl. Frísan id. («-stem), OFris pl. Frísa, Frlsa 
id., MDu pl. Friesen, Vresen id., OHG pl. 
Frieson id. Related to *frijaz? Erdmann 
SVSUI/l 83-86 (to Fris Jnsle 'frizz' or to 
Lat primus 'hrst'); Holthausen AEEW 
116; Vries ANEW 143. 

*fróáaz adj.: Qoúi frops 'wise, intelligenť, 
ON fródr 'knowing, learneď, OE jřód 
'wise, prudent, skilful', OFris Jřód 'clever, 
wise', OS fiód 'learned, wise', OHG fruot 
'skillful, long-lasting, beloveď. Deriva- 
tionally close to Lith protas 'understand- 
ing', Latv práts id. Further related to 
Toch A pratim, B pratim 'decision', Lith 
prantu, prašti 'to get ušed, to become 
aceustomed to, to understanď, Latv prast 
'to understanď (Fraenkel IF L 229). 
Forsterman K^_ I 237; Curtius K^ IV 
237 (to Lat interpres 'negotiator'); Torp- 
Falk 246; Feist 169; Holthausen AEE1 V 
117; FvArsten NB I 65; Trier DW 71- 
73; Jóhannesson IEW 567; Pokorný I 
845; Chemodanov SGGJa I 75-76; 
Fraenkel 646; Vries ANEW 144; 
Seebold 208; Piirainen 11-82; Lehmann 
GED 126; Heidermanns 217-218. 

*fr5čtín sb.f: Goúifrodei 'intelligence', ON 
fimii 'knowledge', OHG fruoti 'maturity, 
prudence'. Derived from *frodaz. Torp- 
Falk 246; Feist 169; Heidermanns 218. 

*fr5djan sb.n.: ON jřcedi 'record, lore', 
MDu vroede 'intelligence'. Derived from 
*frotaz. Vries ANE\ V 1 45 . 

*fr5djanan wk.vb.: Burg *jřodjan 'to be 
wise', ON jrceba 'to teach', OHG Jřuoten 
'to teach, to make wise'. Derived from 
Jrodaz. Vries ANE1 \ r 1 45; Kóbler 710; 
Heidermanns 218. 

*frókniz adj.: ON jřmkn 'valiant, stouť, 




OE frkne 'horrible, savage, audacious', 
OS frókni 'valiant, daring', OHG fruahhan- 
(in prop.). Related to *frekaz. Karsten 
NB II 449; Fórster EngS XXXIX 
328-332; Torp-Falk 245; Feist 136; 
Holthausen AEE]V 117; Pokorný I 
845; Vries ANEW 145; Lehmann GED 
103; Lůhr Expr. 331; Heidermanns 

*frów(j)az adj.: MLG adv. vró 'early', 
OHG adv. fruo id., adj. fiuoi id. Identical 
with Gk adj. ;tpróioc; id. Torp-Falk 233; 
Pokorný 1814; Frisk II 607-608. 

*frumaz ~ *frumón adj.: Goth fruma 
'first, former', ON fiwn-hurir 'firstborn', 
OE frum 'originál, primitive, firsť, OFris 
forma 'first one', OS formo id. Related to 
Lith plrmas 'firsť, OPrus pirmas id. further 
connected widr IE *prHuo- id. Cf. also, 
with the samé suffix, Gk 7tpó|ioc; 'foremost 
man, chief, Lat primus 'firsť < *pňsmo-. 
Cf. superlative *frumistaz > Goth frumists 
'firsť, OE fyrmest id., OFris formest id. 
Torp-Falk 233; Holthausen AEE)V 
118, 120; Feist 169-170; Walde- 
Hofmann II 362-363; Pokorný I 814- 
815; Chemodanov SGGJa I 74; Fraenkel 
597-598; Vries ANEW 144; Frisk II 600; 
Lehmann GED 129-130; Bammesberger 
Nom. 234; Ross-Berns Numerals 624. 

*frumín sb.f.: QoXhfumei 'beginning', OS 
frumí 'usefulness'. Derived from *frumaz ~ 
*frumón. Feist 169; Lehmann GED 1 29 — 

*fruskaz sb.m.: ON froskr 'frog', OE fox 
id., MLG vorsch id., OHG frosc id. OE 
fr°33 a -, fracka id. is a pet-form of *fuskaz 
similar to doc^a 'dog'. Cf. also ON fiaukr, 
frauki 'frog'. Derived from *frawaz. 
Marstrander Mindeskr. Bugge 242 (to 
*fraui>d(n)); Uhlenbeck PBB XXII 197; 
Torp-Falk 248; Sturtevant MP XXVI 
473 (ON frauki from *fraudkón); Holt- 
hausen AEE\Y 113; Porzig IF XLV 165 
(to Slav *prygati 'to jump'); Pokorný I 
846; Vries ANEW 140, 144; Zalizniak I 
131; Onions 378; Fíluge-Seebold 288; 
Adams TB 416-417 (to Toch AB pruk- 'to 
make a leap'). 

*frustan ~ *frustaz sb.m./n.: ON frost 
'frosť, OE frost, forst id., OFris forst, frost 
id., OS frost id., OHG fiost id. Derived 
from *freusanan 'to freeze'. Torp-Falk 
248; Holthausen AEEW 1 13; Pokorný I 
846; Vries ANEW 144; Zalizniak II 167; 
Onions 379; Seebold 211; Lehmann 
GED 129; Bammesberger Nom. 11; 
Kluge-Seebold 288. 

*fruwib5 sb.f.: ON fygfi 'blossoming', Du 
vreugde id. Derived from unattested 
*fruwaz, cf. *frawaz. Torp-Falk 233. 

*fruzan sb.n.: ONfrer 'frosť, OHG^or id. 
Cf. Goth fiius 'coldness, frosť < *freusan. 
Derived from *freusanan. Zupitza Gutt. 
9; Torp-Falk 248; Feist 169; Vries 
ANE1V 145; Seebold 211; Bammesberger 
Mm. 56; Lehmann GED 129. 

*fuďiz sb.f.: ON fud-flogi 'runaway from his 
bride', E dial. fud 'vulva', MHG vut 'cun- 
nus'. Related to Skt puti- 'putrid, stink- 
ing', Av púiti- 'putrefaction, rottenness', 
Lat púteo 'to stink, to be rotten' (van 
Helten ^jl]\f X 195). Johansson KZ 
XXXVI 352-353; Bartholomae 909; 
Walde-Hofmann II 392; Mayrhofer 
II 321; Pokorný I 849; Vrtes ANEW 
145-146; Kluge-Seebold 281 (to Skt 
duál půtau 'buttocks'). 

*fu3laz sb.m.: Goth fitgls 'birď, ON fugl 
id., O^Lfu^ol id., OFris fugel id., OS fugal 
id., OHG fogal id. From a dissimilated 
*flu^laz derived from *fleu^anan (Graff III 
434; Meyer Goth. 556), especially in view 
of OE flu^ol 'apt to fly, flying swiftly' 
(see *flu'sulaz). Bopp Glossarium 11^ (to 
Lith paúkštis 'bird'); Grienberger Got. 76; 
Bezzenberger Z^Yf VI 78; Berneker 
IF LX 361-362 (to Skt phuka- 'bird'); 
Uhlenbeck PBB XXVI 310; Solmsen IF 
XIV 482-485 (to *fulon); Zupitza Gutt. 
132; Torp-Falk 243; Holthausen IF 
XXV 152 (to Gk 7t£t)ice8avó<; 'pine- 
covereď), AEEW 118; Feist 170 (to Lat 
pliirna 'feather'); Solmsen IF XXXI 482- 
484 (to *pou- 'small, little'); Feist 170; 
Pokorný I 837; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
74; Vries ANEW 146 (follows Bopp); 
Zalizniak I 131; Onions 374; Seebold 




201 (follows Bopp); Szemerényi Scripta 
1074; Trubachev VJa XXIX/3 10 (to 
Slav *puga 'blunt end of an egg'); Leh- 
mann GED 130; Bammesberger Mom. 75; 
Kluge-Seebold 866. 

*fuxón sb.f.: Goth fauho 'vixen, she-fox', 
ON/m id., MLG vohe, vó id., ORG foha 
id. Related to Toch B páko 'tail', Skt 
púccha- 'tail', Alb push 'down, flufF' < PAlb 
*puksja, Lith paustis 'hair (of animals)', 
Slav *puxt> 'down, fluff ' (Uhlenbeck Btrg. 
Gesch. XXII 538-539). Forsterman K~ 
I 498 (related to áXá-n£K-); Meillet BSL 
XXII 243 (questions the IE source); 
Zubatý K% XXXI 13 (to Slav *pyskb 
'muzzle'); Schrader BB XV 135-136 (to 
Gk Lac ipoíai ■ áXráiEKgQ, Hes.); Wood 
AJPhil XLI 349 (to Gk jtetiKeSavóg 
'sharp'); Lidén MB XIX 87-88; Torp- 
Falk 243; Feist 144-145; Mayrhofer II 
298-299; Pokorný I 837; Fraenkel 554; 
Vries AME]\ 7 136; Zalizniak II 227; 
Onions 374; Vasmer-Trubachev III 414; 
Kutzelnigg Muttersprache XC 185-188 
(against Uhlenbeck); Lehmann GED 110; 
Bammesberger JVom. 1 74; Toporov PJa 
rV 84—85 (similar semantic development 
in Lith lapě 'fox' ~ lapas 'leaf'); Kluge- 
Seebold 244; Orel AED 351; Adams TB 

*fuxsaz sb.m.: ON fox 'frauď (neut.), 
OSwed fix 'male fox', OE fox id., 
OS fohs id., OHG fuhs id. Derivative in 
*-s- connected with *fuxon. Holthausen 
AEEW 113; Pokorný I 849; Vries 
AMEW 139; Zalizniak II 227; Onions 
374; Lehmann GED 110; Bammesberger 
Mom. 174; Kluge-Seebold 289. 

*fulďa-we3az sb.m.: ON fold-vegr 'Earth', 
OE fold-wes 'earth-way, earth'. Com- 
pound of *fulÍo(n) and *we^az. Carr 
Mom. comp. 54. 

*fuldó(n) sb.f: Burg *fulp 'fielď, ON fold 
'field, earth', OE_/otóe 'earuV, OS folda id. 
Related to Skt prthá- 'palm of the hanď, 
Gk iikázT\ 'blade of an oar, winnowing 
fan' and the like (Persson UUÁ 1891 10). 
See *felpuz ~ *felpan. Hellouist AMF 
VII 8 (to Gk nXá-coc, 'breadth, width'); 

Lindouist Festschr. Olson 238-240 (samé 
as Hellouist); Torp-Falk 244; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 111; Trier Lekm 24- 
30; Mayrhofer II 332; Pokorný I 806 
(to *peh-: *pla-), 833; Vries AMEW 137; 
Zalizniak II 199; Frisk II 553-554; 
Bammesberger Mom. 175; Kobler 710. 

*ful3ěnan wk.vb.: ON fylgja 'to follow', 
OE foljian id., OFris folgia, folia id., OS 
folgon id., OHG folgěn id. Identical with 
Slav *pblzěti 'to crawl' (Aniktn Etim. 1984 
29) derived from *pblzti id. Torp-Falk 
237; Holthausen AEE]V 111; Pokorný 
I 850; Vries AMEW 148; Onions 
367; Vasmer-Trubachev III 309; Aniktn 
Etim. 1980 41-49, Etim. 1981 131-140; 
Kluge-Seebold 277-278. 

*ful3Í{5Ó sb.f: ON flgd 'following, backing 
up', OE folgod 'train, retinue, service', 
OHG folgida 'secť. Derived from *ful^ě- 
nan. Holthausen AEEH r 112; Vries 
AMEW 147. 

*fuljan sb.n.: ON jyl 'foal', OHG fuli 
id. Derived from *fulon. Vries AMEW 

*fulka-ďruxtiz sb.f: ON fólk-drótt 'band 
of warriors', OE folc-dryht 'multitude 
of people'. Compound of *fulkan and 
*dmxtiz. Carr Mom. comp. 80 (parallel 

*fulka-lančtan sb.n.: ON fólk-land 'land 
occupied by an army, districť, OE folc- 
land 'land held by freemen'. Compound 
of *fulkan and Hanian. Carr Mom. comp. 
80 (parallel formations). 

*fulkan sb.n.: ON folk 'crowd, army', OE 
folc 'folk, people', OFris folk id., OS folk 
id., OHG folc id. Etymologically related 
to OBret ol- 'to follow', Bret heulia id., 
OBret a olguo 'by seeking', W ol 'trace', 
Corn ol id. continuing *polg-. Bezzen- 
berger BB V 171 (to Lat uulgus 'great 
mass, multitude, people'); Zupitza Gutt. 
9; Torp-Falk 235 (to Lat populus 'peo- 
ple'); Jokl Studien 71; Holthausen AEE] I' 
111; Pokorný I 799 (to IE *pd»- 'to lili, 
to pour'); Vrles AMEW 137; Zalizniak II 
167; Onions 367; Fleuriot Gloses 276; 
Kluge-Seebold 866. 




*fulka-wÍ3an sb.n.: ON fólk-vtg 'warfare', 
OFris fol-wlch id., MLG volk-wich id., 
OlíG f o Ik-wíg. Compound of *fulkan and 
*wi3an. Carr Mom. comp. 47. 

*fulkjan sb.n.: ON fylki 'country, shire', 
OE ^e-fylce 'army, troop, band of war- 
riors'. Derived from *fulkan. Vries 
ANEW 148. 

*fullan sb.n.: ON full 'gobleť, OE full 
'cup'. Derived from *fullaz. Torp-Falk 
235; Holthausen IF XXV 152 (to Lat 
peluis 'basin', Gk TiéXXa 'wooden bowl'), 
AEEW 118; Vries ANEW 146 (follows 

*fulla-wísaz adj.: Goth fulla-w eis 'mature, 
thoroughly instructed, tÉAeioq', ON full- 
víss 'quite certain'. Compound of *fullaz 
and *wisaz. Garr Nom. comp. 67. 

*fullaz adj.: Goth>& 'full', ON fullr id., 
OE ful(l) id., OFris fol,ful id., OS>/ id., 
OiíGfol id. Continues IE *plHnos id., an 
adjective in *-no- of *pelH- 'to filT: Skt 
púriiá-, Olr lán, Lith pilnas, Slav *pblrvb 
(Hirt Idg. Gr. II 130). Torp-Falk 235; 
Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 52, 178; Trautmann 
BSl\ r 218; Feist 172; Holthausen AEEW 
118; Karsten NB II 206; Marttnet Gém. 
25, 71; Mayrhofer II 324; Pokorný I 
798-800; Fraenkel 591; Vries ANEW 
146; Onions 380; Vasmer-Trubachev III 
312; Lehmann GED 131; Heidermanns 
220-221; Kxuge-Seebold 866. 

*fullin sb.f: Goth ufar-fullei 'superabun- 
dance', OESc epa-jylli 'group of men nec- 
essary for an oath', OE fyllu 'fulness', 
OHG julii id. Derived from *fullaz. 
Holthausen AEEW 119; Feist 509-510; 
Onions 355; Lehmann GED 131; Hei- 
dermanns 220; Kluge-Seebold 290. 

*řulljanan wk.vb.: Goth fulljan 'to filT, 
ONfylla id., OEjyllan id., OFris fella id., 
OS fullian id., OHG fullen id. Derived 
from *fullaz. Cf. a similar derivation 
in Slav *pblniti id. Torp-Falk 235 
Holthausen AEE]V 119; Feist 172 
Vries ANEW 148; Lehmann GED 131 
Heidermanns 220; Fvluge-Seebold 290. 

*řullnojanan wk.vb.: Goth fullnan 'to 
be full, to become full', ON fullna 'to 

fulfil'. Derived from *fullaz. Feist 172; 
Heidermanns 220. 

*řull5janan wk.vb.: OESc Julia 'to fulfil', 
OE fullian id., OFris fulla, Jullia id., OS 
fullon id., OHG follon id. Derived from 
*fullaz. Holthausen AEE]V 119; Hei- 
dermanns 220. 

*řull5n sb.f: Goth fullo 'fullness', ON 
theon. Fulla, OHG folia 'plenitude'. 
Derived from *fullaz. Structurally close 
to Av parma 'plenitude'. Bartholomae 
850; Feist 172; Heidermanns 220. 

*fulmo sb.f: OJLfolm 'palm', OS pi.folmos 
id., OHG folma id. Close to Lat palma 
'palm (of the hand)', Olr lam 'hanď, 
Gk jiaXá(ir| 'palm of the hanď (Kret- 
schmer iT~ XXXI 398). Torp-Falk 
236; Holthausen AEEW 112; Walde- 
Hofmann II 240-241; Pokorný I 806; 
Frisk II 466; Bammesberger Nom. 115. 

*řul6n sb.m.: GoŮ\ fula 'foal', ON foli id., 
OE fola id., OFris fola id., OS folo id., 
OHG jolo id. A zero grade form related 
to Arm ul 'she-goať, Gk 7ttoXo<; 'foal', Alb 
pele 'maře' < *po(u)lo-, *po(u)lá (Forster- 
man KZ I 495; Mladenow KZ L 54-55). 
Hirt Ablaut 39 (to *pou- 'small'); Torp- 
Falk 244; Holthausen AEE] Tlil; Feist 
170-171; Pokorný I 842-843; Vries 
AMEW 137; Zalizniak I 153; Frisk II 
634; Onions 366; Lehmann GED 130; 
Kluge-Seebold 277; Orel AED 314. 

*funčtaz sb.m.: ON fundr 'a thing founď, 
MLG vunt 'finď, MHG vunt id. Derived 
from *jenpanan. Vries AjYElť 147. 

*řundiz I sb.m.: ON fndr 'finď, OFris fynd 
id. Substantivized *fundiz II. Vries 
AMEW 148; Seebold 194. 

*řundiz II adj.: ON ein-fyndr 'as finder 
entitied to the whole', OE eád-fynde 'easy 
to finď. Derived from *fenpanan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 120; Seebold 194; 
Matzel Festschr. Schroder 99, KZ CV 105; 
Heidermanns 221. 

*funxwstiz sb.f: OE fýst 'fisť, OFris fest 
id., OS fust id., OHG fusí id. Related 
to Lith kúmsté id. (with metathesis), 
Slav *p(stb id < *pnk*-sti- (Saussure MSL 
VII 93). Further connected with *fenfe. 




Torp-Falk 243; Trautmann BS1 V 218— 
2 1 9; Holthausen AEEW 121; Pokorný I 
839; Pokorný I 30; Chemodanov SGGJa 
I 80; Fraenkel 309-310; Onions 358; 
Stang LS 42; Lehmann GED 114; Ross- 
Berns JVumerals 662; Kluge-Seebold 253. 

*funón sb.f./m.: Goth fon 'fire' (< *fwón), 
gen. sg.funins (with traces of a root stem), 
OTSSfuni id. Reflects the old oblique forms 
in *-n- of í"/n-stem as in OPrus panno id. 
(Fick KZ XVIII 416), cf. *fuwer ~ *fur. 
From *funón WGmc *funkón (ME fonke 
'spark' MLG vunke id., OHG funco id.) is 
derived. Weinhold KZ I 248; Brug- 
mann IF XXXIII 308-310; Zupitza Gutt. 
162 {ffunkon to Skt pájas- 'surface, face'); 
Torp-Falk 227, 243; Feist 158-159; 
Pokorný I 828, 898-990 {Junkon to Gk 
(pÉYyoi; 'lighť, Lith spingiu, spingeíi 'to 
shine'); Vries ANEW 147; Zalizniak I 
223; Lehmann GED 120; Bammesberger 
Nom. 205-206. 

*funsaz adj.: Goth prop. Ala-fonsus, ON 
fúss 'willing, eager', OE fis 'ready, pre- 
pared, prompt', OS Jús 'ready', OHG 
funs 'ready, expectanť. Perhaps, related 
to Gk jtévonai 'to toil, to work', Arm 
hanum 'to weave', Lith pintí 'to braiď, 
Slav *pbnq, *petí 'to spin', cf. the samé 
zero grade in *pnto-\ nátoc;' £v§U|ia 
týjc; "Hpaq, Hes. Torp-Falk 228 (to 
*fenpanan); Holthausen AEE}\~ 119; 
Wissmann NP 59 (to *fenpanan, from *pnt- 
so-}; Stern EngS LXVIII 161-173; 
Karsten NB II 343; Schrobler ZDADL 
LXXXII 245-247; Pokorný I 808-809; 
Vries ANEW 147; Frisk II 504-506; 
Seebold 1 94; Bammesberger Sprache 
XVII 46-49 (to fenpanan, from *pnt-to-); 
Lehmann GED 131-132; Bammesberger 
Sprache XVII 46-49, Nom. 250; Heider- 
manns 222-223. 

*funsjanan wk.vb.: ON fýsa 'to exhorť, 
OE fýsan 'to hasten, to make haste, to 
incite', OS part. a-fusid 'to strive'. 
Derived from *funsaz. Torp-Falk 228; 
Holthausen AEEW 121; Vries ANEW 

149; HETDERMANNS 222. 

*fur(a) prep., adv.: Goth jaur 'in front of, 

before', ON for- id., OE fór id., OFris^ora 
id., OS fora, for id., OHG/»ra id. Cf. also 
ON fyr id., OS fuň id., OHG fuň id. 
Related to Gk it«p 'along', Lat por- 
(Gúntert IF XX 37-40). Cf. Jurán. 
Torp-Falk 231; Holthausen AEE1\' 
112; Walde-Hofmann II 343; Feist 145; 
Pokorný I 813; Vries ANEW 148; Frisk 
II 472-473; Onions 368; Lehmann GED 
110; Kluge-Seebold 291, 867. 

*furai adv.: Goth faura 'ahead, before, in 
front of, OE fóre 'before, aforetime', 
OFris^ora 'in front of, OS fora id., OHG 
fora id. Close to Skt purá 'formerly, 
before', Av para id., Gk jtapá 'near'. 
Collitz BB XVII 17 (to Gk jtapocí 
'near'); Bartholomae 852; Solmsen KZ 
XLIV 165 (folio ws Collitz); Holthau- 
sen AEE1V 112; Feist 145; Mayrhofer 
II 310; Pokorný I 810-818; Frisk II 
472—473; Onions 368-369; Lehmann 
GED 110-111. 

*furduz ~ *furdaz sb.m.: OTLford 'ford', 
OFris forda id. (n-stem), OS ford (in 
cmpn.), OHG furt id. Cf. also *ferpuz > 
ON fqrir 'firth, bay'. Related to Av 
pmtu- 'ford, bridge', OW rit 'ford', Lat 
portus 'harbor, dooř'. Bartholomae 
892; Torp-Falk 230; Holthausen 
AEEW 112; Walde-Hofmann II 343- 
344; Pokorný I 817; Vries ANEW 126; 
Onions 369; Seebold 188; Lehmann 
GED 109, 136; Bammesberger Nom. 158; 
Kluge-Seebold 292. 

*furxaz adj.: ON fon 'forward, haughty'. 
Identical with Gk jtpÓKa 'right now, 
right away', Lat reci-procus 'turning back 
the samé way, returning, receding', Slav 
*prokb 'spáre, remaining'. Persson Bei- 
tráge 960 (to Lat pro-sperus 'hurrieď); Kar- 
sten NB I 16-17 (to IE *pers- 'to spray'); 
Torp-Falk 232; Walde-Hofmann II 
424; Pokorný I 813; Vries ANEW 139; 
Frisk II 599; Heidermanns 223. 

*furxn5 sb.f: OE^ora 'trout', OHG forhana 
id. Close to Skt pisni- 'spotted, variegat- 
eď, Gk 7iopKvó? 'dark'. Torp-Falk 244; 
Holthausen AEEW 113; Pokorný I 821; 
Lehmann GED 109. 




*furxó sb.f.: ON for 'drain, sewer', OEfurh 
'furrow' (root stem), OFris furch id., MLG 
vore id., OHG furh, furuh id. (< *furxiz). 
Identical with Lat porca id., W rhých id. 
(Fiok III 244; Zupitza KZ XXXV 
256-257). Zupitza Gutt. 132; Pedersen 
Kelt. Gr. I 122; Torp-Falk 244; Holt- 
hausen AEE]\' 119; Walde-Hofmann II 
340-341; Porzig Gliederung 125; Pokorný 
I 821; Chemodanov SGGJa I 102; Vries 
AJVEW 137; Zalizniak II 207; Onions 
382; Bammesberger Nora. 196 (root stem); 
Kluge-Seebold 291. 

*furxtaz adj.: Gouh faurhts 'fearful', OE 
forht id., OS forht, foraht 'afraid, fright- 
eneď, OHG got-Jorht 'fearful of Goď. 
Derivative in *-to- related to Toch AB 
pársk- 'to fear', A praski 'fear', B prosko, 
proskye id. (Holthausen IF XXXIX 65). 
Kirchhoff KZ I 39; Torp-Falk 244 (to 
Arm erkč'nim 'to be afraid'); Zupitza Gutt. 
5-6, 190; Sůtterlin /FXXV 65 (to Gk 
(ppíaaro 'to be rough'); Lewy IF XXXII 
159 (to Lith peršeti 'to hurt, to pain'); 
Feist 146-147; Holthausen AEEW 112; 
Pokorný I 820; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
1 1 1; Onions 377; Van Windekens I 366; 
Lehmann GED 111; Bammesberger Mom. 
250, JIES XrX 354 (to *frexnanan ~ 
*fre3nanan); Heidermanns 223—224. 

*furxtín sb.f: Goth faurhtei 'fright, fear', 
OE fyrhtu id. Cf also OHG forahta 
id. Derived from furxtaz. Torp-Falk 
244; Holthausen AEE]V 120; Feist 
146; Pokorný I 820; Zalizniak II 
179; Onions 377; Lehmann GED 111; 
Heidermanns 224; Kluge-Seebold 291— 

*furxtjanan wk.vb.: Gothfaurhtjan (sikj 'to 
be frighteneď, OE fyrhtan 'to terrify, to 
frighten', OFris unt-fruchta 'to beware', 
OS forhtian 'to fear', OHG for(a)hten 'to 
fear, to loathe'. Derived from *furxtaz. 
Torp-Falk 244; Holthausen AEEW 
120; Feist 146; Pokorný I 820; Lehmann 
GED 111; Heidermanns 224. 

*furxw5n sb.f: ON Jura, fůra 'fir-tree', OE 
furh-wudu 'fir-tree', OS furia 'pine' (jo- 
stem), OHG foraha 'pine, fir-tree'. Related 

to Lat quercus 'oak', W perth 'bush' < 
*k'erk»-t-. Cf. *firxwu Z . Loewe PBB LX 
160—163 (to Gk itépKrj 'perch' rather 
than to Lat quercus); Hoops ]Valdbáume 
118; Zupitza Gutt. 190; Torp-Falk 234; 
Holthausen AEEJ\ t 119; Walde- 
Hofmann II 402—403; Porzig Gliederung 
147; Pokorný I 822; Vries ANEW 147 
(to Gk mnt. iltippaíov, Skt parkati 'Ficus 
infectoria'); Zalizniak II 216; Onions 
357; Griepentrog Wmxelnomina 443; 
Kluge-Seebold 277. 

*furistaz mim.: ON fyrstr 'firsť, OEfyrest, 
fyrst id., OFris ferost id., OS furist, OHG 
furisto 'firsť. Superlative formation based 
on *fur(a). Torp-Falk 232; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 120; Pokorný I 812; Vries 
ANEW 149; Onions 357; Ross-Berns 
Mumerals 625; Kluge-Seebold 292. 

*furjaz ~ *fórjaz adj.: Goth ga-faurs 
'temperate, restrained, well-behaveď, 
MHG ge-vůere 'fitting, useful'. Derived 
from *faranan with an unaccountable 
divergence in vocalism (Grienberger 
Got. 81). Wood M/JVXVI 310 (to Gk 
Jtaúpo? 'small'); Uhlenbeck PBB XXX 
279 (to Lat púrus 'pure'); Feist 180; 
Lehmann GED 137. 

*furna-mannz sb.m.: ON forn-mair 'man 
of the olden time', 0¥.jyrn-mann 'man of 
yore. Compound of *fumaz and *mannz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 58. 

*furnaz adj.: ON forn 'olď, OS adv. forn 
'previously', OHG adv. forn 'previously'. 
Zero grade of *fernai. Torp-Falk 231; 
Vries ANEW 138; Lehmann GED 106. 

*fursaz sb.m.: ON^oíí 'waterfall, stream'. 
Close to Slav *porxb 'dusť (Meillet 
Etudes 285) further related to Skt pársati 
'to sprinkle', Toch AB pdrs- 'to sprinkle'. 
Pedersen IF V 54; Torp-Falk 244; 
Mayrhofer II 230; Pokorný I 823; 
Vries ANE1\ t 139; Vasmer-Trubachev 
III 332-333; Adams TB 375. 

*furskó sb.f: OHG forsca 'question'. An 
archaic zero-grade noun identical with 
Class. Skt prccha id., Arm han' id. See 
*frexnanan ~ *fre^nanan. Torp-Falk 246; 
Porzig IFXLV 156-157; Mayrhofer II 




329 (on the latě nature of the Skt form); 
Lehmann GED 123; Rluge-Seebold 280. 

*furb(a) adv.: OE ford 'forth, forwards', 
OFris forth id., OS forth id., MHG vort id. 
Cf. also Goth faurpis 'earlier, beforehanď. 
Derived from *fur(a). Torp-Falk 232; 
Holthausen AEEW 113; Feist 147; 
Pokorný I 810-818; Onions 372. 

*furj)5janan wk.vb.: ON forSa 'to help 
oneself forth, to savé one's life', OE 
forfiian 'to further, to advance'. Derived 
from *furpa. Holthausen AEE]V 113; 
Vries/UVETT 138. 

*fuwer ~ *fur sb.n.: ON fýrr 'fire' (mase. 
z-stem), fúrr (< *fúraz), OE Jýr id., OFris 
fiur, fiar id., OS fiur id., OHG fiur, fuir 
id. Related to Hitt pahhur id., Toch A por, 
B púwar id., Arm kur id., Gk 7ráp id., 
Umbr pir id. Cf. *funón. Brugmann IF 
XXXIII 308-313; Torp-Falk 243; 
Holthausen AEEW 120; Feist 158— 
159; Pokorný I 828; Vries ANEW 149 
Zalizniak I 223; Frisk II 627-628 
Onions 357; Bammesberger Jíom. 205 
Kluge-Seebold 262; Adams TB 392- 

*fuanan str.vb.: ON part. fúinn 'rotten'. 
Related to Skt puyati 'to become putrid, 

to stink', Gk 7ru9o|iai 'to roť, Lat puteo 'to 
stink, to be rotten', Lith púvú, puti 
'to roť. Forp-Falk 242-243; Walde- 
Hofmann II 392; Jóhannesson IEW 
565-566; Mayrhofer II 322; Pokorný I 
848-849; Fraenkel 680-681; Frisk II 
621-622; Seebold 196-197. 

*ffilaz adj.: Goth fuls 'fetid, fouf, ON 
fúll 'rotten, stinking', OE fúl 'fotil, dirty, 
rotten', OFris ful 'stinking', MLG vúl 
'rotten, spoileď, OHG ful 'foul, putriď. 
Derived from fúanan. Structurally close 
to Lith pl. púliai 'pus' < *pulo-. Torp- 
Falk 242; Feist 172; Holthausen 
AEEW 118; Karsten MB II 263-264; 
Pokorný I 848-849; Dybo VSJa 26; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 78; Fraenkel 680; 
Vries AKEW 146; Onions 373; Seebold 
197; Lehmann GED 131; Bammesberger 
Jíom. 249; Heidermanns 219; Kluge- 
Seebold 252. 

*fu5n sb.m.: ON fúi 'rottenness'. Close to 
Gk 7ií)ov 'discharge from a sore', Arm hu 
'blood from an uleer', Lat pus 'pus, white 
matter' < *puuos and further to *fúanan 
'to roť. Torp-Falk 242; Pokorný I 
849; Vries ANE1V 146; Frisk II 621-622; 
Seebold 196. 

*3abÍ3az ~ *3abu3az adj.: Goth gabigs 
'rich', ON gojugr 'worshipful, noble', OE 
3iefi3 'rich', OHG kepic id. Cf. OHG gebigl 
'opulence'. Derived from *setanan. 
Schmid ^TJADL XLLX 520; Holthausen 
AEEW 128; Feist 175; Vries AME1V 198; 
Lehmann GED 134. 

*3abín sb.f: Goth gabei 'riches, opulence', 
OHG kepl id. Derived from *3ébamm. 
Much Festschr. Jellinek 84 (from adj. 
*3aíaz, further — to *3etanan); Bugge 
PBB XII 416-417 (from * 3 a-at-, to Lat 
cópia 'crowď); Kluge Z d W Vln 28 
(to Lat habeó 'to háve'); Feist 175-176; 

Benveniste IEL 48; Lehmann GED 134. 

*3ablaz ~ *3abl5 sb.f: OE pl. 3aflas 
'fork, prop', OS gabala id., OHG gabala 
id. Related to or borrowed from Celt-Lat 
gabalus 'a kind of gallows', Olr gabul 
'gable, fork'. Torp-Falk 125; Walde- 
Hofmann I 575; Trier Z dadl LXXVI 
15-19; Chemodanov SGGJa I 98; Kluge- 
Seebold 294. 

*3adar5n sb.m.: OSwed gadder 'lattice', 
MLG gaddere id., OHG gataro id. Derived 
from *3aiqanan (see *3adilin3az). Torp- 
Falk 123. 

*3adilin3az sb.m.: Goth gadiliggs 'cousin', 




OE 3ďdelin3 'companion', OS gaduling 
'relative', OHG gatiling id. Cf. also 
*3<Utojanan: OFris gadia 'to unitě', MLG 
gaden 'to suit, to please', OHG bi-gaton 
'to forgather, to get together'. Derived 
from IE *ghadh-\ Skt gádhya- 'fitting, suit- 
ing', Lith goda 'honor', Slav *goďb 'time, 
year' (Grassmann KZ XII 128-129). 
Froehde BB VIII 165 (to Lat habeo 'to 
háve'); Fick III 123; Bezzenberger BB 
XVI 243 (samé as Froehde); Wood 
KZ XLV 69; Brugmann IF XXI 316- 
318; Prellwitz 2 (to Gk áyaSói; 'gooď); 
Torp-Falk 123; Holthausen AEEW 
121; Feist 178-179; Mayrhofer I 
320-321; Pokorný I 423-424; Fraenkel 
159-160; Trubaohev ESSJa VI 191— 
192; Lehmann GED 136; Kluge-Seebold 

*3a3alan sb.n.: ON gagl 'wild goose'. 
Closely related to OPrus gegalis 'a kind of 
duck', Slav *gogoh> 'male duck' (Bezzen- 
berger BB I 253). Of imitative origin. 
Zupitza Gutt. 172; Trautmann BS1V 74; 
Vries ANEW 152; Toporov PJa II 187 
189; Vasmer-Trubachev I 425. 

*3a3ně prep., adv.: ON gegn 'againsť, OE 
3e3n id., OFris ien id., OS gegin id., OHG 
gegin, gagan id. Derived from *3(i3niz. 
Torp-Falk 119-120; Holthausen 
AEEW 126; Vries ANEW 160; Kluge- 
Seebold 306. 

*3a3niz adj.: ON gegn 'short (of way), 
ready', OE józ 'direct, short (of a road)'. 
Related to *3an3anan? Lewy PBB 
XXXII 1 40 (to Skt jaghána 'hinder part, 
buttock, pudenda', Gk KO^tóvri 'per- 
ineum'); Torp-Falk 119; Holthausen 
AEEW 126; Mayrhofer I 411; Vries 
ANEW 160; Onions 18; Kluge-Seebold 

*3a3njanan wk.vb.: ON gegna 'to go 
against, to meet, to suit', OE 3Íe3nan 
'to turn, to drive', OHG gaganen, geginen 
'to meeť. Derived from *3a3niz. Torp- 
Falk 120; Holthausen AEEW 128; 
Vries ANEW 160. 

*3a3Ójanan wk.vb.: ON gaga 'to throw the 
neck back', MHG easen 'to cackle'. Close 

to Lith gagu, gageti id. (Mann Language 
XXVIII 35-36). Of imitative origin. 
Fraenkel 127-128; Pokorný I 407; 
Vries ANEW 152. 

*3aiďwan sb.n.: Goth gaidw 'shortage, 
lack', OE 3ád 'lack, want, desire', OFris 
gád 'neeď. Etymologically close to Gk 
%axÉco 'to lack' further connected with 
Skt jáháti 'to leave, to abandon' and the 
like. Probably, to be reconstructed as 
*gbi-tuó- (Schulze KZ XXVII 425, Kl. 
Schr. 53). Zupitza Gutt. 173; Torp-Falk 
133; Feist 185; Holthausen AEE1 1' 1 2 1 ; 
Mayrhofer I 426; Pokorný I 418-419; 
Frisk II 1077-1078; Meid Wortbild. 163 
(to Skt hetú- 'instigation, inducemenť); 
Lehmann GED 139; Bammesberger Norn. 
84; Heidermanns 227. 

*3aÍ3az sb.m.: ON geigr 'scathe, serious 
hurt'. Derived from * 31301(01 ~ *3Ín3enan. 
Torp-Falk 134; Lehmann GED 137. 

*3aÍ3Janan ~ *3aÍ35janan wk.vb.: ON 
geiga 'to také a wrong direction', OE for- 
3ié3an 'to transgress, to prevaricate', 
OFris gěja 'to pay penance', G geigen 
'to move back and forth'. Derived from 
*3aÍ3ai. Zupitza Gutt. 97; Torp-Falk 
1 34; Holthausen AEE] V 1 2 1 ; Pokorný I 
421 (to Lith žiógauti 'to yawn'); Vries 
ANEW 160-161; Lehmann GED 137. 

*3aila-skapiz sb.m.: OESc gslskaper 'for- 
nication', OE 3álscipe 'luxury, lastfulness' . 
Derived from *3ailaz. Heidermanns 

*3ailaz adj.: Burg *gails 'merry', OESc gel- 
maper 'bedfellow', OE 3M 'light, pleasant, 
wanton', OS gel 'merry', OHG geil 'high- 
spiriteď. Identical with Lith gailús 
'piteous; biting, nippy, corrosive', Latv 
gails 'lecherous, lascivous', Slav *zěh> 
'strong' (Zupitza Gutt. 171). Torp-Falk 
120; Trautmann BSU t 75; Feist 185; 
Holthausen AEEW \1"i; Pokorný I 452; 
Fraenkel 128-129; Stang LS 21; 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 92; Piirainen 56- 
58; Vasmer-Trubachev II 92; Lehmann 
GED 140; Kobler 710; Heidermanns 
226; Kluge-Seebold 307-308. 

*3ailjanan ~ *3ailěnan wk.vb.: Goth 




gailjan 'to gladden', OHG ir-geilěn 'to 
raise (one's eyes)'. Derived from *3ailaz. 
Zupitza Gutt. 171; Torp-Falk 120; Feist 
185; Lehmann GED 139-140; Heider- 

MANNS 226. 

*3aislan ~ *3aisl5 sb.n./f.: ON geisl 
'staff', mase. geisli id., MLG geisel 'whip', 
OHG geisila id. Derived from *3aizaz. 
Torp-Falk 121; Vries ANEW 162. 

*3aisjanan wk.vb.: Goth us-gaisjan 'to 
frighten'. Based on an unattested noun 
*3aisaz identical with Av zaěša- 'horrible'. 
Bartholomae 1651; Torp-Falk 135; 
Feist 531-532; Pokorný I 427; Lehmann 
GED 382. 

*3aisp5janan wk.vb.: ON geispa 'to 
yawn', ME 3aspen 'to gasp'. An emphatic 
derivative of *3aisjanan secondarily in- 
fluenced by *3ÍpSjanan. Torp-Falk 134 
(reconstruct *3aipsojanan, to *3Ípdjanan)\ 
Vries ANE]\ 7 162 (to ON geisa 'to chafe, 
to rage' or to *3Ípajanarí). 

*3aistaz sb.m.: OE 3iést 'soul, spirit, minď, 
OFris jest id., OS gest id., OHG geist id. 
Related to *3aisjanan. Cf. also a struc- 
turally similar but semantically diverging 
Lith žaizda 'wounď. Zupitza Gutt. 202; 
Torp-Falk 135; Holthausen AEEW 
122; Pokorný I 427; Fraenkel 1285; 
Zalizniak I 131; Fraenkel 1285; Onions 
396; Lehmann GED 382; Bammesberger 
Nom. 76; Fsluge-Seebold 308. 

*3aitínaz adj.: Goth sbst. gaitein 'kiď, OE 
3ďten 'pertaining to goats', OHG geizin id. 
Diminutive of *3aitz. Structurally identi- 
cal with Lat haedlnus 'of a kiď (Porzig 
114). Torp-Falk 120; Holthausen 
AEEW 122; Walde-Hofmann I 632; 
Feist 186; Pokorný I 409; Lehmann 
GED 140. 

*3aitz sb.f: Goth gaits 'she-goať (t-stem), 
ON gat id., OE 3 át id., OS gět id., OHG 
geiz id. (z-stem). Related to Lat haedus 
'buck' (Forsterman K£ I 497). Prell- 
wrrz 500 (to Sktjáhati 'to leave, to aban- 
don'); Fick I 433 (to Lidr žáidžiu, žáisti 'to 
play'); Zupitza Gutt. 200-201; Char- 
pentier KZ XL 472; Torp-Falk 120; 
Htrt Urgerm. II 51 (on the consonantal 

stem in Gmc); Holthausen AEE\V 124; 
Walde-Hofmann I 632; Feist 186; 
Krahe Spr. Vorz. 76; Porzig Gliederung 
114; Trubachev VJa VIII/1 22-23 (adds 
Slav *zi(d)-nrbtstb 'honey-suckle' < 
*'goaťs throať); Pokorný I 409-410; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 58; Vries ANEW 
162; Zalizniak II 207; Onions 404; 
Lehmann GED 140-141; Tollenaere KZ 
XCVI 141-144; Peeters KZ CI 167; 
Bammesberger JVom. 195; Griepentrog 
I Vurzelnomina 443; Kluge-Seebold 308. 

*3aiza-laukaz sb.m.: ON geir-laukr 'gar- 
lic', OE neut. 3ár-leác id. Compound of 
*3aizaz and Haukaz. Hoops l\'aldbáume 
644 (ON < OE); Carr Nom. comp. 32 (fol- 
lows Hoops); Vries ANEW 161. 

*3aizan sb.m.: ON geiri 'goar, triangular 
strip', OE jara 'angular point of land, 
promontory', OFris gara 'triangular piece 
(of land)', MLG gěre 'wedge-shaped 
piece', OHG gero 'angular strip of land'. 
Derived from *3aizaz (after the triangular 
shape of the spear-head). Torp-Falk 
121; Holthausen AEE]V 124; Onions 
406; Fsluge-Seebold 307. 

*3aizaz sb.m.: Goth prop. Gais-walds, ON 
gem 'spear', OE 3ár 'dart, javelin, spear', 
OFris ger id., OS gěr id., OHG ger id. Cf. 
also *3aii6 > OE 3Úd 'point, sting, prick, 
goaď. Related to Lat-Gaul gaesum, youoov 
'heavy iron spear', Olr gae 'spear', W 
gwayw id., MBret goaff id., Corn gew id. 
The samé Indo-European word is at- 
tested as a loanword from an unknown 
(Western) source in Gk x a ^ ov ' Z a í°í 
'shepherďs stick'. Cf. also Thrac prop. 
Boi>A.o-yaícrr|c;. Zupitza Gutt. 202; Torp- 
Falk 120-121; Falk SVAO 1914/6 82- 
83; Sghrader-Nehring II 425 (Gmc < 
Celt); Walde-Hofmann I 575-576; 
Holthausen AEE]V 124; Detschew 
Thr. 79; Pokorný I 410 (to Skt hesa- 
'weapon'); Vries AME1V 161-162; Zaliz- 
niak I 131; Onions 403; Frisk 1 061 — 
1 062; Chantraine 1240; Bammesberger 
Nom. 54 (to Gk jalot^j; Fsluge-Seebold 
315; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*3alanan str.vb.: ON gala 'to crow, to 




sing', OE 3«/«k 'to sing', OHG galan 'to 
incantate'. Originally, of imitative origin. 
Brugmann IF XXXII 190 (secondary 
present vocalism based on preterital 
*jo/-); Torp-Falk 130; Berneker I 293 
(to Slav *galiti 'to triumph, to lauglť < 
*ghol-eio-); Holthausen AEE]V 123; 
Schwarz Festschr. Trier 442-444 (recon- 
structs the originál meaning 'to praise'); 
Jóhannesson IEW 382-385; Pokorný I 
428; Vries ANEW 153; Onions 1019; 
Seebold 212-213; Lehmann GED 157— 
158 (to Gk xe^.i8<óv 'swallow'). 

*3aldin3az sb.m.: ON geldingr Svether', G 
Gelling-hanJ 'male hemp'. Derived from 
*3aliiz ~ *3aldjaz. Vries ANEW 162; 
Heidermanns 228. 

*3aldiz ~ *3aldjaz adj.: Gouh pln. Galtis 
(< *galpeis), ON geldr 'barren, yielding no 
milk', OE 3Íelde 'fruitless', MLG gelt id., 
OHG galt, gialt id. Related to Slav *golďb 
'hunger'. Karsten MB II 376; Lessiak 
^DADL 146—147 (participle of *3alanan); 
Olsen IF XXXVIII 168 (to Phryg pl. 
r«XXoi 'castrated servants of Cybela'); 
Torp-Falk 132 (to Lith žala 'harm, dam- 
age'); Holthausen AEE]V 129; Feist 
189; Schwarz Festschr. Trier 448-449 (to 
IE *ghel- 'to peel, to cuť); Pokorný I 434; 
Vries ANEW 196, 198-199; Trubachev 
ESSJa VI 199-200; Lehmann GED 143; 
Heidermanns 228 (to IE *ghel- 'to cuť); 
Kluge-Seebold 310. 

*3aldjanan wk.vb.: ON gelda 'to gelď, 
MDu gelten id., G gelzen id. Derived from 
*3aldiz ~ *3aldjaz. Structurally close to 
Slav *golditi 'to cause hunger, to starve'. 
Jóhannesson IEW 385 (to *ghel- 'to cuť); 
Schwarz Festschr. Trier 448—449; Vries 
ANEW 162-163; Trubachev ESSJa VI 
199; Heidermanns 228. 

*3aldran sb.n.: ON galdr 'song, witch- 
crafť, OE 3ealdor 'incantation, charm', 
OHG galtar id. Derived from *3alanan. 
Torp-Falk 130; Holthausen AEE}Y 
124; Vries ANEW 153; Seebold 212; 
Lehmann GED 157, 193; Bammesberger 
Nom. 86. 

*3al3a-trewan sb.n.: ON gálga-tré 'gal- 

lows', OE 3eal3-tréow id. Compound of 
*3al3on and *trewan. Carr Nom. comp. 54. 

*3al3on sb.m.: Goth galga 'stake, gallows, 
cross', ON gálgi 'gallows', OE 3eal3a 'gal- 
lows, gibbet, cross', OFris galga 'gallows', 
OS galgo id., OHG galgo id. Related to 
Lith žalga 'long pole' (Múller W^KM V 
68) and, probably, to Arm jalk 'branch'. 
Pedersen iř^XXXIX 361; Zupitza Gutt. 
178, 201; Torp-Falk 131; Trautmann 
BSW 364; Holthausen AEEW 125; Feist 
189; Pokorný I 411; Fraenkel 
1286-1287; Vries ANEW 153; Zalizniak 
I 153; Onions 387; Solta Ann. 314-315; 
Stang LS 65; Lehmann GED 142; 
Kluge-Seebold 295. 

*3allan ~ *3allón sb.n./f: ON gall 'gall, 
bile', OS galia id., OHG galia id. 
Continues *ghol-n-. Connected with Av 
zara- id., Gk yokoc, id., Ypk*\ id., Lat fel 
id. (ra-stem) (Kuhn K£ I 516). Believed to 
be further related to dre color adjective 
*ghel-\ Skt hári- 'pale, yellowish, greenish', 
Av zairi- 'yellow, yellowish', Lat heluus 
'light bay', Lith ždlías 'green', želvas 
'greenish'. Zupitza Gutt. 171; Persson 
Beitrdge 794; Bartholomae 1690; Torp- 
Falk 131; Holthausen ,4 II TV 99, ^££11' 
125; Walde-Hofmann I 473-474, 639; 
Porzig Gliederung 110, 207; Mayrhofer 
III 581; Pokorný I 429-430; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 89; Fraenkel 1287, 
1297; Vries AJ\E1\ r 153; Zalizniak II 
182; Frisk II 1109-1110; Onions 386; 
Kluge-Seebold 296. 

*3allón sb.m.: ON galii 'fault, flaw', OE 
3ealla 'fretted pláce on the skin', MLG 
galle 'wounded spot on the skin', MHG 
galle 'swelling'. Related to Lith žala 
'harm, damage', Slav *zt>h> 'bad, angry' 
(Holthausen AJVN 79). Homonymic OE 
3ealla 'gall, bile' belongs to *3allan ~ 
*3allon. Zupitza Gutt. 201 (to Olr galar 
'sickness'); Torp-Falk 130; Holthausen 
AEEW 125; Endzelin KZ XLIV 66; 
Pokorný I 490; Fraenkel 1286; Vries 
ANE][ T 154; Onions 386 (to *3allan ~ 

*3almaz sb.m.: ON galmr 'sworď (tiula), 




OS galm 'tone', OHG galm 'tone, sounď. 
Derived from *3alanan. Torp-Falk 130; 
Vries ANEW 154. 

*3alpojanan wk.vb.: Swed dial. galpa 'to 
cry (of birds)', OS galpon 'to cry loudly'. 
Derived from *3elpanan. Torp-Falk 132. 

*3altaz ~ *3altuz sb.m.: ON gqltr 'boar, 
hog', OE 3ealt-bor3 'pig'. Probably related 
to Lith acc. núo-galdq 'dock in a stable', 
už-galda id., Latv galds 'splinter, board, 
plank'. Suolahti ANT 158; Hirt BB 
XXIV 246 (to Skt huda- 'ram'); Torp- 
Falk 131; Holthausen AEE]V 125; 
Fraenkel 131; Vries ANEW 198-199; 
Kluge-Seebold 311. 

*3amalaz adj.: ON gamall 'olď, OE 3amol, 
3omel id., MDu gamel id. Probably related 
to Lat humilis 'low', Gk ^Odiia^ó^ 'near 
the ground, low' (Szemerényi IVord VIII 
50). Kluge KZ XXVI 70 (from * 3 a- 
mělaz, to *milan I); Wadstein IF V 12 
(ON gamall < *3a-xamalaz, to *xamalo- 
janan); Torp-Falk 127 (to *3omz)\ Holt- 
hausen AEEW 123; Rooth Wortst. 50 
(to ON gambra 'to brag, to bluster'); 
Walde-Hofmann I 664-665; Pokorný I 
414-416; Vries ANEW 154; Frisk II 
1098-1099; Kluge-Seebold 856. 

*3amanan sb.n.: ON gaman 'game, sport, 
amusemenť, OE 3amen joy, game, pleas- 
ure', OFris game, gome id., OS gaman id., 
OHG gaman 'joke, joy'. Identical with 
Slav *gomont> 'noise' (Il'inskii RFV LXIII 
341) derived from *gomb id. Torp-Falk 
127; Berneker I 326-327 (Slav < Gmc); 
Pokorný I 490 (to *3ampaz); Vasmer- 
Trubachev I 436. 

*3aman5janan wk.vb.: ON gamna 'to 
amuse, to diverť, OE 3amnian 'to joke, to 
play'. Derived from *3amanan. Vries 
ANEW 155; Onions 388. 

*3ammón sb.m.: ON gammi 'Finnish 
dwelling', G dial. Gamm 'heap of drying 
bricks'. Related to *3dmz. Lidén Arm. St. 
14 (to Arm gom 'barn, pen'); Torp-Falk 
127; Chemodanov SGGJa I 110. 

*3ampaz sb.m.: Norw gamp 'big, fat man, 
fat horše', MHG gampf 'úisAáng . Of un- 
known origin. Torp-Falk 127. 

*3anaz sb.n.: ON gan 'frenzy, frantic ges- 
tures'. Identical with Gk x<*vo<; 'yawning, 
gaping'. See *3anqjanan. Pokorný I 411; 
Frisk II 1076-1077. 

*3an3anan str.vb.: Goth gaggan 'to go', 
ON ganga id., OE 3an3an id., OFris gunga 
id., OS gangan id., OHG gangan id. 
Connected with *3angaz. May be a back 
formation based on *3an3Janan (Porzig 
147). Cf. also Lith zeňgti 'to stride, to 
march', Latv ziet 'to trespass, to sin' 
(Stang ScSl VIII 162-164). Sohweizer 
KZ I 150; Holthausen AEEW 123; 
Zupitza Gutt. 178, 200; Torp-Falk 
124; Feist 181-182, 288-289; Porzig 
Gliederung 147; Jóhannesson 1E]V 343— 
344; Pokorný I 438; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 76; Vries ANE]V 156; Seebold 
213-216; Mottausch KZ CXI 134-142; 
Lehmann Language XLX 318-319, GED 

*3an3az I sb.m.: Goth neut. gagg 'street, 
roaď, ON gangr 'going, walking', OE 
3 flK J going, journey, way', OFris gang, 
gong id., OS gang id., OHG gang id. 
See *3an3anan. Torp-Falk 124; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 123; Feist 181; Pokorný 
I 438; Vries ANE]V 156; Zalizniak II 
186; Onions 388; Seebold 214; Lehmann 
GED 138; Mottausch K~ CLX 76-109; 
Fsluge-Seebold 297. 

*3an3az II adj.: OESc ep-ganger 'legiti- 
mate', OE acc. sg. jela-3eon3e 'having 
travelled much', MLG gange 'passable', G 
gang und gábe. See *3an3anan. Heider- 
manns 229-230. 

*3an3Ílaz sb.m.: ON gengil-beina 'woman 
with crooked legs', OE ďjier-3en3el 'suc- 
cessor', OHG fuoz-gengil 'pedestrian'. 
Derived from *3ari3iz. Holthausen 
AEEW 127; Seebold 214. 

*3an3Íz adj.: ON gengr 'able to walk', OE 
3en3e 'going, current, prevalenť, OFris 
gendze, ganse 'currenť, MDu genge id., 
OHG gengi id. Derived from *3an3anan. 
Karsten NB I 106-107; Torp-Falk 124; 
Holthausen AEEW 127; Vries ANEW 
163; Seebold 214; Matzel Festschr. 
Schriider 106; K£ CV 127; Heidermanns 




230; Kluge-Seebold 297; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*3an3Jan sb.n.: Goth faura-gaggi 'steward- 
ship, management, administration', ON 
gengi 'help, support, success', OE sen^e 
'gang, flock, company' (fem.), OS gi-gengi 
'row', OHG ana-gengi 'beginning'. De- 
rived from *3an3anan or *3an3Íz. Holt- 
hausen AEEU r 127; Feist 182; Vries 
ANEW 163; Seebold 214. 

*3an3Janan wk.vb.: Goth gangjan 'to go, to 
go on a journey', OE 3en3a.11 'to go, to 
pass', MHG gengen 'to make go'. Derived 
from *3an3anan, *3an^az. Holthausen 
AEEW 127; Feist 182; Pokorný I 438; 
Seebold 214. 

*3an3J5n sb.m.: Goth faura-gaggja 'steward, 
manager', ON for-ingi 'leader', OE án- 
311130 'lone-goer, loner', OFris brád-genza 
'beggar', OHG náh-gengo 'servant'. De- 
rived from *3an3anan. Holthausen 
AEEW 127; Feist 182; Porzig Gliederung 
147; Vries ANEW 138; Seebold 214. 

*3an3on sb.f: ON ganga 'walking', OHG 
miti-ganga 'servant, maiď. Derived from 
*3an3anan. Cf. in particular structurally 
similar Skt járighá 'lower leg', Lith pra- 
Žangá 'violation, breach'. Zupitza Gutt. 
197; Trautmann BSW 370; Fraenkel 
1300; Seebold 214. 

*3an3ulaz adj.: ON gongull 'strolling', OE 
wíd-3an3ol 'rambling, roving'. Derived 
from *3<m3anan. Karsten NB II 286; 
Vries ANEW 199; Seebold 214; Hei- 

DERMANNS 230-231. 

*3anxtiz sb.f: Goth fram-gahts 'progress', 
ON gátt 'rabbet of a door-sill', OE bed-3Íht 
'evening', OHG betti-gaht 'going to beď. 
Derived from *3an3anan. Torp-Falk 
124; Holthausen AEE1 V 130; Feist 164; 
Vries ANEW 158; Seebold 214; 
Lehmann GED 124-125. 

*3an5janan wk.vb.: ON gana 'to rush, to 
glare', OE 3ánian 'to yawn, to gape', 
MHG janen 'to gape, to glare'. Derived 
from *3anaz. Related to Gk ^aívo) id. 
Holthausen ^££11' 123-124; Pokorný I 
411, 419; Vrtes ANEW 155; Frisk II 

*3ans-xabukaz sb.m.: ON gás-haukr 

'goshawk', OE 3Ós-hafoc id. Compound of 
*3ansz and *xabukaz. Carr Nom. comp. 
48; Onions 407. 

*3ansz sb.f: ON gis 'goose', OE 3ÓS id., 
OFris gos id., MLG gos id. (z-stem), OHG 
gans id. (z-stem). Spán ganso id. is from 
Goth *gansus. Related to Skt harhsá- id., 
Av za id., Gk yý\v id., Lat anser id., Olr 
géiss 'swan', Lith ŽQsis 'goose', Slav *gqsb 
id. Zupitza Gutt. 201; Suolahti DVN 
410-415; Berneker I 342 (Slav < Gmc); 
Torp-Falk 125; Holthausen AEE]V 
135; Walde-Hofmann I 52; Mayrhofer 
III 571; Pokorný I 412; Fraenkel 1292; 
Vries ANE]\ r 157; Zalizniak II 207; 
Frisk II 1094-1095; Onions 406; Tru- 
baohev ESSJa VII 88—89; Bammesberger 
jYom. 196; Griepentrog Wurzdnomina 
201-232; Kxuge-Seebold 298. 

*3antaz adj.: OHG ganz 'healthy, un- 
harmed, whole'. Identical with Lith ne- 
gandas 'dissatisfaction', OLith adv. comp. 
gandžiaus 'rather'. Torp-Falk 125; Fay 
IF XXXII 331-332 (to Alb gjúhe 'all'); 
Fraenkel 133, KZ LXXII 185-190 
(Baltic forms to Skt ghaná- 'compact, firm, 
hard, dense'); Heidermanns 233; Kluge- 
Seebold 298. 

*3ap5janan wk.vb.: ON gapa 'to gape', 
OE ofer-3apian 'to neglect, to disregarď, 
MLG gapen 'to gape', MHG gaffen id. Of 
imitative origin. Zupitza Gutt. 18, 217; 
Torp-Falk 125; Holthausen AEEW 
124; Vries ANEW 156 (to *ghe- 'to 
yawn'); Onions 389; Kluge-Seebold 

*3aráaz sb.m.: Goth gards 'house, family, 
courť (< *3ardiz), ON gardr 'yard', OE 
3eard 'enclosure, yard, dwelling, lanď, OS 
gard 'land, fielď, pl. 'yard', OHG boum- 
gart 'garden, orcharď. Related to Toch B 
kercci 'paláce', Skt grhá- 'house', Av gm8a- 
'dev's cave', Alb gardh 'fence', Lith gařdas 
'pen, hurdle', Slav *gordb 'fence, town' 
(Lottner KZ XI 192). Mertnger IF 
XVI 140; Grienberger Got. 90; Torp- 
Falk 129; Holthausen AEE]V 125; Feist 
197-198; Porzig Gliederung 171; Mayr- 




hofer I 344; Pokorný I 444; Fraenkel 
135-136; Vries ANEW 156; Zalizniak II 
195; Onions 1018; Benveniste IEL 274; 
Trubachev ESSJa VII 37—38; Lehmann 
GED 147-148; Keuge-Seebold 300; 
Orel AED 110; Adams TB 196. 

*3arďjan sb.n.: ON gerdi 'fenced fielď. 
Derived from *3ardaz. Derivationally 
identical with Toch B kercci 'paláce', 
Phryg pln. róp8iov (Lidén Toch. 21-22). 
Adams TB 196, 

*3arď5n sb.m.: Goth garda 'enclosed yard, 
stockyarď, OFris garda 'land property', 
OS gardo 'garden', OHG garto id. A mor- 
phological variant of *3ardaz. Torp- 
Falk 129; Feist 197; Pokorný I 444; 
Zalizniak II 195; Kluge-Seebold 300. 

*3arnan sb.n.: ON gam 'yarn', OE 3earn 
id., MLG gam id., OHG gam id. See 
*3amo. Zupitza Gutt. 201; Torp-Falk 
129; Holthausen AEEW 125-126 
Pokorný I 443; Vries AMEW 157 
Zalizniak I 140; Fraenkel II 1291 
Onions 1018; Kluge-Seebold 299- 

*3arn(j)a-wenď5n sb.f.: ON gam-vinda 
'skein of yarn', OE ^eam-winde 'reď 
(mase.?), OFris jem-wine id., MLG garn- 
winde id., OHG gam-winta id. Compound 
of *3amo and *wendon. Carr Nom. comp. 
72 (parallel formations). 

*3arn5 sb.f: ON gam 'guť. Cf WGmc 
neut. *3arnjan > OE myc-sem 'fat about 
the kidneys', OS mid-gami 'internal fať, 
OHG mitti-gami id. Identical with Lith 
lama 'guť, Latv zarna 'intestine'. Further 
cf. Alb zorre id. < PAlb *džama with a 
long *S < *e. Torp-Falk 129; Traut- 
mann BS1V 367; Pokorný I 787; Fraen- 
kel 1291; Vries ANEW 199; Stang LS 
65; Kluge-Seebold 299; Orel AED 

*3arstaz ~ *3arstiz adj.: ON gerstr 'sour, 
dismal', MLG garst 'ranciď, MHG garst 
id. Identical with Mír goirt 'bitter' < 
*ghorsti-. Torp-Falk 130; Pokorný I 
445 (to Lith grastis 'menace, ťhreať, grasus 
'causing weariness' based on gresiu, grésti 
'to menace, to threaten'); Fraenkel 166 — 

167; Heidermanns 233; Kluge-Seebold 
*3arwaz adj.: ON gqrr 'ready for some- 
thing', OE 3earu 'ready, prepareď, OS 
gam id., OHG garo id. Related to *3eraz. 
Kaufmann PBB XX 530 (from *3a-arwaz, 
see *arwaz)\ Karsten jVB II 17, 414-416; 
Torp-Falk 128; Holthausen AEEW 
126; Pokorný I 494; Vries ANEW 

163-164 (to IE *g« her ~ ' to burn ')> 199; 
Onions 1018; Seebold LuE 458-460 
(against the connection with *g"her- 'to 
burn'); Kabell KZ LXXXVII 26-31; 
Sanders Festschr. Kolb 558-568 (follows 
Kaufmann); Bammesberger Nom. 244; 
Heidermanns 233-234; Kluge-Seebold 

*3arwib5 sb.f: ON gerd 'gear, harness, 
armor', OHG garawida 'garment, gear'. 
Derived from *3arwaz. Torp-Falk 128; 
Vries ANEW 164; Heidermanns 234. 

*3arwín ~ *3arwj5 sb.f: ON gorui 'gear, 
apparel', OE 3earwe 'clothing, attire, 
gear', OHG garawi 'equipment, attire, 
jewelry'. Derived from *3arwaz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 126; Vries ANEW 165; 
Onions 392; Heidermanns 234. 

*3arwjanan wk.vb.: ON gorva 'to get 
ready, to make ready', OE 3Íerwan 'to 
make ready, to prepare', OS garwian, ger- 
wian id., OHG garawen id. Derived from 
*3arwaz. Torp-Falk 128; Holthausen 
AEEW 130; Vries ANEW 163-164; 
Onions 389; Heidermanns 234; Kluge- 
Seebold 315—316. 

*3asti-3eb6n sb.m.: ON gest-gjafi 'host', 
MHG gast-gebe id. Compound of *3astiz 
and *3ebon. Carr Nom. comp. 83 (paral- 
lel formations). 

*3astiz sb.m.: Goth gasts 'stranger, guesť, 
ON gestr 'guesť, OE 3iest, 3Íest 'stranger, 
guest, enemy', OFris jest 'guesť, OS gast 
'enemy, guesť, OHG gast 'guest, 
stranger'. Etymologically identical with 
Lat hostis 'stranger', Slav *gostb 'guesť. 
Brugmann IF I 172-174; Zupitza Gutt. 
172; Meillet MSL LX 374; Torp-Falk 
133; Holthausen AEE1\' 130; Walde- 
Hofmann I 662-664; Feist 202; Mezger 




XXIV 154-155; Porzig Glie- 
derung 207; Pokorný I 453; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 65; Vries AMEW 165; Zalizniak 
I 149; Onions 418; Lindeman Verscharfmg 
11.2; Benveniste I EL 75, 78, 294, 301; 
Trubaohev ESSJa VII 67-68; Lehmann 
GEL) 149; Kluge-Seebold 300. 

*3atan sb.n.: ON gat 'hole', OE jraí 'gate, 
dooř', OFris gat, jet 'hole, opening', OS 
gat 'eye of a needle, hole, opening'. Of 
uncertain origin. Probably connected 
with ancient Balkanic (Phrygian?) i^éxva 
'dooř' for which a conjecture *^éxav is 
required. Holthausen PBB XI 553 (to 
Skt hádati 'cacare', Gk %í^<>> id.), AEEW 
126; Zupitza Gutt. 201; Torp-Falk 123; 
Pokorný I 423; Georgiev hsledov. 139; 
Vries AMEW 157; Onions 391; Kluge- 
Seebold 301. 

*3atw5n sb.f.: Godr gatwo 'thoroughfare, 
streeť, ON gata 'thoroughfare', MDu gate 
'passage', OHG gazza 'quarter'. Derived 
from *3atan (Persson Beitrdge I 599). 
Bremer PBB XI 272 (to *ghei- 'to go'); 
Grienberger Got. 94 (to Gk x^okco 'to 
yawn, to gape'); Wiedemann BB XXX 
214 (to Lith gendú, gésti 'to spoil'); Torp- 
Falk 123; Holthausen PBB XI 565 (to 
Skt hádati 'to defecate'); Pedersen Kelt. Gr. 
I 63 (to W gwddw 'neck'); Feist 205-206; 
Pokorný I 423; Vries AMEW 158; 
Zalizniak II 228; Onions 391; Lehmann 
GED 151; Kluge-Seebold 300. 

*3audan ~ *3aud5 sb.n./f: ON gaud 
'barking', OE 3eád 'foolishness, luxury, 
mockery'. Derived from *3aujanan. 
Torp-Falk 121; Holthausen AEE1V 
126; Vries AMW 158. 

*3aujan sb.n.: Goth gawi 'region, country, 
environmenť, OE -jé 'land, districť (in 
cmpn.), OFris gá 'districť, OS -go, -gá 
id. (in cmpn.), OHG gouwi, gewi 'county, 
lanď. Etymologically close to Gk x** ? 
'emptiness' < *xafo<; (Grienberger Got. 
96). Legerlotz KZ VIII 119 (to Gk 
yaia 'earth'); Burk gdWf n 341-342 
(from Gmc *3a-a(x)wjan 'land among the 
waters'); Scheftelowitz BB XXVIII 310 
(to Arm gavar 'area'); Uhlenbeck PBB 

XXX 282 (to •gum- 'to caU'); Torp-Falk 
119 (follow Burk); Holthausen AEE]V 
124; Feist 210-211 (to Gk oír, 'vfflage'), 
PBB XV 547-548 (from * 3 a-wix-, to IE 
*weik- 'dwelling'); Pokorný I 449; Frisk 
II 1072-1073; Lehmann GED 153; 
Kluge-Seebold 301; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*3aujanan str.vb.: ON geyja 'to bark'. Cf. 
OE 3Óian 'to lamenť < *3owjanan. 
Related to Skt hávate 'to calT, Lith zavíti 
'to charm', Slav *zovq, *zbvati 'to calP. 
Kock AMF XI 344-345 (from *3a-waujan, 
to *waujan 'to ring out, to resounď); 
Wood MLN XVI 19 (to IE *gheu- 'to 
pour'); Torp-Falk 121; Holthausen 
AEEW 134; Jóhannesson IEW 318-320; 
Pokorný I 449 (to *gheu- 'to yawn'); 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 75; Vries AMEW 
165 (to Lith gaústi 'to rumble, to hum'); 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 85; Seebold 216. 

*3aukaz sb.m.: ON gaukr 'cuckoo', OE 
3 eác id., OFris gák id., MLG gok id., OHG 
gouh id. Of imitative origin. Uhlenbeck 
AMF XV 151-153 (< *3a-aukaz, to 
*aukanari); Grienberger SBA1V CXLII/8 
95 (to *3aujanarí)\ Meillet MSL XII 
213-215 (to Lith geguzé 'cuckoo', Slav 
*žegt>zica id.); Torp-Falk 122; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 124; Vries AMEW 158; 
Onions 408; Zalizniak I 131; Kluge- 
Seebold 301. 

*3aumib5 sb.f: ON rare geyrad 'heed, 
attention', OHG bi-goumida 'care, worry'. 
Derived from *3aumjanan. Vries AMEW 

*3aumjanan wk.vb.: Goth gaumjan 'to pay 
attention, to see, to observe', ON geyma 
'to keep, to watch', OE 3ýman 'to care 
for, to heed, to watch, to observe', OS 
gomian 'to guarď, OHG goumen 'to heed, 
to watch'. Derived from *3aum(j)o(nj. 
Zupitza Gutt. 172; Torp-Falk 121; 
Holthausen AEEW 129; Feist 207; 
Pokorný I 453; Vries AME]\ 7 165-166; 
Lehmann GED 151; Kluge-Seebold 302. 

*3aum(j)5(n) sb.f: ON gaum 'attention, 
heeď, mase. gaumr id., OE 3ýme 'care', 
OFris game id., NFris gumi 'christening 
celebration', OS goma 'entertainmenť, 




OHG gouma 'meal, banqueť. Derived 
from *3awman (Torp SHS 186). Torp- 
Falk 121; Johansson Festschr. Moreen 46 1 , 
BB XV 228 (from *3a-aumo, to Slav *umn> 
'mind, intelligence'); Pedersen IF V 68 
(from *3a-usm-, to *auzorí)\ Slotty IF 
XLVI 366-372; Grienberger Got. 95; 
Meillet MSL VIII 280 (to Slav *gosěti 'to 
worship, to fasť); Holthausen AEE]V 
129; Feist 207; IUmtoft GHÁ LVI/3 
263-265; Pokorný I 453; Vries ÁNEW 
158; Zalizniak II 216; Lehmann GED 
151; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*3aupaz adj.: OE 3eap 'crooked, bent, 
curveď. Identical with Slav *gub~b 'folď. 
Further related to Lith gaubiu, gaubti 'to 
cover from top to bottom', Slav *gbbnqti 
'to benď. Pokorný I 450; Trubachev 
ESSJa VII 164-165. 

*3aupnó sb.f: ON gaupn 'both hands held 
together', OHG goufana 'handful, empty 
hand, palm'. Derived from *3aupaz. 
Zupitza Gatt. 18-19, 202; Torp-Falk 
137 (to *gheub(h)- 'to benď); Fraenkel 
IF LV 81 (to Lith žiupsrds 'handful'); 
Pokorný I 449; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
73; Vries AME1V 159; Heidermanns 
234-235; Kxuge-Seebold 302. 

*3aup5n sb.f: ON gaupa 'lynx', OE 
earnseáp 'a kind of falcon'. Derived 
from * 3 aupaz (Králík GGA CLXXVI 
158-160). Holthausen ÁEEW 125; 
Pokorný I 449; Vries ANEW 158. 

*3auraz adj: Goth gaurs 'sad, gloomy', ON 
sbst. gaurr 'ruffian, rough' (mase.). 
Identical with Skt ghorá- 'dreadful, horri- 
ble' (Bopp Glossarium 113; Zupitza Gutt. 
172: adds Slav *žuriti 'to perturb'). 
Grienberger Got. 96 (against Slavic par- 
allels); Torp-Falk 122; Uhlenbeck PBB 
XXX 282; Feist 208; Petersson IF 
XXIV 253-254; Mayrhofer I 362-363; 
Pokorný I 453-454; Vries AMEW 159; 
Lehmann GED 152; Vasmer-Trubachev 
II 68 (add Slav *guraú 'to push'); Heider- 
manns 235 (to *3aujanari). 

*3ausjanan wk.vb.: Goth gansjan 'to cause' 
(leg. *gausjan), ON geysa 'to rush, to gush'. 
Causative of *3eusanan (Bezzenberger 

BB III 81). Grienberger Got. 89-90 (to 
*3antaz, OE 3Í11 'wide, spacious'); 
Johansson PBB XV 228-229 (to *&)- 
nesanan); Wiedemann BB XXVII 204-205 
(to *3ennanan); Torp-Falk 137; End zelin 
KZ LI 258 (to Latv iě-gansts 'cause'); Feist 
196; Lerohner 91; Lehmann GED 147. 

*3autaz ~ *3aut5n sb.m.: Lat-Goth 
prop. Gauts, ON pl. Gautar 'inhabitants 
of Western Sweden', OE pl. 3Íatas id., 
OS -got id. (in empn.), OHG -goz id. (in 
empn.). In Latin and Greek sources 
appears as Gauti, Tavtoí. Derived from 
* 3 eutanan. Collitz JEGP I 222-238 
(an ablaut variant of *3utaz ~ *3ut6n); 
Wadstein IF V 9 (to Lat audeo 'to ven- 
ture, to dare'); Streitberg GE 6-7; 
Schonfeld PVN 103-104; Holthausen 
AEEW 126; Kuhn Festschr. Trier 417-433; 
Vries ANE1\ t 159; Lehmann GED 164. 

*3autójanan wk.vb.: ON gauta 'to prate, 
to brag', G dial. gauzen, gáuzen 'to bark'. 
Related to Lith gaudžiú, gausti 'to buzz, 
to rumble'. Maybe connected with *3au- 
janan. Zupitza Gutt. 172; Pokorný I 
443, 449; Fraenkel 140— 141;Vries 
AMU' 159. 

*3awěnan wk.vb.: ON gá 'to heed, to 
mark'. Related to Lat^^ó 'to be favor- 
able, to be well disposed, to favor, to pro- 
mote', Slav *gověti 'to fast, to respecť 
(Meillet MSL VIII 280). Danielsson- 
Noreen AJYF III 17 (from *3a-a(n)xanan, 
to Lat anculus 'servant'); Torp-Falk 121; 
Walde-Hofmann I 464-466; Pokorný I 
453; Trubachev ESSJa VII 72-73. 

*3azdaz sb.m.: Goth gazds 'sting, goaď, 
ON gaddr 'goaď, OS gard id., OHG gart 
id. Compared with Mír gat 'willow roď < 
*ghazdha. There exists a similar word with 
an unvoiced inlaut cluster: Lat hasta 
'stick, pole', Mír gass 'shooť < *ghasto- 
(Fick I 108; Zupitza Gutt. 173; Walde 
ÍC7XXXIV 488-489). Uhlenbeck PBB 
XLX 520 (to Slav *žb?db 'pole, stake'); 
Meillet Etudes 261 (on Slav *gvozdb 
'nail'); Grienberger Got. 97; Torp-Falk 
1 33; Schrader-Nehring II 424 (semantic 
differences of Gmc and Celt); Walde- 




Hofmann I 636; Feist 213; Szemerényi 
ArL V 1—21 (to Umbr hostatu 'armed with 
a spear'); Pokorný I 41 2—41 3; Vries 
ANEW 151; Zalizniak I 131; Onions 
384; Benveniste IEL 324; Lehmann GED 
154-155; Kluge-Seebold 317. 

*3ebanan str.vb.: Gotír giban 'to give', ON 
gefa id., OE sifon id., OFris ieva id., OS 
geban id., OHG geban id. Related to Lat 
habeo 'to hold, to háve', Olr gaibid 'to 
také' continuing IE *ghabh- (Bezzen- 
berger BB XXVII 181). In Germanic, 
*3ebanan substitutes IE *dó-. The orig- 
inál vocalism of *ghabh- was adapted to 
the Gmc strong verb systém. Lottner 
KZ V 398 (to Lith gabénti 'to carry'); 
Meyer IF XXXV 234-235; Zupitza 
Gutt. 173; Torp-Falk 125-126; Kret- 
sohmer Glotta XLX 208 (*-«- in *3ebanan 
influenced by *nemanan); Feist 214; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 128; Walde-Hofmann I 
630-631; Jóhannesson IEW 186-189; 
Pokorný I 408; Vries ANEW 160; 
Zalizniak I 150; Onions 399; Seebold 
217-219; Lehmann GED 155; Kluge- 
Seebold 303. 

*3eba-st61az sb.m.: ON gjaf-stóll 'throne', 
OE jif-stól id. Compound of *3ěbo and 
*stolaz. Garr Nom. comp. 54. 

*3eb(e)lon sb.m.: Goťh gibla 'gable', MLG 
geuel id., OHG gibil id. Cf. also OS gibilla 
'skuli, gable', OHG gibilla id. and ON gafl 
'gable-end, gable'. Related to Toch A 
spal 'heaď, Gk KE<paA.T| id., Maced 
yapaXáv ĚyKÉipaXov x\ Ke<paXr|v, Hes., 
Thrac theon. repeXél^ii; (Schulze Kl. 
Schr. 261). See *3ablaz ~ *3abl5. Kuhn 
RZ I 136 (to Lat gabalus); Zupitza Gutt. 
217; Torp-Falk 126; Feist 214; Trter 
ZDADL LXXVI 13-44, Z dph LXX 
356-357; Schulze Kl. Schr. 252, 261; 
Detsohew Thr. 100; Porzig Gliederung 
186; Pokorný I 423; Vendryes RC XL 
436; Chemodanov SGGJa I 110; Vries 
ANEW 152; Frisk I 835; Benveniste 
Word X 255-256; Lehmann GED 155; 
Kluge-Seebold 323-324; Adams TB 

*3ebo sb.f.: Goth giba 'gifť, ON gjqf id. 

(partly < *3ebiz), OE ji/ií id., OFris jeve 
id., OS geba id., OHG geba id. Derived 
from *3eianan. Torp-Falk 126; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 128; Feist 213; Porzig 
Gliederung 172; Pokorný I 408; Vries 
ANE]V 171; Zalizniak II 193; Seebold 
218; Lehmann GED 155; Bammesberger 
Nom. 110. 

*3eb5n sb.m.: ON prif-gjafi 'bounteous 
giver', OE beáh-3Ífa 'ring-giver', OFris 
rěd-jeva 'judge', OS bóg-gebo 'one giving 
a ring'. Derived from *3ebanan. Torp- 
Falk 126; Seebold 218. 

*3ebulaz adj.: ON gjofull 'munificenť, 
OE 3Jfol 'generous, bountiful'. Derived 
from *3ebanan. Holthausen AEE]V 
130; Vries ANEW 171; Seebold 218; 
Heidermanns 237. 

*3efitiz sb.f: Goth fiti-gifts 'gift, betrothal', 
ON gipt, gift 'gift of nature, endowmenť, 
OE 3Íft 'gift, marriage gifť, OFris jeft 
'gift, privilege', OS sundar-gift 'privilege', 
MDu gift 'gifť, OHG gift 'gift, dona- 
tion'. Derived from *3ebanan. Schulze 
Kl. Schr. 61; Torp-Falk 126; Feist 214; 
Vries ANEW 168; Zalizniak I 150; 
Onions 397; Seebold 218; Lehmann 
GED 121-122; Bammesberger Nom. 142; 
Kluge-Seebold 324; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*3eftjanan wk.vb.: ON gipta 'to give a 
woman in marriage', MLG giften 'to give', 
OHG fir-giften 'to seli, to transfer'. 
Derived from *3eftiz. Torp-Falk 126. 

*3elďan sb.n.: Goth gild 'tribute, tax', 
ON gjald 'tribute, paymenť, OE 3ÍM 
'money, tribute, compensation', OFris jeli 
'price', OS geld 'payment, recompense', 
OHG gelt 'paymenť. Related to *3elda- 
nan. Torp-Falk 132; Feist 214-215; 
Pokorný I 436; Vries ANEW 169; 
Zalizniak I 140; Seebold 222; Ben- 
veniste IEL 58—60; Lehmann GED 155; 
Fvluge-Seebold 309. 

*3eldanan str.vb.: Goth fra-gildan 'to 
restore, to recompense', ON gjalda 'to 
pay, to yield, to repay', OE 3Íldan id., 
OFris jelda 'to counť, OS geldan id., OHG 
geltan 'to pay for'. Related to Slav *želdq, 
*želsti 'to redeem' (Trautmann BSiV 




82; Knutsson tfslavPh XV 140) despite 
the difference in suffixes — Gmc *-Í- < IE 
*-t- as it follows from OSwed galia 'to 
repay' < *3élpanan. Bezzenberger BB 

XVI 253 (to Gk xéXQoq- xpíoq); Fick BB 

XVII 322; Osthoff IF IV 269 (against 
Bezzenberger); Torp-Falk 131-132 
Feist 161, 214; Holthausen AEEW 128 
Kiparsky AASF XXXII/2 190-191 
Stender-Petersen Slav.-germ. 325 (Slav < 
Gmc); Machek Sláma XXI 252-253; 
Jóhannesson IEW 386-387; Pokorný I 
436; Vries AMEW 169; Onions 1020; 
Vasmer II 42; Benveniste IEL 57, 
59-60; Seebold 221-222; Vasmer- 
Trubaghev II 42; Lehmann GED 122, 
155; Keuge-Seebold 310. 

*3elďjan ~ *3eldjón sb.n./f.: ON gildi 
'payment, tribute', OFrisjelde,jolde 'guilď, 
MLG gilde id. Substantivized *3eldjaz. 
Vries AMEW 166; Onions 419; Lehmann 
GED 155. 

*3elčtjaz adj.: ON gildr 'of full worth, full', 
OE un-ýlde 'not entitled to wergilď. 
Derived from *3eldanan. Karsten MB I 
92-93; Vries AMEW 167; Seebold 222 
(reconstructs *3eldiz)', Matzel Festschr. 
Schroder 98, KZ CV 102, 105; Heider- 

MANNS 230. 

*3eld5n sb.m.: ON gildi 'guild member', 
OE 3Ílda id., OFrank gildo id. Derived 
from *3eldan. Holthausen AEE]V 131; 
Vries AMEW 166; Kluge-Seebold 324. 

*3elfaz sb.n.: ON gjalýr 'noise, sea', MLG 
gelve 'wave'. Related to Skt jálpati 'to 
murmur, to speak', Lith želpúoti 'to 
chatter, to babble'. Kuhn KZ I 140 (to 
*3elpanari); Torp-Falk 132; Búga Aist. 
191; Fraenkel 1296; Vries AMEW 169. 

*3elj5janan wk.vb.: ON gilja 'to beguile', 
OHG gilon 'to howl'. Probably derived 
from *3ellanan. Pokorný I 489 (to Gk 
Gétao 'to be wiUing'); Vries AMEW 167 
(to *3elarí). 

*3ellanan str.vb.: ON gjalla 'to yell', OE 
3Íellan id., MLG gellen id., OHG gellan id. 
Related to * 3 alanan. Siebs KZ XXXVII 
299-300 (to *skellanan); Torp-Falk 130; 
Holthausen AEE1\' 129; Jóhannesson 

IEW 382-385; Pokorný I 428 (to Gk 
^ÉXi8rav 'swallow'); Vries AMEW 169— 
170; Onions 1019; Seebold 222-223; 
Lehmann GED 157; Kluge-Seebold 310. 

*3ellaz adj.: ON gjallr 'ringing', MLG gel 
id., MHG gel 'loud, clear (of sounds)'. 
Derived from *3ellanan. Karsten MB I 
24; Heidermanns 239. 

*3elpan sb.n.: ON gjalp 'boasting, brag- 
ging', OE 3Íelp 'glory, pride, boasting' 
(mase), OS gelp 'defiance, fleer', OHG 
gelpf 'chatting' (mase.). Derived from 
*3elpanan. Torp-Falk 132; Holthausen 
AEEW 129; Vries AMEW 170 (to Lith 
gulbis 'swan' and further to *3ellanan); 
Seebold 223. 

*3elpanan str.vb.: OE sielpan 'to boast, 
to glory', MHG gelpfen 'to shout, to 
sing'. Probably an emphatic form derived 
from *3ellanan. Zupitza Gutt. 21; Mat- 
zenauer IF VIII 195 (to Lith gulbis 
'swan'); Torp-Falk 132; Holthausen 
AEEW 129; Pokorný I 428 (to Lith 
gulbinti 'to praise'); Seebold 223-224. 

*3elstran sb.n.: Goth gilstr 'tax', OHG gel- 
star 'toll, tribute'. Derivative in *-stro- from 
*3eldan, *3eldanan. Osthoff KZ XXIII 
315 (from *3eldtra-); Feist 215; Lehmann 
GED 156; Seebold 222; Benveniste IEL 
57—59; Bammesberger Mom. 87. 

*3elun5 sb.f: ON pl. gjqlnar 'gills (of a 
fish)'. Identical with Arm jelun 'palatě', 
Gk %eXwT] 'lip, jaw' (Osthoff IF IV 
276). Cf. also *3eliz > Sw gál, gel 'gill', 
Dan gjďlle id. Solmsen KZ XXIX 
352 (to Gk xeí^-o? 'lip'); Zupitza Gutt. 
217; Torp-Falk 131; Pokorný I 436; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 108; Vries AMEW 
171; Frisk II 1086; Onions 397. 

*3elwaz adj.: OE 3eolu 'yellow', OS gelu 
id., OHG gelo id. Related to Lat heluus 
'dun-coloreď, Lith želvas 'greenish'. Cf. 
also *3allan ~ *3alldn. Kuhn KZ I 516 
(to Skt gaurá- 'whitish, yellowish', Lat 
giluus 'pale yellow'); Curtius Gr. Et. 202 
(to Lat fuluus 'bright yellow'); Persson 
Beitráge 794; Schwentner FB 66—68; 
Torp-Falk 131; Holthausen AEE)V 
127; Walde-Hofmann I 639; Porzig 




207; Pisani IF LIII 38; 
Pokorný I 429-430; Fraenkel 1297; 
Vries AME1 I t 1 94; Onions 1019; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 243; Heidermanns 240; 
Kluge-Seebold 309. 

*3ennanan str.vb.: Goth du-ginnan 'to 
begin', OE be-^hman id., OFris bi-ginna 
id., OS be-ginnan id., OHG bi-ginnan id. 
Despite the anlaut with no traces of 
*3iv-, to be compared with Skt hánti 'to 
strike', Gk Geívco 'to kilT, Slav *gbnati 'to 
drive' . Wiedemann BB XXVII 1 93-1 96 
(to Alb ze 'to seize'); Bugge PBB XII 405 
(to Lat re-cěns 'fresh, young, recenť); 
Torp-Falk 125 (to Slav *četi 'to begin' or 
from *gen-u-)\ Holthausen IF XXX 47 
(to Gk xav8ávco 'to seize'), AEE]V 131; 
Feist 128; Pokorný I 437-438, 491-494; 
Onions 85-86; Seebold 224-225 (to 
MLG ent-ginnen 'to cuť, OHG an-ginnan 
id.); Lehmann GED 97; Kluge- Seebold 
91 (to Lat pre-hendo 'to lay hold of, to 
grasp, to snatch'). 

*3eraz adj.: Burg *girs 'greedy', ON gerr 
id., OHG ger, giri id. Related to Toch A 
kar(y)-, B ker(y)- 'to laugh', Skt háryati 'to 
yearn for, to like', Av zeira- 'striving (?)' 
Gk %áp\q 'favor', Lat honor 'to admonish' 
Karsten MB I 24; Zupitza Gutt. 200 
Bartholomae 1670; Torp-Falk 128 
Walde-Hofmann I 657-658; Feist 186 
Kluge 68; Mayrhofer III 583; Pokorný 
I 440-441; Vries AMEW 164; Frisk II 
1062-1064; Onions 1019; Lehmann GED 
140; Kobler 710; Heidermanns 241- 
242; Adams TB 197. 

*3erdo sb.f: Goth gairda 'belt, girdle', 
ON gjqrd id. (pardy *3erdiz), MDu gherde 
'girdle'. Connected with *3urdjanan. 
Torp-Falk 129; Feist 185-186; Porzig 
Gliederung 137; Jóhannesson IE] I' 363— 
364; Pokorný I 444; Vries AMEW 
164, 171; Zalizniak II 193; Onions 
399; Seebold 225; Lehmann GED 140; 
Bammesberger Nom. 110. 

*3erín sb.f: OESc giri 'greeď, Norw dial. 
gir id., OS fehu-giri 'rapacity', OHG giri 
'rapacity, greeď. Derived from *3eraz. 
Cf. also Goth faihu-geiro 'greeď with an 

unexpected *-i- probably explained by 
the influence of *3Íenan. Feist 16—17; 
Lehmann GED 103—104; Heidermanns 

*3ernaz adj.: Goth faihu-gairns 'covetous, 
avaricious', ON gjarn 'eager, willing', OE 
3eorn 'eager, ardent, careful', OFris adv. 
gerne 'gladly', OS gem 'desiring', OHG 
gem 'eager'. Derived from *3eraz. Torp- 
Falk 128; Feist 186; Holthausen AEE] V 
127; Karsten NB II 43; Pokorný I 440- 
441; Vries AMEW 170; Onions 1019; 
Benveniste IEL 161; Bammesberger 
Mom. 246; Heidermanns 242; Kluge- 
Seebold 316. 

*3ernín sb.f: Goth gairnei 'desire, wish, 
longing', ON á-girni 'ambition, cupidity', 
OHG gerní 'zeal, care'. Derived from 
* 3 ernaz. Hirt PBB XXIII 291; Feist 
186; Vries AMEW 168; Benveniste IEL 
161; Lehmann GED 140; Heidermanns 

*3ernjanan wk.vb.: Goth gaimjan 'to lust, 
to desire, to wish', ON girnask id., OE 
3Íeman 'to yearn', OS girnian id. Derived 
from *3emaz. Zupitza Gutt. 200; Torp- 
Falk 128; Holthausen AEE] V 129; Feist 
186; Vries AMEW 168; Onions 1019; 
Benveniste IEL 161; Heidermanns 242. 

*3erst5n sb.f: OS gersta 'barley', OHG 
gersta id. If the full grade in Gmc is sec- 
ondary, it is particularly close to Gk Kpí, 
Kpi9r| id., Alb drithe id. < *ghrzdha. Cf. 
also Lat hordeum id. (probably also with 
*-r-). Further cf. *j;o«n««. Hoops ]Vald- 
báume 364-371; Torp-Falk 130; Jokl 
Festschr. Kretschmer 89-91 (adds Gk «x E P~ 
8o? 'wild pear'); Walde-Hofmann I 
656-657; Pokorný I 446; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 88; Frisk II 18-19; Hamp iT~ 
XCVIII 11-12; Kluge-Seebold 316- 
317; Orelz1£Z) 75. 

*3estraz adj.: Goth gistra-dagis 'tomorrow', 
OE adj. 3eostra 'of yesterday', OHG gestre 
id. Related to the Indo-European word 
for 'yesterday': Skt hyás, Gk %8É<;, Alb dje, 
Lat hen. IE *ghies is direcdy attested in 
ON adv. gtcr id. < *jžj. A direct equiva- 
lent of *3estraz is W neithiwyr 'last nighť < 




*nok"ti-ghestro- (Fiok II 195). Cf. also 
Lat hestemus < *hestrinos, a derivative of 
hen with the samé suffix *-stro-. Kret- 
schmer KZ XXXI 436-437; Torp-Falk 
133; Walde-Hofmann I 642-643; Feist 
215-216; Specht KZ LXVIII 201-205; 
Mayrhofer III 614; Pokorný I 416; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 86; Vries AMEW 
197; Frisk II 1097-1098; Chantraine 
1258; Otrebski KZ LXXXrV 85-87; 
Schindler Sprache XXIII 32—34; Leh- 
mann GED 156; Puhvel Festschr. Hoenigs- 
wald 315—318 (IE *ghies as loc. of a form 
continued in *da3azj; Keuge-Seebold 
320; Orel AED 68. 

*3etalaz ~ *3etulaz adj.: ON sann-getall 
'guessing true', OE ofer-^itol 'forgetful', 
MLG vor-getel id., OHG a-gezzal id. 
Derived from *3etanan. Karsten MB II 
278; Seebold 226; Heidermanns 243- 

*3etanan str.vb.: Goth bi-gitan 'to find, to 
discover', ON geta 'to geť, OE bi-^itan 
'to gain, to obtain, to seize', OS bi-getan 
id., OHG bi-gezznn id. Related to Gk 
%av8áv(o 'to hold', Lat pre-hendo 'to lay 
hold of. Zupitza Gutt. 173 (to Lith goda 
'honor'); Rooth II 'ortst. 63; Torp-Falk 
123; Feist 90; Holthausen AEEW 130; 
Walde-Hofmann II 359; Jóhannesson 
IEW 344-345; Pokorný I 437-438; 
Vries AMEW 165; Frisk II 1071-1072; 
Onions 85, 396; Seebold 226-227 (to 
Slav *gadati 'to guess, to telí fortunes'); 
Lehmann GED 69; Kluge-Seebold 856. 

*3et5n ~ *3etan sb.f./n.: ON geta 'guess', 
OE and-jiet 'understanding, knowledge', 
MLG vorget 'forgetfulness', OHG a-gez id. 
Derived from *3etanan. Holthausen 
AEEW 130; Vries ANEW 165; Seebold 
226; Bammesberger Mom. 59. 

*3eusanan str.vb.: ON gjósa 'to gush, to 
break ouť. A morphological variant of 
*3eutanan. On the other hand, cf. Toch B 
kus- 'to shoot upward, to gush', Mír gus 
'strength, wildness', W gwst 'strengúY < 
*ghus-tu- similar to ON gustr 'gust, blasť < 
*ghus-ti-. Torp-Falk 137; Jóhannesson 
IEW 315-318; Pokorný I 447-448; 

Vries ANEW 170-171; Lerchner 91; 
Seebold 227-228; Bammesberger Mom. 
65; Adams TB 186. 

*3eutanan str.vb.: Goth giutan 'to pour', 
ON gjóta 'to drop, to uhrow', OE 3eótan 
'to pour', OFris bi-jata 'to water', OS 
giotan 'to pour', OHG giozan id. Close to 
Toch AB kutk- 'to cast in a moulď, Lat 
fundo 'to pour', perf. fúdi. Probably, an 
extension of *gheu- id.: Toch AB ku- 'to 
pour', Skt juhóti 'to pour in the fire', Gk 
xéa> 'to pour' (Aufrecht KZ I 119). 
Zupitza Gutt. 203; Torp-Falk 136; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 128; Walde-Hofmann I 
563-564; Feist 216; Jóhannesson IEW 
315-318; Pokorný I 447-448; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 91; Vries ANEW 170; 
Onions 373; Benveniste IEL 476, 482; 
Seebold 228-229; Lehmann GED 156- 
157; Kluge-Seebold 324; Adams 77? 
179-180, 183. 

*3eutaz ~ *3eu{)az sb.m.: ON gjóSr 
'Falco haliaetus', OE earnseát 'goat- 
eagle, vulture', OHG erin-grioz 'a kind of 
eagle' (for *-3Íoz?). Of uncertain origin. 
Johansson BB XIII 117-118 (*'fisher', 
related to Gk í/Sút; 'fish'); Vries ANEW 
170 (to *3aujanan). 

*3ěbiz adj.: ON gefi 'meek, quieť, OFris 
jeve 'passable', MLG gěve 'available', 
MHG gicbe 'pleasanť. Derived from 
*3ebanan. Rooth Wwtst. 22-23; Kar- 
sten MB I 98; Torp-Falk 126; Vries 
ANEW 197; Seebold 217-219; Matzel 
Festschr. Schroder 102, KZ CV 112; Hei- 
dermanns 236-237; Kluge-Seebold 294. 

*3ěbo(n) sb.f: Burg *giba 'gifť, latě ON 
gáfa id., MHG gabe id. Derived from 
*3ebanan. Torp-Falk 126; Kóbler 710. 

*3ěnan athem.: Crim Goth geen 'to go', 
OSwed gá id., OE 3án id., OFris gan id., 
OS gan id., MHG gan, gen id. Connected 
with Skt jáháti 'to leave, to abandon', Av 
zazaiti 'to retům, to give birtíi (?)'. 
Osthoff Suppl. 57-58; Grienberger Got. 
82-83; Helten PBB XXXV 285-287; 
Meillet MSL XX 104; Bartholomae 
1687; Torp-Falk 120; Feist 181-182, 
213; Holthausen AEEW 123; Mayr- 




hofer I 426; Pokorný I 418-419; 
Onions 403; Seebold 216-217 (to Gk 
ohavní 'to reach, to hiť, Skt med. jíhite); 
Lehmann GED 138; Kluge-Seebold 

*3ětiz adj.: ON á-gattr 'famous, excellenť, 
OE or-^íete 'plausible'. Derived fom *3eta- 
nan. Karsten MB I 100; Holthausen 
AEEW 130; Vries ANEW 198; Seebold 
227; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 102, R'Z 
CV 112; Heidermanns 243. 

*3ětjanan wk.vb.: ON gteta 'to watch, 
to tenď, OFris gěta, gata 'to observe'. 
Derived from *3itiz. Noreen ANF III 
16 (from * 3 a-axtjan); Kock ANF XIII 164 
(follows Noreen); Falk-Torp ND 321 
(directíy from *3etanan); Torp-Falk 121 
(reconstruct *3awatjanan, to *3awěnan)\ 
Vries ANEW 197-198. 

*3Íěnan wk.vb.: OHG giěn 'to strive, to 
aspire'. Related to Toch B kay- 'to open 
wide', Lat hio 'to open, to be open, to 
gape', Lith žióju, žióti 'to open mouth', 
Slav *zějq, *zějati id. Persson Beitráge 
318 (OE 3Íscian 'to sob' compared to 
Lat hlsco 'to open, to gape, to yawn'); 
Torp-Faek 133; Trautmann BS] V 368; 
Walde-Hofmann I 647-648; Pokorný I 
419-422; Fraenkel 1312; Seebold 220; 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 98; Lehmann 
GED 104; Adams TB 153. 

*3Ílan ~ *3Í16 sb.n./f: ON gil 'deep nar- 
row glen widr a stream at bottom', MDu 
giel 'open mouth', OHG gil 'hernia'. 
Derived from *3Íěnan. Zupltza Gutt. 
203; Vries ANEW 166. 

*3Ímiz sb.f: ON gymbr 'ewe lamb of a year 
olď, OFrank in-gimus 'one winter old ani- 
mal'. From the zero grade of the word 
for 'winter', cf. Skt himá- 'winter, colď, 
Gk bva-xmoq 'stormy, wintery', Lat bimus 
'two years olď < *bi-himus. See *3omz. 
Zetterholm apud Vries (secondary 
ON -ji-); Torp-Falk 127; Walde- 
Hofmann I 106; Pokorný I 425; Vries 
ANEW 196. 

*3Ínan sb.n.: ON gin 'mouth (of beasts)', 
OE sin 'gap, opening, abyss', OHG voltům 
'vasto ore'. Derived from *ginanan. 

ZuprrzA Gutt. 203; Holthausen AEEW 
131; Vries ANEW 167; Seebold 219; 
Bammesberger Nom. 73. 

*3Ípójanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. gipa 'to 
gape', OE part. jjipi^end 'yawning'. 
Related to *3Íenaiií Zupitza Gutt. 203; 
Torp-Falk 134; Vries ANEW 161 (to 
*ghei- 'to yawn'). 

*3ičtaz sb.m.: OHG glt 'voracity'. Con- 
tinues IE *gheidh-\ Lith geidžiú, gásti 'to 
desire', Slav *zbdaú 'to wait, to expecť 
(Zupitza Gutt. 173). Derivationally similar 
to Lith gaídas 'violent desire'. Further 
related to *3Íenan. Schmidt Vok. I 73; 
Meillet MSL XIV 349; Torp-Falk 134; 
Trautmann BS]V 82; Pedersen K£ 
XXXVIII 390; Pokorný I 426-428; 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 39; Lehmann 
GED 104. 

*3Ífraz adj.: ON hap. leg. gífr 'greedy', OE 
3Ífre 'greedy, covetous'. An alternativě 
reconstruction is *3ibraz. Derived from 
*3Íěnan. Cf. *3iraz. Zupitza Gutt. 203; 
Torp-Falk 134; Holthausen AEEW 
130; Wissmann jVP 41-42; Pokorný I 
421; Vries ANEU T 166 (to Lat hippitare 
'oscitare'); Heidermanns 237-238 (based 
on *3\fez-). 

*3Í3ěnan ~ *3Ín3ěnan wk.vb.: Goth ga- 
geigan 'to gain, to acquire', OHG gingěn, 
gingon 'to yearn'. A reduplicated deriva- 
tive of *3Íěnan (Grienberger Got. 82) sim- 
ilar to *3an3anan < *3inan. Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXX 283 (reduplication); Zupitza 
Gutt. 173, 203 (samé as Grienberger); 
Torp-Falk 134, 565; Wissmann NP 156; 
Feist 181; Pokorný I 424 (to *ghěi- 'to 
yawn'); Lehmann GED 137. 

*3Ílan sb.n.: Norw dial. gil 'beer in a keg', 
Du gijl id. Of unknown origin. Torp- 
Falk 120 (to *3ailaz)\ Pokorný I 452; 
Vries ANEW 166. 

*3im6n sb.f: ON gíma 'vast opening', G 
dial. gim id. Derived from *3Íenan. 
Zupitza Gutt. 203; Pokorný I 420; Vries 
ANEW 167. 

*3Ínanan str.vb.: ON gína 'to yawn, to 
gape', OE 3Ínan 'to yawn', OS glnan 'to 
yawn' (mainly wk.), OHG ginanto 'hian- 




ter'. Derived from *3Íenan. Zupitza 
Gutt. 203; Torp-Falk 133; Holthausen 
AEEW 123-124, 131; Jóhannesson IEW 
300-305; Pokorný I 419-420; Vries 
ANEW 167; Onions 1018; Seebold 219- 
221; Kluge-Seebold 295. 

*3Íraz sb.m.: Norw dial. gir 'lust, passion', 
OHG gir 'vulture'. Derived from *3Íenan. 
Torp-Falk 133; Pokorný I 420. 

*3Íslaz sb.m.: Goth prop. Gisla-mundus, 
ON gísl 'hostage', OE 3Ísel 'pledge, 
hostage', OFris jěsel, gísel id., OS gisal id., 
OHG gisal id. Continues IE *gheidh-tlo-s 
together with Gaul -geistlus (in prop.), 
Olr gell id., W gwystl id., OCorn guistel 
id., Bret goestl 'gage, caution' or *gheis- 
(o)lo- together with Olr gíall 'hostage'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 217; Torp-Falk 135; 
Holthausen AEE\ V 131; Pokorný I 426; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 97; Vries ANE1\' 
168; Zalizniak I 131; Bammesberger 
Nom. 88; Kluge-Seebold 308. 

*3Íslaz ~ *3izlaz sb.m.: Icel gill 'parhe- 
lion, mock-sun', Langob gisil 'arrow'. 
Related to *3aizaz. Torp-Falk 121. 

*3Ísl5janan wk.vb.: ON gísla 'to give as 
hostage', OE 3Íslian id., MDu giselen 'to 
také hostage', MHG ver-gíseln 'to give as a 
hostage'. Derived from *3islaz. Vries 
ANEW 168. 

*3lada-líkaz adj.: ON glad-ligr 'glad, 
bright, cheerful', OE ^led-líc 'bright, 
pleasant, kinď. Derived from *3ladaz. 
Heidermanns 244. 

*3ladaz adj.: Burg *glads 'glad, shining', 
ON gladr 'glad, bright', OE j/íSí/ 'shining, 
bright', OFris gled 'smooth', MLG glat 
'shining', OHG glat 'clear, lighť. Related 
to Lat glaber 'smooth', Lith glodús 'tender', 
Slav *gladbkb 'smooth'. Diefenbach KZ 
XVI 222; Karsten NB I 57; Zupitza 
Gutt. 174; Walde /FXLX 104 (to Lat lae- 
tus 'luxurianť); Ernout MSL XIII 339; 
Torp-Falk 147; Holthausen AEE1\' 
132; Walde-Hofmann I 603; Schwarz 
Festschr. Trier 445-449; Pokorný I 432; 
Fraenkel 158; Vries ANEW 171; Meid 
KZ LXXIX 292-293; Onions 399; 
Trubachev ESSJa VI 115-116; Kobler 

710; Heidermanns 244-245 (to *3loanan); 
Kluge-Seebold 326. 

*3lad5janan wk.vb.: ON glaia 'to glad- 
den', OE 3Íadian 'to be glad, to make 
glaď. Derived from *3ladaz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 132; Vries ANEW 171; 
Heidermanns 244. 

*3laimiz ~ *3laimón sb.m.: OE 3lém 
'brightness, splendor, radiance', OHG 
gleimo 'glow-worm'. Derived from *3lima- 
nan. Close to Latv glairna 'fun, joke'. 
Torp-Falk 148; Holthausen AEEW 
132; Onions 400. 

*3laipjanan wk.vb.: ON gleipa 'to mock', 
OHG part. gi-gleifit 'oblique, crookeď. 
Derived from *3lipanan. Wood MP IV 
492-493; Vries ANE]V 172. 

*3lanaz I sb.m.: Norw glan 'skylighť, 
MHG glan 'shine'. Substantivized *3lanaz 
II. Heidermanns 246. 

*3lanaz II adj.: OHG glan 'soft, sweeť. 
Identical with Olr glan 'shining, clean', W 
glan id. Pokorný I 429; Heidermanns 
246 (reconstructs OHG superl. *glamsta; 
to *3loanan). 

*3lasan ~ *3lazan sb.n.: ON gler 'glass', 
OE j/iřj id., 3lier 'amber', OFris gles 
'glass', OS glas id., MLG glar 'resin', 
OHG glas 'glass, amber'. Substantivized 
*3Íason. Borrowed to Lat glěsum, glaesum 
'amber'. Zupitza KZ XXXVII 398 
(to Slav *glazb 'stone, pebble'); Torp- 
Falk 147-148; Walde-Hofmann I 
604; Holthausen AEEh 7 132; Pokorný 
I 432; Vries ANEW 172; Zalizniak 
I 140; Onions 400; Kluge-Seebold 

*3las5n adj.: ON verd-glasi 'shining from 
lightnings', OS glasa 'grey-blue'. Further 
connected with *3ladaz and *3Íastaz. 
Heidermanns 247. 

*3lastaz sb.m.: MHG glast 'shine'. 
Identical with Olr glas 'light green, light 
blue' < *ghbs-to- (Meto KZ LXXLX 292- 
293). Furuher connected with *3lason. 
Zupitza Gutt. 174; Heidermanns 247. 

*3laumaz sb.m.: ON glaumr 'merry noise', 
OE 3Íeám joyous noise, jubilation'. Iden- 
tical with Slav *glunrb 'joke' (Berneker I 




308). Zupitza Gutt. 174; Torp-Falk 
149; Holthausen AEE)V 132; Pokorný I 
451; Vries AMEW 171; Stang LS 22-23; 
Trubachev ESSJa VI 147-148. 

*3lawwaz adj.: Goth adv. glaggwaba, : 
wuba 'meticulously, diligendy', ON 
'clear-sighted, clear, clever', OE sléaw 
'clear-sighted, wise, prudenť, OS glau 
'clever, intelligenť, MHG glau 'attentíve, 
intelligenť. If the originál meaning is 
'clear', to be compared with Gk ykoo^ 
'greenish-yellow'. Uhlenbeck Got. Wb. 
65 (to *3lóanan); Persson Beitráge 794—795 
(close to Uhlenbeck); Brugmann IF XVI 
500 (to Lith žveígti 'to look'); Torp-Falk 
149; Feist 216; Holthausen AEEW 132; 
Pokorný I 433; Trubachev Slav. jaz. V 
172 (to Slav *gluzdb 'mind, brain'); Vrles 
AMEW 177; Henry KZ LXXVII 140- 
145; Llndeman Verscháifung 150; Seebold 
/FLXXVI 328; Lehmann GED 157 (fol- 
lows Uhlenbeck); Heidermanns 247- 

*3lentěnan wk.vb.: Norw dial. gletta 'to 
look', ME glenten 'to appear, to look'. 
Identical with Latv glendet 'to look, to 
look for', Slav *gle\děti, *glgdati 'to look' 
(Schmidt Vok. I 57). Further cf. Olr 
inglennat 'investiganť (Pedersen Kelt. Gr. 
II 539). Zupitza KZ XXXVI 66; 
Torp-Falk 147; Trautmann BSW 92; 
Pokorný I 431; Vasmer-Trubachev I 

*3lěsjanan wk.vb.: ON glcesa 'to make 
shining, to embellish', MLG glaren 'to 
shine'. Derived from *3lason. Vries 
AME1V 177. 

*3lid5n sb.f.: ON gleda 'kite, Milvus 
regalis', OE 3Íida id., MLG glede id. 
Derived from *3Íidanan. Charpentier 
KZ XL 434 (to Gk xe^Sróv 'swallow'); 
Holthausen AEEW 132; Vrtes AMEW 
172; Onions 400. 

*3limm5janan wk.vb.: Swed glimma 'to 
shine', Du glimmen id. Of imitative origin. 
Vries AMEW 175. 

*3lis5janan wk.vb.: Norw dial. glisa 'to 
glimmer', OE jlisian 'to shine, to glisten', 
OFris glisa id., MLG glisen 'to shine, to 

glisten'. Cf. *3limmojanan. Torp-Falk 
149; Pokorný I 433. 

*3lit(a)rójanan wk.vb.: ON glitra 'to 
glitter', MHG glitzern id. Derived from 
*3&>. Torp-Falk 148; Vries AMEW 

*3lídanan str.vb.: OSwed glida 'to glide' 
(if not from WGmc), OE slídan id., OFris 
glida id., OS glidan 'to slip', OHG glitan 
'to glide'. A voiced variant of the root 
attested in *klipón. Torp-Falk 148; 
Holthausen AEEW 133; Jóhannesson 
IEW 375-382; Pokorný I 433 (to 
*3litanan); Onions 401; Seebold 230-231 
(to Latv glaidit 'to stroke' or IE *ghlei- 'to 
shine'); Kluge-Seebold 327. 

*3límanan str.vb.: Norw gllma 'to smol- 
der', MHG glímen 'to shine'. Related to 
*3liqjanan. Torp-Falk 148. 

*3lím5n sb.m.: OS glimo 'brightness', 
OHG glím, glimo 'glow-worm'. Related 
to *3llmanan. Torp-Falk 148; Onions 

*3líojanan wk.vb.: ON gljá 'to glitter', 
OFris glla id. Related to Gk %k\(a 'to lux- 
uriate, to revel' (Persson Beitráge II 793- 
794). Torp-Falk 148; Pokorný I 432; 
Vrtes AMEW 175; Frisk II 1103-1104. 

*3lípanan str.vb.: Norw dial. gllpa 'to 
stay open', MHG glífen 'to slanť. An 
emphatic derivative of *3liojanan. Torp- 
Falk 148-149. 

*3lítanan str.vb.: OS glitan 'to shine', 
OHG glízan id. Zero grade is attested in 
ON wk. glita 'to shine, to glitter' < 
*3litqjan. Maybe related to Gk %X,i8t| 
'voluptuousness, luxury'. On the other 
hand, cf. *3Íiojan. Torp-Falk 148; Feist 
216-217; Jóhannesson IEW 375-382; 
Pokorný I 433; Frisk II 1103-1104; 
Onions 401; Seebold 231-232 (to Mír 
glé 'clear'); Lehmann GED 157; Kluge- 
Seebold 327. 

*3lítiz sb.m.: ON glit 'glitter', OHG gliz 
'brightness'. Related to *3Íitanan. Vries 
AMEW 174; Seebold 231; Lehmann GED 

*3líwan sb.n.: ON glý 'glee, gladness', OE 
3IÍW 'glee, joy'. Cf. Olr glé 'shining, 




brighť < *gleiuo-. Further related to 
* 3 llqjanan. Fick I 419, III 149 (to Gk 
xA.eíiti 'joke, jest'); Torp-Falk 148; 
Holthausen AE7ÍT I 7 133; Pokorný I 432, 
451; Vries ANEW 176; Onions 400. 

*3l6anan str.vb.: OE slówan 'to glow'. 
Continucs *ghlo(u)- distantly related to 
*ghel- 'to shine', cf. *3lawwaz. Torp- 
Falk 149; Holthausen AEE1V 133; 
Jóhannesson IEW 375-376; Pokorný I 
430, 433; Vries ANEW 175; Onions 402; 
Seebold 233. 

*3lóčtiz sb.f.: ON glób 'red-hot embers' 
(root stem), OE 3léd 'burning coal, 
ember, fire, fláme', OFris glěd 'ember, 
hot coal', MLG glód id., OHG gluot id. 
Derived from *^loanan. Stolz Lat. (to 
Lat flamma 'fláme' < *fladma); Zupitza 
Gutt. 174; Torp-Falk 149; Holthausen 
AEEW 133; Pokorný I 430, 433; Vries 
ANEW 175; Zalizniak II 207; Onions 
400; Seebold 233; Kluge- Seebold 329. 

*3l6ďjanan wk.vb.: ON glceSa 'to sparkle', 
OE 3«-j/éř/«n 'to kindle'. Derived from 
*3l5diz. Vries ANEW 177. 

*3lófo(n) sb.m./f.: ON glófi 'glove', OE 3 lóf 
id. Of unknown origin. Wadstein IF V 
23 (from *3a-lof-, to *ldfon); Torp-Falk 
119; Holthausen AEEW 133; Vries 
ANEW 175; Onions 402. 

*3lómaz sb.m.: Norw glóm 'transparent 
membráně', OE 3IÓ171 'twilight, gloom'. 
Derived from *3Í5anan. Torp-Falk 149. 

*3ló5janan wk.vb.: ON glóa 'to shine, to 
glitter', OFris part. gliand 'to glow', OS 
gloian id., OHG gluoen 'to glow, to burn'. 
Derived from *3Ídanan. Torp-Falk 149; 
Seebold 233; Kluge-Seebold 329. 

*3l5raz adj.: EFris sbst. glor 'bright 
embers'. Identical with Gk yXmpíiq 
'greenish-yellow'. Torp-Falk 149; Po- 
korný I 430; Frisk II 1109-1110; Vries 
ANEW 175 (adds ON fagr-glór 'shining' 
but -glóz < *3Íd(w)az). 

*3l6rójanan wk.vb.: Norw glora 'to staré', 
ME 3Íóren id., OFris gloren 'to glow'. 
Derived from *3laraz. Torp-Falk 149; 
Vries ANEW 175. 

*3lum5janan wk.vb.: Norw gluma 'to 

become dark', ME gloume, gloumbe 'to look 
sullen'. Derived from *3lumaz. Pokorný 
I 433; Onions 401; Vries ANEW 176. 

*3lupn5janan wk.vb.: ON glúpna 'to look 
downcasť, ME 3Íopnen 'to be surpriseď. 
Related to *3lúpanan. Torp-Falk 150. 

*3luppó(n) ~ *3luppan sb.f./n.: Icel 
gloppa 'spliť, EFris glopp id., Du glop 'nar- 
row passage'. Maybe related to Slav 
*glybb 'depth' unless the latter is a 
secondary variant of *glqbb id. Torp- 
Falk 150; Vries ANEW 175; Vasmer- 
Trubachev I 417-418. 

*3lúmaz adj.: ON sbst. glúmr 'bear', EFris 
glum 'dark look', LG gliím id. Probably 
from *ghlu-mo- related to Gk yXóoq, 
y\ox>^ 'greenish-yellow', cf. *3lawwaz. 
Pokorný I 433; Vries ANEW 1 76. 

*3lúmjanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. glyma 
'to staré sullenly', EFris glúmen 'to look 
secretly'. Derived from *3lúmaz. Po- 
korný I 433. 

*3lúpan sb.n.: Norw dial. glúp 'gulleť, 
EFris glúpe 'rift, crevice'. See *3luppo(n) ~ 
*3Íuppan. Torp-Falk 150. 

*3lúpanan str.vb.: Norw dial. glúpa 'to 
gape', OFris glúpa 'to look' (wk.), MLG 
glúpen 'to cast a secret look with half- 
opened eyes' (wk.). Originally, a strong 
verb. Related to Slav *gluprb 'latě (of 
night), stupid, dumb', despite the irregu- 
lar correspondence of labials. Torp- 
Falk 150 (to *3lúpan). 

*3lúrjanan wk.vb.: Norw glýra 'to cast a 
pierce side glance', MHG glúren 'to lurk'. 
Cf. *3lumjanan. Torp-Falk 149-150; 
Vries ANE]V 176 (to ON glys 'finery'). 

*3nadďan sb.n.: ON gnadd 'grumbling, 
muttering'. Of imitative origin. Vries 
ANEW lil. 

*3naddr5janan wk.vb.: Norw gnadra 
'grumble', G gndttem id. Derived from 
*3naddan. Vries ANE] L 177. 

*3na3anan str.vb.: ON gnaga 'to gnaw', 
OE 3na3an id., MLG gnagen id., OHG 
gnagan id. Related to Toch B nask- 'to 
eat, to gnaw', Av aiwi-ynixta 'gnaweď 
(Persson IVurzelerw. 136; Siebs K~ 
XXXVII 321). Bartholomae 89; Torp- 




Falk 137; Holthausen AEEl\ r 133; 
Jóhannesson IEW 337-341; Pokorný I 
436-437; Vries ANEW 177-178 (to IE 
*ghen- 'to gnaw'); Onions 403; Seebold 
233-234; Rluge-Seebold 581; Adams 
TB 334. 

*3naist5n sb.m./f.: ON gneisti 'spark', OE 
Snást id. (< *3naistaž), OHG gneista id. 
Closely related to OPrus knaistis 'fire' 
(Johansson PBB XrV 355). Fiok KZ 
XXI 1 (from *3a-xnaista-)\ Zupitza Gutt. 
120; Torp-Falk 96 (follow Fick); 
Johansson IF XrX 136 (from *san-aista-, 
to *ghen- 'to grate, to rub' and *aidh- 'to 
burn'); Holthausen AEE]\ t 133; Vries 
ANE1V 178. 

*3najjójanan ~ *xnajjójanan wk.vb.: 
ON gneggja 'to neigh', OE hniésan id., OS 
hněgian id., MHG negen, nyhen id. Of imi- 
tative origin (Walde-Pokorny I 394). 
Siebs KZ XXXVII 321 (to * 3 na3anan); 
Holthausen AEEW 165; Vries ANEW 

*3narr5janan wk.vb.: Norw gnarra 
'to blow (of cold wind)', E dial. gnarr 'to 
growl', OFris gnarren 'to crunch, to 
gnash', LG gnamn id. Of imitative origin. 
Vries ANEW 179 (to ON gnarr 'sea'). 

*3nastjanan wk.vb.: ON gnesta 'to crack', 
G dial. gnasten 'to pelt down, to patter'. 
Of imitative origin. Noreen Gr. § 91; 
Vries AMW 178. 

*3natr5janan wk.vb.: ON gnqtra 'to clat- 
ter', E dial. gnatter 'to growl', EFris gnatern 
id., LG gnetern 'to make a noise'. Of imi- 
tative origin. Vries ANEW 181. 

*3nattaz sb.m.: Swed dial. gnatt 'mote', 
OE smet 'gnať, LG gnatte id., G dial. 
Gnatze id. Connected with *jnito? Torp- 
Falk 137; Holthausen AEEl\ r 133; 
Pokorný I 436; Onions 403. 

*3nitó sb.f: ON gnit 'niť. Closely related 
to Slav *gnida id., Lith glinda id. (< 
*gmnda), Latv gríida id. (Persson Beitrage 
94-96, 202). Can be further connected to 
such phonetically diverging forms as Gk 
kovÍc; id., Alb theri ~ theni < PAlb *tsanid(i. 
See *xnitz. Zupitza Gutt. 120; Wadsteln 
IF V 16 (from *sa-xnit-); Wood IF 

XVIII 24-26; Meillet MSL XXII 143; 
Pokorný I 437; Fraenkel 157-158; 
Vries ANEW 179; Frisk I 912-913; 
Orel AED 476. 

*3nídanan wk.vb.: Swed gnida 'to rub', OE 
^nídan 'to rub, to break', MLG gniden 'to 
rub', OHG gnitan id. Continues *ghnei-t- 
or *ghnei-dh- related to Toch B nitt- 
'to break, to crush', Gk %víe.i- \|/aK<i^ei, 
OptmxEi, Slav gniti 'to roť. Persson Bei- 
trage II 811; Torp-Falk 138; Holthausen 
AEEW 133; Jóhannesson IEW 337-341; 
Pokorný I 436-437; Vries ANElť 179; 
Frisk II 1106; Seebold 234; Trubachev 
ESSJa VI 176-177; Adams TB 337-338. 

*3oáa-líkaz adj.: ON jqfh-gói-ligr 'equally 
cosdy' (uncertain reading), OE sádlíc 
'gooď, OS gód-lik id., OHG guot-líh 'glo- 
rious'. Derived from *sódaz. Hetder- 

MANNS 251. 

*3Ďáaz adj.: Goth gops 'gooď, ON góor id., 
OE 3Ód id., OFris gód id., OS god id., 
OHG guot id. Related to Lith guodas 
'honor', goda id., Latv gúods id., Slav 
*goditi 'to please, to fiť, *godbrn> 'fitting'. 
Legerlotz KZ VIII 416 (to Gk áya6ó<; 
'gooď); Grassmann KZ XII 129; Schmidt 
l^XXV 150 (hesitandy follows Leger- 
lotz); Torp-Falk 124; Feist 218; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 134; Bartoli AGU 
XXXII 97-114; Pokorný I 423-424; 
Fraenkel 159-160; Vries ANEW 181; 
Onions 405; Stang LS 23-24; Lehmann 
GED 158; Trubachev ESSJa VI 188- 
190; Heidermanns 250-252; Beekes KZ 
CIX 227-230 (non-IE loan); Kluge- 
Seebold 343. 

*3Ódín sb.f: Goth godei 'virtue, goodness', 
OS godi 'goodness', OHG guoti 'goodness, 
virtue'. Derived from *sódaz. Feist 217; 
Heidermanns 251. 

*3Čdjanan wk.vb.: ON gceda 'to endow, to 
enrich', MDu ver-goeden 'to reimburse', 
MHG gúeten 'to expiate, to make up for'. 
Derived from *sódaz. Structurally close to 
Slav *gaditi 'to indulge, to gratify', *gadjati 
'to hiť. Vrdís ANEW 198; Trubachev 
ESSJa VI 80; Heidermanns 251. 

*3Óljanan wk.vb.: Goth goljan 'to greeť, 




ON gala 'to comfort, to soothe'. Con- 
nected with *^alanan. Structurally close to 
the isolated Slav *galiti 'to jump, to tri- 
umph, to laugh' (Berneker I 293). 
Zupitza Gutt. 172; Torp-Falk 130; Feist 
217; Vries ANEW 198 (to * 3 ellanan); 
Seebold 212; Lehmann GED 157; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa VI 92-94 (Slav *galiti to 
Gk $á\\(ů 'to throw'). 

*3omaz ~ *3Óm6n sb.m.: ON gómr 
'palatě', OE sóma id., MHG guome id. 
Related to Lith gomurys 'throat, gulleť 
(Schueze KZ XXVII 29). Zupitza Gutt. 
175; Torp-Falk 135 (to Gk ^t|ij.ti 'yawn- 
ing, gaping'); Trautmann BS]V 77; 
Holthausen AEEW 134; Pokorný I 449 
(to *3aujanan); Chemodanov SGGJa I 73; 
Vries AMEW 182; Zalizniak I 153; 
Onions 419; Fvluge-Seebold 302. 

*3Ďmz sb.f.: Norw dial. go 'period of 
February— March'. Cf. also ON fem. gói 
'month from the middle of February to 
the middle of March'. Continues nom. 
*ghiom. Related to Skt himá- 'cold, win- 
ter', héman- 'winter', Gk xxíov 'snow', Arm 
jiwn id., Lat hiems 'winter', Olr gaim id., 
Lith ziema id., Slav *zima id. Pedersen 
Kelt. Gr. I 66; Trautmann BSW 367-368; 
Walde-Hofmann I 645-646; Specht KZ 
LXII 115; Pokorný I 425; Fraenkel 
1306; FriskII 1079-1081. 

*3rabanan str.vb.: Godr graban 'to dig', 
ON gráfa id., OE 3rafan id., OFris grěna, 
griova id., OS gravan id., OHG graban id. 
Related to Lith grebiu, grebti 'to rake', Slav 
*grebq, *grebti 'to rake, to dig' (Sohleicher 
KZ I 142), Alb kreh ~ kref 'to comb' < 
PAlb *grebska. Zupitza Gutt. 175; Torp- 
Falk 140-141; Feist 218-219; Holt- 
hausen AEEl\ r 136; Pokorný I 456; 
Fraenkel 165-166; Vries ANEW 184; 
Onions 411; Stang LS 24; Seebold 235- 
237; Trubachev ESSJa VII 109-110; 
Lehmann GED 158-159; Orel AED 195. 

*3rabilaz sb.m.: ON grefill 'little hoe', 
OHG grebil 'peg'. Derived from *jraba- 
nan. Structurally similar to Slav *greb(~b)lo 
'rake, spade, shověl'. Vrtes ANEW 185; 
Trubachev ESSJa VII 110-111. 

*3rabjaz ~ *3rabjan sb.m./n.: ON grefr 
'hoe', OE jriefe 'graving instrument'. 
Derived from *^rabanan. Identical with 
Slav *grobja 'heap of stones, pit, mountain 
ridge' (from old neut.?). Torp-Falk 
141; Vries ANEW 185; Seebold 236; 
Trubachev ESSJa VII 132. 

*3rabó ~ *3raban sb.f./n.: Goth graba 
'trench, ditch', ON graf 'hole, pit' (pardy 
< *jrabiz), OE sref 'grave, trench', OS 
graf 'grave', OHG grab id. Derived from 
*jrabanan. Structurally close to Slav 
*grob'b 'grave'. Torp-Falk 141; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 135; Feist 218-219; 
Pokorný I 456; Vries ANEW 193; 
Zalizniak II 196; Onions 411; Seebold 
235; Trubachev ESSJa VII 133-134; 
Lehmann GED 158-159. 

*3raftuz ~ *3raftiz sb.m./f: ON groptr 
'digging, burial', OE jrieft 'carving', OFris 
greft 'digging', MLG graft 'pit, tomb', 
OHG sraft 'chiseling, anaglyph'. De- 
rived from *3rabanan. Torp-Falk 141 
Holthausen AEE]V 135; Pokorný I 456 
Vries ANE]\ r 193; Zalizniak II 199 
Seebold 236. 

*3raipiz adj.: ON hard-greipr 'hard- 
clutcheď, OE tet-^répe 'grasping, seizing'. 
Derived from *3ňpanan. Holthausen 
AEEW 135; Seebold 237; Matzel 
Festschr. Schroder 94-95, KZ CV 96; 
Hetdermanns 253. 

*3raipo sb.f: ON greip 'space between the 
thumb and the other íingers' (traces of a 
root stem in pl.), OE jráp 'grasp, clutch', 
MDu grepe 'fisť, OHG greifa 'fork, tri- 
denť. Derived from *^rípanan. Torp- 
Falk 144; Holthausen AEE]V 136; 
Pokorný I 457-458; Vries ANEW 
186-187; Zalizniak II 208; Seebold 
237; Lehmann GED 160; Bammesberger 
Nom. 1 06. 

*3ramaz adj.: ON gramr 'furious', OE $ram 
id., OS gram 'hostile', OHG gremi 'grim, 
wilď (j«-stem). Related to Av gen. pl. 
grammtam 'angry', and further to Gk 
Xpónoi; 'noise, neighing', Slav *gromb 
'thunder', a deverbative formation based 
on IE *ghrem-. Torp-Falk 142; Wood 




IF XXII 163; Holthausen AEEW 136 
Karsten NB II 452; Pokorný I 458-459 
Vries ANEW 184; Frisk II 1116-1117 
Onions 414; Trubachev ESSJa VII 138 
Lehmann GED 159; Heidermanns 253- 
254; Kluge-Seebold 333. 

*3ramitjanan ~ *3rumitjanan wk.vb.: 
Norw grymta 'to grunt', OE 3re?nettan, 
Srymettan 'to roar, to rage'. Cf. also OHG 
gremizzon 'to grumble' < *3ramitojanan. 
Close to Gk xP e ^exí^co 'to neigh, to 
whinny', pres. *xpe|rí^(0. Further cf. 
*jramjanan. Torp-Falk 142; Pokorný I 
458; Frisk II 1116-1117. 

*3ramín sb.f.: ON gremi 'anger, wrath', 
OS gremi id., OHG gremi id Derived from 
*3ramjanan. Torp-Falk 142; Vries 
ANEW 187; Heidermanns 254. 

*3ramjanan wk.vb.: Goth gramjan 'to 
anger, to provoke', ON gremja 'to anger', 
OE sremian 'to provoke, to irritate', OHG 
gremmen 'to anger, to irritate'. Derived 
from *3ramaz. Structurally identical with 
Slav *gromiti 'to thunder, to destroy'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 175 (to Gk ^peiií^co 'to 
neigh', Lat fremo 'to roar, to resounď, 
but see *irem(m)anan); Torp-Falk 142 
Holthausen AEEW 136; Feist 219 
Pokorný I 458; Vries ANEW 187 
Onions 414; Trubachev ESSJa VII 
137; Lehmann GED 159; Heidermanns 

*3randó(n) sb.m./f: ON grandi 'isthrnus', 
LG grand 'rough sanď. Derived from 
*3rendanan. Structurally close to Slav 
*grqdb ~ *grqda 'heap, lump'. Torp- 
Falk 140 (to Gk ^óv8po<; 'granule, lump' 
< ? *xpóv8po(;); Pokorný I 459; Vries 
ANEW 184; Trubachev ESSJa VII 

*3ranj5janan wk.vb.: ON grenja 'to howl, 
to bellow', OE srennian 'to grin', OHG 
grennan 'to show the teeth', OHG grennon 
'to whimper'. A descriptive stem, cf. OE 
Sránian 'to groan, to lamenť < *jrainó- 
janan, OHG grinnen 'to show the teeth' < 
*3rennanan. Torp-Falk 140; Holthau- 
sen AEE]\ T 137; Sturtevant JEGP 
XXXV 216 (from *3a-xranjanan); Vries 

ANEW 187 (to Skt hnuté 'to be angry'); 
Onions 414; Seebold 240-241. 

*3rannaz adj.: ON grannr 'thin, slim, slen- 
der', LG grann 'mean, sharp'. Related to 
*3ranó. Karsten NB II 320-321, 335- 
336 (reconstructs *3ranpaz); Torp-Falk 
139; Vries ANEW 185; Heidermanns 

*3ranó sb.f: Goth-Lat acc. pl. granos 'pig- 
tail', ON grqn 'moustache' (pl. granir 
reflects *3raniz), OE sránu id., OHG 
grana, gian id. Related to Slav *grono ~ 
*grona 'grape', *granb, *grana 'branch, 
edge, tip'. Zupitza Gutt. 203; Torp- 
Falk 138-139 (to Gk xpaívro 'to touch 
lightly, to smear, to painť); Holthausen 
AEEW 136; Feist 220; Pokorný I 440; 
Dybo VSJa 25 (pretonic shortening in 
Gmc); Chemodanov SGGJa I 99; Vries 
ANEW 193; Zalizniak II 193; Truba- 
chev ESSJa VII 104-106, 139-140; Leh- 
mann GED 159; Kluge-Seebold 334 (to 
Mír grend 'beard'). 

*3rasa-3roniz adj.: ON gras-grann 'grass- 
green', OE 3ď,rs-3réne id., MDu gras-groene 
id., MHG grase-gruene id. Compound of 
*3rasan and *3roniz. Carr Mom. comp. 60. 

*3rasan sb.n.: Goth gras 'grass', ON gros 
id., OE 3Tes, 3ters id., OFris gers, gres id., 
OS gras id., OHG g)'as id. Related to Lat 
gramen 'grass, stalk' < *ghns-men (Brug- 
mann Morph. Unt. I 50-51) and Slav 
*grozdb 'cluster, bunch (of grapes)' (Ber- 
neker I 355) from IE *ghras-dho-. 
Schmidt K£ XXV 133; Zupitza Gutt. 
203; Wood KZ XLV 63; Holthausen IF 
XVII 294-295, AEEW 135; Torp-Falk 
143; Walde-Hofmann I 616-617; Feist 
220; Kjíahe SuV 75; Pokorný I 454; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 89; Vries ANEW 
185; Zalizniak I 140; Onions 410-411; 
Trubachev ESSJa VII 142; Lehmann 
GED 159-160; Kluge-Seebold 335 (to 

*3raupiz adj.: ON arin-greypr 'encompass- 
ing uhe hearth'. Derived from str. *3reu- 
panan > Swed dial. griopa 'to cut ouť. The 
latter is of uncertain origin. Pokorný I 
462; Heidermanns 256. 




*3raupjanan wk.vb.: ON greypa 'to 

groove', MLG gropen 'to hollow up'. 

Derived from *3raupiz. Torp-Falk 146; 

Vries AMEW 188 (to *3rep5janan); Hei- 


*3rautaz adj.: ON sbst. grautr 'porridge', 
OE jreáž 'great, large, thick', OFris grat 
'large, heavy', OS grot 'large, large-scale', 
OHG groz 'great, large'. Derived from 
*3reutanan. Structurally close to Lith 
graudus 'sprittle, brittle', Latv grauds 'corn, 
grain', Slav *gruda 'heap'. Schmidt Voc. 
I 170 (to Lat grandis 'great, large'); Bersu 
Gutt. 130 (samé as Schmidt); Torp-Falk 
145; Holthausen AEEW 136; Pokorný I 
461; Chemodanov SGGJa I 77; Fraenkel 
170; Vries AMEW 185; Onions 412 (to 
*3rútan); Seebold 242 (to OHG gi-grozzan 
broth 'panis cretinus', cf. *3reutanan)\ 
Bammesberger Nom. 237; Heidermanns 
256; Hoad WGE 124-131; Kluge- 
Seebold 340. 

*3rawjan sb.n.: ON grey 'greyhounď, OE 
3rÍ3-hund id. Of unknown origin. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 137; Vries AMW 188 (to 

*3remma-líkaz adj.: ON grimm-ligr 
'fierce, fearful', OE 3Úm-lk 'grim, fierce', 
OS adv. grim-liko 'grimly', OHG adv. 
grim-líhho id. Derived from *3remmaz. 
Heidermanns 258. 

*3remmaz adj.: Burg *grimms 'grim', ON 
gnmmr 'grim, stern', OE 3Úm 'sharp, bit- 
ter, fierce, grim', OFris grim 'grim, stern', 
OS giim id., OHG grim id. Connected 
with *3ramaz. Zupitza Gutt. 175; Torp- 
Falk 142; Holthausen AEEW 137; 
Pokorný I 458-459; Vries AMEW 189; 
Onions 414; Lehmann GED 159; Kobler 
710; Heidermanns 258-259; Kluge- 
Seebold 338. 

*3remmibo sb.f.: ON grimd 'grim- 
ness, fierceness', OHG grimmida 'cruelty'. 
Derived from *3remmaz. Heidermanns 

*3remmjanan wk.vb.: ON grimmask 'to 
chafe, to be furious, OE 3rimman 'to run 
with haste, to rage', OS grimman 'to rage', 
OHG gnmmen id. Derived from *3remmaz. 

Holthausen AEEW 

137; Heidermanns 

*3renčtan sb.n.: Goth grinda-frapjis 'faint- 
hearted, 6Xiyó\]fV>xo%' , OE 3e-7/ňnd 'grind- 
ing, rubbing together, noise, commotion', 
OHG grint 'impetigo, scab' (mase.). 
Derived from *3rendanan. Feist 222; See- 
bold 240. 

*3rendanan str.vb.: OE 3Úndan 'to grinď. 
Identical with Lat ýrendo 'to rub away, 
to gnash' (Froehde KZ XVIII 313), 
Lith gréndžiu, grpti 'to rub, to serape' 
(Zupitza Gutt. lil). Persson Wwzelerw. 
72-73 (folio ws Froehde); Torp-Falk 
140; Sommer HL 187; Trautmann BSW 
96-97; Holthausen AEEW 137-138; 
Walde-Hofmann I 545—546; Pokorný I 
459; Chemodanov SGGJa 171; Fraenkel 
167; Onions 414; Seebold 240; Lehmann 
GED 160. 

*3renďiz sb.f: ON grind 'lattice-door, 
gate'. Close to Slav *g)\da 'beam', cf. also 
Lith grindá 'floor board, plank' (Lager- 
krantz KZ XXXVII 182-184; Walde IF 
XLX 99). Zupitza Gutt. 176; Pedersen 
KZ XXXVIII 394; Torp-Falk 140; 
Trautmann BSW 98; Trier MGWG NF 
III/4 93 (to *3runiaz); Pokorný I 459; 
Fraenkel 170-171; Vries AMEW 189; 
Trubachev ESSJa VII 120-122. 

*3reunan sb.n.: ON grjón 'groats', OE 3ríen 
'sanď, MLG grěn 'grain of sand, sea 
sand', MHG grien 'sanď. Probably rela- 
ted to Gk aor. év-expaúe 'to serape', W 
gro 'sanď. Torp-Falk 145; Holthausen 
AEEW 137; Pokorný I 460; Vries 
AMEW 190; Frisk II 1115-1116. 

*3reutan sb.n.: ON grjót 'stone, gravel', 
OE 3reót 'sand, dusť, OFris gi'et 'sand, 
gravel', OS giiot id. (mase.), OHG giioz id. 
(mase.). Derived from *3reutanan. Related 
to Latv grauds 'grain', Lith grúodas 'frost, 
frozen street dirť, Slav *gruda ~ *grud~b 
'lump, heap' reflecting IE *ghroud(h)o-. 
Cf. also *3rautaz. Zeuss Deutsch. 407 
(derived the tribal name Greotingi from 
here); Streitberg GE 1 (follows Zeuss); 
Zupitza Gutt. 176; Torp-Falk 145; Buga 
RFV LXXI 468; Feist 221; Holthausen 




AEE]V 137; Pokorný I 461; Fraenkel 
173; Vries ANEW 190; Zalizniak II 168; 
Onions 415; Stang LS 24-25; Seebold 
242; Trubachev ESSJa VII 146-148; 
Lehmann GED 160; Kluge-Seebold 338; 
Dybo BSA 25. 

*3reutanan str.vb.: OHG part. griozan 
c Kpí6woc;'. Related to Lidi grúdžiu, grústi 
'to grind barley to make groats'. See 
*3reutan. Pokorný I 461 ; Fraenkel 173- 
174; Dybo BSA 25. 

*3reutin3az sb.m.: ON prop. Grýtingr, OE 
pl. Greotin^as 'Greuting, East Gothic 
tribal name', OHG Griuzing id. Cf. also 
Lat-Goth ethn. Greotingi. Derived from 
*3reutan (Zeuss Deutsch. 407). Feist 221; 
Svensson jVB V 128-132; Schwarz Germ. 
87, 206 (preserved in OPrus *Graudingis > 
G Graudenz); Vries ANEW 192. 

*3rědu3az ~ *3rěda3az adj.: Goth 
gredags 'hungry', ON grádugr 'greedy', OE 
3rédÍ3 id., OS grddag id., OHG gratag id. 
Derived from *3rěiuz ~ *3ňiaz. Torp- 
Falk 140; Holthausen AEE]V 135; Feist 
220; Vries ANEW 184; Onions 412; 
Lehmann GED 160. 

*3rěčtuz ~ *3rědaz sb.m.: Goth gredus 
'hunger', ON gráSr 'gluttony, greeď, OE 
3réd 'greed, rapacity'. Continues *ghrě-tú- 
~ *ghre-tó-, a derivative of *gher-\ Skt hár- 
yati ! to yearn for, to like', Gk xaíp") 'to 
rejoice' (Bremer PBB XI 280). Struc- 
turally similar to Gk jp.ptóq 'causing de- 
light, welcome'. Hirt PBB XXIII 291; 
Grienberger Got. 99; Zupitza Gutt. 176 
(to Skt gfdhyati 'to desire, to be eager'); 
Grassmann KZ XII 130; Persson Beitrdge 
728; Torp-Falk 140; Holthausen 
AEEW 135; Feist 220; Pokorný I 441 
(reconstructs *ghre-dh-)\ Vries ANEW 
183-184 (to Slav *golďb 'hunger'); Zaliz- 
niak II 199; Frisk II 1062-1064; 
Lehmann GED 160. 

*3rěpójanan wk.vb.: ON grápa 'to pilfer', 
OE 3rápian 'to grope, to touch', MDu 
grapen 'to grope', MHG grapen id. Related 
to Lith grebti 'to rake, to grasp', Slav 
*grebq, *grebti 'to rake, to dig' (Zupitza 
Gutt. 171). The unvoiced *-p- is difncult 

to explain. See *3rabanan. Holthausen 
AEE]V 135; Pokorný I 456; Fraenkel 
165-166; Vries ANEW 185. 

*3rětanan str.vb.: Goth gretan 'to weep', 
ON gráta id., OE 3rétan, 3rétan 'to bewail' 
(wk. part.), OS pret. sg. griat 'to weep'. Of 
unknown origin. Meillet MSL X 280 
(to Skt hrádate 'to sounď); Zupitza Gutt. 
204; Torp-Falk 139; Holthausen K^ 
XLVIII 239, AEE1\ T 135; Feist 221; 
Jóhannesson IEW 403; Pokorný I 439 
(to Slav *gt,rkati 'to coo'); Vries ANE]V 
185; Onions 413; Seebold 241; Lehmann 
GED 160-161. 

*3rětaz sb.m.: Goth grets 'weeping', ON 
grátr id. Derived from *3ritanan. Feist 
221-222; Vries ANEW 185; Seebold 

*3rěwaz adj.: ON grár 'grey', OE 3^3 id., 
OFris grě id., MDu grau id., OHG grao id. 
Identical widi Lat ravus 'grey' (Vaniček 
98). Uhlenbeck PBB XXVI 298 (to 
Lith žeriú, žereti 'to shine'); Schwentner 
FB 76-79; Horn EngS LIV 74-75; Torp- 
Falk 142-143; Holthausen AEEW 135; 
Karsten NB II 419-421; Pokorný I 
5441-442; Chemodanov SGGJa I 91; 
Vries ANEW 185; Onions 413; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 244; Heidermanns 259; 
Ktuge-Seebold 336. 

*3ridiz sb.f: Goth grips 'step, páce, stand- 
ing', MHG grit 'step, stride'. Related to 
Lith gristi 'to carry, to bring', gridyti 'to 
go' (Siebs KZ XXXVII 321). Persson 
Beitrdge 850; Torp-Falk 143-144 (to 
*3fínan); Búga KS 219 (samé as Siebs); 
Feist 222; Pokorný I 456-457; Fraen- 
kel 171 (follows Siebs); Vries ANEW 503; 
Lehmann GED 161. 

*3ripan sb.n.: ON grip 'grip, grasp', OE 
3e-3Úp 'gripe, seizing', OFris grip 'grip', 
MHG grif id. Derived from *3fípanan. 
Holthausen AEEW 138; Vries ANEW 

*3ripiz sb.m.: ON gripr 'property, value', 
OE 3rípe 'grip, possession', OFris bi-grip 
'statute, rule', OHG ubar-grif 'break- 
ing, violation'. Derived from *3ňpanan. 
Torp-Falk 144; Holthausen AEEW 




138; Vries AJíEW 189; Onions 414; 
Seebold 238; Lehmann GED 160. 

*3rid5 sb.f.: ON gríd Trantic eagerness', 
MHG grit 'desire'. Cannot be separated 
from *3reduz ~ *jrědaz but the vocalism 
presents difficulties. Falk-Torp 144 (to 
*3?idiz); Wadstein IF V 18 (from *ja- 
xňdo); Wood MP I 240 (to Lith greitas 
'quick, nimble'). 

*3rim6n sb.m.: ON gríma 'hood, poitrail', 
OE 3ríma 'mask, visor, helmeť, EFris 
grime id. (fem.), OS gríma 'mask' (fem.), 
OHG grimo id. Close to Gk XP 1 ! 101 
'unguent, oil', Lith gréimas 'cream, slimy 
sediment in water', further connected 
with Lith griejú, grilů 'to skim off milk', 
Gk xpíco 'to smear'. Zupitza Gutt. 
204; Torp-Falk 143-144; Holthausen 
AEEJV 137; Pokorný I 457; Fraenkel 
168; Dybo VSJa 26; Vries AMEW 188; 
Frisk II 1120; Lerchner 89-91. 

*3rinanan str.vb.: ON grína 'to pout, to 
whine', MLG giinen 'to grin', OHG gňnan 
'to bark'. Of imitative origin. Torp- 
Falk 143. 

*3ripanan str.vb.: Goth greipan 'to seize, to 
grasp', ON grípa id., OE jripan id., OFris 
gripa id., OS grípan 'to touch, to také hold 
of, OHG grifem id. Related to Lith^netóž, 
griěbti 'to seize'. Kuhn K£l 139 (to Skt 
grbhnati 'to seize'), 142 (to Slav *grabiti 'to 
rob'); Reiohelt KZ XXXLX 2 1 ; Zupitza 
Gutt. 176; Torp-Faek 144; Feist 220- 
221; Holthausen AEEW 138; Jóhan- 
nesson IEW 392; Pokorný I 457-458; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 72; Fraenkel 
168; Vries ANEW 189; Onions 414; 
Stang LS 24; Seebold 237-239; Leh- 
mann GED 160 (follows Kuhn); Kluge- 
Seebold 336—337. 

*3risanan str.vb.: OE srísan 'to shudder, 
to be frighteneď, MDu grisen 'to shud- 
der'. Identical with Gk xpí™ to rub, to 
anoint, to graze'. Wood MP V 265; 
Torp-Falk 144; Holthausen AEE]V 138 
(to Skt jihréti 'to be ashameď); Pokorný I 
457; Frisk II 1 120; Onions 415; Seebold 

*3risaz sb.m.: ON sbst. griss 'young pig' 

(? < *'grey'), OFris gris 'grey', OS gris 
id., OHG gris id. Related to *3físanan. 
Torp-Falk 144; Pokorný I 457; Frisk II 

*3r5anan str.vb.: ON gróa 'to grow', OE 
3rówan id. Of unknown origin. Torp- 
Falk 144; Holthausen AEFW 139; 
Jóhannesson IE\V 390-391; Pokorný I 
454; Vries ANEW 190 (to prašan); 
Onions 417; Seebold 242-243 (phonetic 
variant of *krě- > Lat crěsco 'to grow'). 

*3robo sb.f: Goth groba 'dugout, hole', 
ON gráf 'pit', OHG gruoba id. Derived 
from *3raíanan. Zupitza Gutt. 175; 
Torp-Falk 141; Feist 222; Pokorný I 
456; Vries AMEW 190; Zalizniak I 146; 
Onions 415; Seebold 236; Kluge- 
Seebold 340. 

*3r5diz ~ *3róduz sb.f./m.: ON gródi, 
gróór 'growth', OFris grěd 'meadow', MLG 
grode 'growth'. Derived from *3roanan. 
Torp-Falk 144; Vries ANEW 190. 

*3r5maz ~ *3r5man sb.m./n.: ON grómr 
'grime, dirť, EFris grum 'sediment', MDu 
groom 'dirť. Derived from *3r5anan. 
Vries AME]V 190 (to Lith grémžiu, grémžti 
'to serape'). 

*3r5niz adj.: Burg *gronis 'green', ON 
greenn id., OE 3réne id., OFris grene id., 
OS groni id., OHG gruoni id. Cf. also 
*en-3róniz: ON sbst. ígreen 'bright green' 
(fem.), MDu ingroene id., MHG ingruene id. 
Derived from *3roanan. Structurally close 
with Slav *granb 'branch' < *ghroni-. 
Schwentner FB 62-66; Zupitza Gutt. 
203; Torp-Falk 144; Sommer Krit. 61 (to 
Lat grámen 'grass, stalk', Jřons 'foliage'); 
Johanisson MASO V 41 (directly from a 
corresponding verb); Holthausen AEE]f 
138; Karsten NB II 182; Pokorný I 
454; Vries AJWW 192, 284; Onions 
413; Seebold 242; Trubaghev ESSJa 
VII 104-106; Bammesberger OE 18-19; 
Heidermanns 260-261; Kluge-Seebold 

*3r5njanan wk.vb.: ON grand 'to paint 
green', OHG gruonen 'to green'. Derived 
from *3roniz. Structurally identical with 
Slav *graniti 'to grow branches, to demar- 




cate'. Trubachev ESSJa VII 107; Hei- 


*3rotjanan wk.vb.: ON grata 'to make 
weep', OE jrétan 'to bewail, to deplore', 
OFris greta 'to accuse', OS grotian 'to 
excite', OHG gruozen 'to excite'. Causa- 
tive of *3retanan. Torp-Falk 139; Hol- 
thausen AEEW 138; Vries AMEW 192; 
Onions 413; Seebold 241; Lehmann 
GED 160; Kluge-Seebold 342 (semantic 
influence of Lat gratus 'beloved, dear, 
acceptable, gratefuF in OHG). 

*3rubaz adj.: MHG grob 'strong, fat, big'. 
Close to Lith gnibůs 'rough, stiff, rigiď, 
Slav *grqb'b ~ *grub~t> 'crude, coarse' (with 
nasalization). Torp-Falk 146; Pokorný 
I 461-462; Fraenkel 172-173; Stang LS 
24; Trubachev ESSJa VII 145-146. 

*3rubil5janan wk.vb.: ON grufla 'to 
grovel on all fours', OHG grubilon 'to dig 
through'. A denominative closely related 
to Lith grublas 'unevenness, mounď, Latv 
grubulis 'shard, fragment'. Cf. also Lith 
grumbú, grúbti 'to stiffen', grubineti 'to stum- 
ble'. Further see *3rubaz. Torp-Falk 
141 (to *3rabanan); Fraenkel 172; Vrles 
ANEW 191. 

*3runaz sb.m.: ON grunr 'suspicion'. Goes 
back to a root stem *g*hrn- close to Gk 
cppiív 'midriff, hearť (Fick BB XVIII 
142). Fick I 417 (adds Lat rěn 'kidney') 
WADSTErN /F V 28 (from *3a-runaz) 
Wiedemann BB XXVII 239 (to *3rěwaz) 
Zupitza Gutt. 97; Torp-Falk 146 
Pokorný I 496; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
109; Vries AMEl\ r 191; Frisk II 1041 

*3rundu-fastaz adj.: ON grunn-fastr 'fast 
aground (of a ship)', MLG grunt-vast 'fixed 
in the grounď. Compound of *3runduz ~ 
*3runpuz and *fastaz. Garr Mom. comp. 
90 (parallel formations). 

*3rundu-lausaz adj.: ON grunn-lauss 
'boundless', OE grund-leás 'groundless, 
bottomless', MLG grunt-los 'boundless'. 
Compound of *3runiuz ~ *3runpuz and 
Hausaz. Carr Mom. comp. 89 (parallel 

*3runďuz ~ *3runbuz sb.m.: Goth 

grundu-waddjus 'foundation-wall', ON 
grunnr 'bottom', grudr (< *3runpaz), grund 
'fielď (< fem. *3rundi£), grunn 'shallow, 
shoal' (< *gnmpari), OE srund 'ground, 
bottom', OFris grund id., OS grund id., 
OHG grunt id. Continues *ghrn-tu- based 
on *ghren-\ Gk %paív<a 'to touch slighdy, 
to smear', cf. in particular Lidr pa-grindas 
'lake bottom'. Siebs KZ XXXVII 322 
(to Litír grindis 'floor-board'); Hůbner Kí? 
LI 18; Uhlenbeck PBB XXVII 121 (to 
Gk xÉpo? 'gravel'); Torp-Falk 146 (to 
Lith giimsti 'to sink'); Holthausen AEE]f 
139; Feist 222-223; Pokorný I 459; 
Vries ANEIV 191 (to *3reniiz); Zalizniak 
II 200; Frisk II 1115; Onions 416; Leh- 
mann GED 161 (to *3rendanan); Bammes- 
berger Mom. 158; Fvluge- Seebold 341. 

*3rustaz sb.m.: OE jrojř 'grisde'. Glose to 
Lith grauzdús 'huge and shapeless'. Cf. 
WGmc derivative *3rustilaz ~ *3rustilo > 
OE jmfe/ 'grisde', OFris gristel id., MLG 
gristel id., OHG grustila id. Holthausen 
AEEW 137, 139; Pokorný I 461; 
Fraenkel 170; Onions 415. 

*3rúběnan wk.vb.: ON gnifa 'to grovel, to 
crouch', G dial. grúben 'to crouch of colď. 
Related to *3rubaz, *3ruiil6janan. Vries 
AME]\ T 191 (to Gk ypraóq 'hook-noseď). 

*3rútan sb.n.: Norw dial. grut 'sediment', 
OE 3rút 'fine meal', EFris grut 'sed- 
iment', MLG grut 'a kind of fermenť. 
Related to *3rautaz. Torp-Falk 145; 
Holthausen AEEJ\ t 139; Vries AMEh r 

*3učt(a)-furxtaz adj.: Goth guda-faurhts 
'God-fearing', OE god-Jyrht id., OS god- 
foroht id. Cf. MHG gote-vorhtec id. Com- 
pound of *3uiz ~ *3udaz and *furxtaz. 
Feist 223; Carr Mom. comp. 88 (parallel 
formations); Lehmann GED 111, 165. 

*3uď(a)-xúsan sb.n.: Godr gud-hus 'tem- 
ple', ON goůa-hús id. If not a calque of 
Lat domus Dei (Kretschmer K^ XXXLX 
542), a compound of *3uiz ~ *3uiaz and 
*xusan. MikkolaMSJVVII 271; Streit- 
berg IF XXLX 181, XXVII 156-157; 
Feist 223; Carr Mom. comp. 69 (parallel 
formations); Lehmann GED 161. 




*3ud(a)-lausaz adj.: Goth guda-laus 'god- 
less', ON gud-lauss id. Compound of 
*3uiz ~ *3uiaz and Hausaz. Probably, a 
calque of Gk aQeoq. Feist 223; Carr 
Nom. comp. 95 (parallel formations); Leh- 
mann GED 165, 229. 

*3uď(a)-wafojaz ~ *3učt(a)-watajan 
sb.m./n.; Goth *godawabi 'silk' (recon- 
structed from Slav *godovabjb 'silk'), ON 
gud-vefr 'good weaving', OE 3od-web 'pre- 
cious fabric', OS godo-webbi id., OHG 
gota-webbi id. Compound of *3udz ~ 
*3udaz and *wabjaz ~ *wabjan. Štrekelj 
apud Peisker 88; Berneker I 316; Carr 
Nom. comp. 48; Vasmer-Trubachev I 426. 

*3udaz adj.: Goth af-giips 'godless', Norw 
dial. av-gud 'godless person', OFris sbst. 
aj-god 'idol', OS sbst. af-god 'idol', OHG 
sbst. ab-got 'idol'. Derivative of *3udz ~ 
*3uiaz (Lehmann GED 4). Uhlenbeck 
BB XXX 253-254; Feist 5; Lloyd- 
Springer I 24; Keuge-Seebold 5. 

*3učt(j)ón sb.m.: Goth gudja 'priesť, ON 
godi id. Derived from *3udz ~ *3udaz. 
Osthoff BB XXIV 197-200 (semantic 
analysis); Torp-Faek 136; FEIST 224, 
ANFXXXV 264-265; Vries^UVEIT 181; 
Lehmann GED 161. 

*3ud(z) ~ *3udaz sb.n./m.: Goth gup 
'Goď, ON god, gud id. (traces of í-stem in 
pl.), OE 3od id., OFris god id., OS god id., 
OHG mase. got id. (traces of j-stem in 
pl.). Mase. forms are secondary. From 
*ghu-t(ó)- 'libated one' derived from *gheu- 
'to pour' (Pictet Origines 659—661; Bury 
BB VII 79). The alternativě connection 
with *gheu- 'to call, to invoke' (Osthoff 
Morph. Unt. IV 84-85, BB XXIV 191- 
194) and derivation from *ghut(ó)- (< 
*ghút(ó)- according to Dybo's law) might 
be supported by the comparison with 
Toch A ňkat, B ňakte 'god' < *ni-ghůto- 
'one called down' (Normier K£ XCIV 
267-269). Cf. furdier Olr guth 'voice' < 
*ghutu-. PvAumer Einwirk. 338 (to *3odaz 
or to Gk kěiSSco 'to hide' or from Pers 
xudaý); Schweizer K£ 1157; Ebel KZ V 
236 (to Keúeto); Meyer A"^ VII 12-18 
(to Skt jyuti- 'lighť); Lidén BB XXI 97; 

Aufrecht BB XX 256 (to *3eutanan); 
Wood Mi/V XVI 310 (to Slav *gověti 'to 
worship, to fasť); Merfnger /FXVI 158; 
Schrader-Krahe Idg. 126 (follows 
Osthoff); Sohroder BBB LI 30; Torp- 
Falk 136; Holthausen AEE1 V 1 34; Feist 
227-228; Pokorný I 413; Vries AMEW 
181, 193; Zalizniak II 186; Onions 
404; Watktns Gedenkschr. Gúntert 102 (fol- 
lows Pictet); Lehmann GED 165-166; 
Bammesberger Nom. 79; Kiajge-Seebold 
332; Adams TB 264. 

*3ulban sb.n.: ON golf 'floor', EFris 
gulj 'section in a barn'. May be related 
to Slav *želb~b 'gutter, trough' (ZuprrzA 
Gutt. 175). Wadstein IF V 17 (from 
*3a-xulfan); Hirt BB XXIV 258 (to 
Gk hzkqvc, 'womb'); Torp-Faek 137; 
Walde-Pokorny I 630 (to Olr gulban 
'prick'); Mladenov 167; Porzig Gliede- 
rung 119; Vrtes ANE]V 181; Vasmer- 
Trubachev II 61. 

*3ultiz sb.f: ON gyltr 'young sow', OE adj. 
3ylte id. Cf. also MLG gelte 'castrated pig', 
OHG galza, gelza id. <*3altj5n. Derived 
from *3altaz ~ 3altuz. Torp-Falk 131; 
Holthausen AEEW 129; Vries ANEW 
196; Kxuge-Seebold 310-311. 

*3ulba-bandan sb.n.: ON gull-band 'gold- 
en head-band', MDu goud-bant 'diadem', 
OHG gold-bant 'golden head-band'. 
Compound of *3ulpan and *bantan. 
Carr Nom. comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*3ulba-berxtaz adj.: ON gull-bjartr 'bright 
as gold', OE gold-beorht 'bright with gold'. 
Compound of *3ulfran and *berxtaz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 61. 

*3ulpa-xrudenaz adj.: ON goll-rodinn 
'ornamented with gold' (< *goll-hrodinn), 
OE gold-hroden id. Compound of *3ul- 
pan and part. *xrudenaz (see *xrmdanan). 
Carr Nom. comp. 61. 

*3ulban sb.n.: Goth gulp 'gold', ON gull, 
goll id., OE 30U id., OFris gold id., OS gold 
id., OHG gold id. Closely related 
to Thrac pln. ZáA.8-a7toc, ELith želtas 
'golden', Latv zclts 'gold; golden', Slav 
*Zolto 'gold' with different vowel grades. 
Further connected with Indo-European 




color adjectives belonging to IE *ghel-. 
Zupitza Gutt. 204; Torp-Falk 131; 
Trautmann BSW 368; Holthausen 
AEEW 134; Feist 224-225; Detschew 
Thr. 173; Porzig Gliederung 142; Pokorný 
I 430; Chemodanov SGGJa I 84; 
Fraenkel 1296-1297; Vries ANEW 194; 
Zalizniak I 140; Onions 405; Vasmer- 
Trubachev II 103-104; Stang LS 64; 
Lehmann GED 162; Bammesberger Nom. 
77; Keuge-Seebold 331. 

*3ulba-smibaz sb.m.: ON gull-smior 'gold- 
smith', OE gold-smii id., OFris gold-smith 
id., MLG golt-smit id., OHG gold-smid. 
Compound of *julpan and *smipaz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 72 (parallel formations). 

*3ulbínaz adj.: Goth gulpeins 'golden', ON 
gullinn id., OE 3ylden id., OFris gulden, 
golden, gelden id., OS guldin id., OHG 
guldln id. Derived from *3ulpan. Hol- 
thausen AEEW 140; Feist 225; Vries 
ANEW 194; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*3ulbjanan wk.vb.: ON gylla 'to guilď, 
OE 3yldan id., MDu ver-gouden, ver-gulden 
id., OHG ubar-gulden id. Derived from 
*3ulpan. Holthausen AEEW 140; 
Vries ANEW 196. 

*3umon sb.m.: Goth guma 'man', ON gumi 
id., OE 3uma id., OFris breid-gomo 
'groom', OS gumo 'man', OHG gomo 
'hero, a famous man'. Etymologically 
related to Toch B šaumo id., Lat horná id., 
Lith žmuo, žmogiis id. describing 'man' as 
'earthly', further — to IE *dheghom 'earth' 
(Osthoff Etym. 220-221; Brugmann 
Grundúfi 11/ 1 135). Zupitza Gutt. 204; 
Torp-Falk 126; Holthausen AEEW 
140; Walde-Hofmann I 654-655; Feist 
225-226; Benveniste BSL XXXVIII 
143; Porzig Gliederung 80, 208; Pokorný 
I 414-415; Chemodanov SGGJa I 60- 
61; Fraenkel 1320; Vries ANE]\ t 194; 
Zalizniak I 153; Lehmann GED 162; 
Peeters K'Z LXXXIX 8-9; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 1 84. 

*3umpaz sb.m.: ON gumpr 'buttock, 
podex'. Identical with Lith gumbas 
'bump, excrescence', cf. further Slav 
*goba 'lip, sponge'. Torp-Falk 137; 

Fraenkel 176; Vries ANEW 194-195; 
Trubachev ESSJa VII 78-80. 

*3unďan ~ *3unčtaz sb.n./m.: Goth gund 
'gangrene', Norw dial. gund 'scurf, OE 
3und 'matter, corruption', OS gund 'pus', 
OHG gunt id. Probably connected with 
*3unpz. Torp-Falk 136; Holthausen 
KZ XXVIII 282 (to Gk Kav9ú?ir| 'abscess, 
tumor'), AEEW 140; Trautmann ^dl\J 
VII 268 (to Av gunda- 'small, round 
breaď); Scheftelowitz £DMG LIX 
695—696 (to NPers gundeh 'round objecť); 
Feist 1 1 6; Pokorný I 438; Lehmann 
GED 163. 

*3unb(a)-burdan sb.n.: ON gunn-bord 
'shielď, OE 31'td-bord id. Compound of 
*3unpz and *burdan. Carr Nom. comp. 54. 

*3unp(a)-fan5n sb.m.: ON gunn-fani Var 
banner', OE 3Úo-fana id., OS gud-Jano 
id., OHG gund-fano id. Compound of 
*3unpi and *fanón. Carr Nom. comp. 48; 
Vries ANEW 111, 195. 

*3unp(a)-xwataz adj.: ON gunn-hvatr 
'fierce in battle', OE 3Úd-hwďt 'active, vig- 
orous in war'. Compound of *3unpz and 
*xwataz. Carr Nom. comp. 61. 

*3unpz sb.f: Burg *gunps 'fighť, ON gunnr, 
gudr 'war, battíe', OE 3ÚS id. Cf. also OS 
gúthea id. Related to Hitt kuen- 'to smite, 
to raze, to kill', Skt hánti 'to strike, to kilT, 
Avjainti 'to strike', Gk Geívto 'to kill', Lat 
defendo 'to defenď, Olr gonim 'to wound, 
to kill'. Zupitza Gutt. 97; Bartholomae 
490-493; Torp-Falk 124; Holthausen 
AEEW 140; Walde-Hofmann I 332- 
333; Mayrhofer III 575-576; Pokorný 
I 437; Vries ANEW 195; Frisk I 657- 
658; Kobler 710; Puhvel IV 206-212. 

*3uran sb.n.: ON gor 'cuď, OE 3or 'dung, 
dirť, MLG gor 'filťh', OHG gor 'dung, 
dirť. Related to Olr gur 'matter, pus'. 
Froehde BB XXI 327 (to Lat firia 'flux, 
a disease of swine'); Torp-Falk 129; 
Pokorný I 494 (to *g'-'her- 'to burn'); 
Wood JEGP XIII 502 (to Gk X vXóq 
'juice'); Holthausen AEE]V 134; Vries 
ANEW 183; Zalizniak II 168; Onions 

*3urdaz sb.m.: OHG gurt 'girdle'. Zero 




grade of the stem attested in 
and Goth bi-gairdan 'to girď < *3erdanan. 
Further connections are not clear. 
Torp-Falk 129; Pokorný I 444 (to 
*3ardaz); Onions 399; Lehmann GED 68. 

*3urdilaz sb.m.: ON gyrSill 'girdle', OE 
3jrdel id., OFris gerdel id., MDu gurdel id., 
OHG gurtil id. Derived from *3urďjanan or 
*3urdaz. Torp-Falk 129; Holthausen 
AEEW 140; Vries AJVEW 197; Onions 
399; Seebold 225. 

*3urďjanan wk.vb.: ON gyrSa 'to begirď, 
OE syrdan id., OFris un-e-gert 'unbe- 
girdeď, OHG gurten 'to begirď. Derived 
from *3urdaz. Torp-Falk 129; Holt- 
hausen ^££11' 140; Vries AMW 197; 
Onions 399; Seebold 225; Lehmann 
GED 68; Keuge-Seebold 343. 

*3urstaz sb.m.: OE sorst 'gorse, furze, 
bramble, Ulex europčeus'. Continues 
*ghrst- close to Alb drithe 'grain', Lat 
hordeum 'barley' < *ghrzd- (Lehmann K^ 
XLI 391). See *3erstim. Schmidt Plur. 

117, 362; Holthausen .4££rr 135; 
Walde-Hofmann I 656-657; Frisk II 
18-19; Onions 407; Bammesberger Nom. 
77; Orel AED 75. 
*3utaz ~ *3utón sb.m.: Goth Gut-piuda 
'Gothic people', ON Goti 'Goth', OSwed 
pl. Gutar, Gotar 'people', OE pl. Gotan 
'Goths'. Probably, H-stem reflected also in 
gen. pl. gutani of the Pietroassa inscrip- 
tion. Cf. also Germ-Lat Gutones, Gotones. 
Borrowed to Lith gúdas 'Bielorussian' 
and OPrus *gud- (in pln.) before the 
Lautverschiebung (Karsten 7DADL LXVII 
253-255). Furdier connections are un- 
clear, see *3autaz ~ *3auton. Grien- 
berger Got. 101-103 (from Goth *gut 
'sea, bay', to *3eutanan)\ Lendroth MB II 
75-77 (to the name of Gotland); Holt- 
hausen AEEW 135; Feist 226-227; 
Krause Run. I 227-235 (adduces the ON 
parallel), HG 5 (to *3eutanan); Fraenkel 
1 74 {-d- in Baltic infiuenced by OPrus 
gudde 'bush'). 

*xaban I sb.n.: ON Á«/"'sea', OE heafsea, 
water', OFris hef 'sea', MLG haj id., 
MHG hab 'sea, haven'. Derived from 
*xajjanan. Historically identical with 
*xaban II. Strachan BB XX 13 (to Olr 
cúan 'haven, sea' < *kopno-)\ Torp-Falk 
72; Holthausen AEEW 144; Pokorný I 
528; Vries ^JVEII' 201; Zalizniak I 140. 

*xaban II sb.n.: ON upp-haf 'beginning', 
OHG ur-hab 'cause, reason'. Derived 
from *xajjanan. Seebold 244. 

*xaban III adj.: ON hand-hafi 'having 
in hand', OHG un-gi-hab 'poor, insig- 
nificanť. Derived from *xaběnan. Holt- 
hausen AEElť 147; Kluge 69; 
Heidermanns 263. 

*xabanó sb.f: ON hqfn 'haven', OE hďfen 
id., MLG hávem id., MHG habene id. 
Based on *xaban I. Derivationally close 

to Olr cúan 'curve, bend, recess, bay' < 
*kopno-. Torp-Falk 72; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 98; Vries ^UVETI' 279; Onions 
431; Kluge-Seebold 347. 

*xaběnan wk.vb.: Goth kahan 'to háve', 
ON hajá id., OE habban id., OFris hebba, 
habba id., OS hebbian id., OHG haben id. 
Durative of *xajjanan (Lottner K^ XI 
192). Collitz Prát. 86-88 (amalgama- 
tion of *ghabh- and *kap); Meyer IF 
XXXV 224-237; Vendryes MSL XVIII 
310; Prokosch MP XXVI 464; Zupitza 
Cřutt. 206; Torp-Falk 72; Holthausen 
^££II 7 143; Feist 229; Porzig Gliederung 
107-108 (on IE *kap-: *ghabh-), 115; 
Pokorný I 528; Vries ANEW 201; 
Onions 431; Seebold 244; Lehmann 
GED 167; Kluge-Seebold 345. 

*xabÍ3az ~ *xabu3az adj.: ON hqfugr, 




'heavy', OE hefiš id., OS hebig id., 
MHG hebec id. Based on *xabiz > OE hefe 
'weighť derived from *xajjanan. Torp- 
Falk 72; Holthausen AEEW 153-154; 
Vries ANEW 280; Onions 434. 

*xabib5 sb.f.: ON hefi 'loss or gain of 
claim', MHG hebede 'property'. Derived 
from *xabenan. Falk-Torp ND 450; 
Vries .4JVEIK 215. 

*xabraz sb.m.: ON hafr 'he-goať, OE hefer 
id. Etymologically related to Gk Kanpoc, 
'boar', Lat caper 'he-goať. Further may 
be connected with Skt káprth- 'penis'. 
ScHEFTELOwrrz IF XXXIII 142 (oriental 
Wanderwort); Petersson PBB XL 105 
107; Zupitza Gutt. 114; Torp-Falk 
73; Holthausen AEEW 144; Walde- 
Hofmann I 157-158; Mayrhofer I 157; 
Porzig Gliederung 114; Pokorný I 529; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 90; Vries ANEW 
201; Frisk I 782-783; Zalizniak I 131; 
Kluge-Seebold 345. 

*xabrón sb.m.: ON pl. hafrar 'oats', OS 
havoro id., OHG habaro id. Derived from 
*xabraz (Falk-Torp ND 387), cf. Slav 
*ovbyb 'oats' < *auiko-, to *aui- 'ewe'. 
Charpentier KZ XL 436 (to Skt netit. 
šáspa- 'young grass'); Petersson LUA 
1918/31 19 (to Norw hagr 'tail hair of 
ťhe horše'); Wood MP XVII 568 (to Slav 
*kopn-> 'dill'); Zupitza Gutt. 31; Torp- 
Falk 73; Speoht 27 (to *xobd); Pokorný 
I 529; Vries ANEW 202; Zalizniak I 
153; Onions 619; Kluge-Seebold 347. 

*xabuďa-bainan sb.n.: ON hofud-bein 
'skuli, head-bone', OE heáfod-bán id. 
Compound of *xaiudan and *bainan. 
Carr Nom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xabuďa-bau3az sb.m.: ON hofud-baugr 
'chief ring in the wergilď, OE heáfod- 
beá3 'crown'. Compound of *xabudan and 
*bau3az. Carr Nom. comp. 81 (parallel 

*xabucta-lausaz ~ *xaubuda-lausaz 
adj.: ON hqfud-lauss 'headless', OE heáfod- 
leás id., OFris haved-las id., MLG hovet-los 
id., MHG houbet-los id. Compound of 
*xabudan, *xaubudan and Hausaz. Carr 
Nom. comp. 89 (parallel formations). 

*xabuďan sb.n.: ON hofud 'heaď, OE 
heáfod id. Identical with Lat caput 'heaď 
and, probably, Skt *kaput- in neut. kapúc- 
chala- 'tuft of hair on the back of the 
heaď < *kaput-šala- (Kuhn K% I 136). 
Torp-Falk 73; Holthausen AEEW 
150; Walde-Hofmann I 163-164; Mayr- 
hofer I 156-157; Pokorný I 529-530; 
Vries ANEW 279; Zalizniak I 141; 
Mayrhofer I 156-157; Lehmann GED 
178-179; Beekes R'Z CLX 218-220 (from 

*xabuďa-swím5n sb.m.: ON hqfud-svími 
'dizziness', OE heáfod-swíma id. Com- 
pound of *xabudan and *swimon. Carr 
Nom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xabuďa-wardaz sb.m.: ON hofui-vqrir 
'body-guarď (u-stem), OE heáfod-weard 
'chief guardian'. Compound of *xaiudan 
and *wardaz II. Carr Nom. comp. 54. 

*xabukaz sb.m.: ON haukr 'hawk', OE 
hafoc id., OFris havek id., OS havuk id., 
OHG habuh, hábech id. Identical with Slav 
*kob~bzTi ~ *kobuzt> 'hawk, kite' (ZuprrzA 
Gutt. 15, 102), from IE *kobugo-. Further 
connections are not clear. Pogodin 
RFV XXXIII 328-329; Berneker I 535; 
SuOLAHTi Z) K/V' 360 (to Lat capys, capus < 
Etr); Torp-Falk 73; Petersson PBB XL 
96; Holthausen AEE]V 147; Suolahti 
ANT 360 (from *xajjanan\ Slav < Gmc); 
Pokorný I 528; Vries ANEW 214; 
Zalizniak I 131; Onions 431; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa X 92-93; Kxuge-Seebold 

*xaďinaz sb.m.: ON hédinn 'jacket of fur 
or skin', OE heden 'hooď. A substan- 
tivized adjective close to Slav *kotbn~b 
'pregnant (of animals)' further derived 
from *kotiti s( 'to give birth (of animals)', 
cf. also Lat catulus 'cub' (Osthoff Etym. I 
250). Zupitza Gutt. 207; Torp-Falk 90 
(from Thrac *kiton, cf. Gk %it<bv 'tunic, 
garment worn next to skin', Ion kÍScov 
id.); Loewenthal P55XLIX 72; Jónsson 
ANO 1926 190; Holthausen AEEW 153; 
Vries ANEW 215. 

*xad(i)nón sb.f: ON ha&na 'young 
she-goať. Cf. also MHG hatele 'she-goať 




close to Lat catulus 'cub'. See *xaiinaz. 
Zupitza Gutt. 206; Torp-Falk 69; 
Walde-Hofmann I 183; Pokorný I 534; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 58; Vries ANEW 
200; Trubachev ESSJa XI 204-205, 

*xafilaz sb.m.: ON hefill 'clew-lines of a 
saiT, OHG lefi-hefil 'yeasť. Derived from 
*xajjanan. Torp-Falk 72; Vries ANE]V 
215; Seebold 244. 

*xafjanan str.vb.: Goth hajan 'to hold 
up, to bear up, to lift', ON hejja id., OE 
hebban id., OFris heva id., OS hebbian 
id., OHG heffen id. Related to *xabenan. 
Etymologically close to Lat capio 'to 
seize', Gk Kájtxto 'to gulp down', Lat capio 
'to také', Alb kap 'to seize, to grasp', Latv 
kámpju, kampt 'to seize', and other con- 
tinuants of IE *kap-. Meyer IF XXXV 
224-237; Zupitza Gutt, 103; Torp-Falk 
71; Feist 229-230; Holthausen AEEW 
153; Walde-Hofmann I 159-160; Por- 
zig Gliederung 127; Jóhannesson IEW 
186-189; Pokorný I 528; Vries ANEW 
215; Frisk I 783; Onions 433; Seebold 
244-245; Lehmann GED 167; Orel AED 
169; Kluge-Seebold 362. 

*xafnčjanan wk.vb.: Goth ufar-hafnan 'to 

be (excessively) exalteď, ON hajná 'to for- 

sake, to abandon'. Derived from *xaf- 

janan. Feist 230; Vries ANE]V 201 (to 

*xamjanan); Seebold 245. 

*xaftan ~ *xaftaz sb.n./m.: ON hapt, 
hajt 'bonď, OE hicft id. See *xaftaz II. 
Holthausen AEE]\ 7 144; Vries ANEW 
209; Seebold 245; Heidermanns 263; 
Kluge-Seebold 347. 

*xaftaz I sb.m.: ON haptr, haftr 'captive', 
OE hteft id., MHG kafi id. Substantivized 
*xqftaz II. Holthausen AEEW 144; 
Porzig Gliederung 126; Heidermanns 263; 
Kluge-Seebold 347. 

*xaftaz II adj.: Goth hafts 'bound, joineď, 
OS hajt id., OHG hqft id. Identical with 
Lat captus 'captureď, W caeth 'slavě', 
OCorn caid 'captureď (Lané Language 
LX 246). From *kap-to-, a participial form 
of *kap- (see *xajjanan). Torp-Falk 72; 
Meillet RG XXI 40 (from Celtic); 

Krahe SuV 80; Mohr ZDADL LXXVI 
169; Holthausen AEEW 144; Walde- 
Hofmann I 159; Feist 230; Karsten 
NB II 306; Pokorný I 527-528; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 102; Vries ANEW 
209; Seebold 245; Lehmann GED 168; 
Bammesberger Nom. 251; Heidermanns 
263-264; Kluge-Seebold 347. 

*xaftiz sb.f: Goth anda-hafts 'answer', 
MHG hafl 'detention'. Structurally simi- 
lar with Lat captio 'deceit, harm' . Derived 
from *xajjanan. Walde-Hofmann I 159; 
Feist 46; Lehmann GED 34; Kluge- 
Seebold 347. 

*xaftjan sb.n.: ON hepti 'hafť, OE heft, 
hefte id., MLG hechte id., OHG hefti 
id. Derived from *xafljanan. Torp-Falk 
72; Holthausen AEE]V 144; Onions 
423; Kluge-Seebold 363. 

*xaftjanan wk.vb.: Goth haftjan 'to hold 
fast to, to adhere', ON hepta, hefla 'to 
bind, to fetter', OE hďftan 'to seize, to 
bind', OFris hefta 'to fortify, to secure', 
OS heftian id., OHG heflen 'to fortify, to 
bind'. Derived from *xaftaz, *xajjanan. 
Torp-Falk 72; Holthausen AEEW 144; 
Feist 230; Vries ANEW 222; Lehmann 
GED 167-168; Kluge-Seebold 363. 

*xaftnójanan ~ *xaftenójanan wk.vb.: 
Goth ga-haflnan 'to stick, to adhere', OE 
hďflnian 'to seize, to capture'. Derived 
from *xaflaz, *xaftjanan. Feist 183; Hei- 
dermanns 264. 

*xa3anan str.vb.: OHG hagan 'to feeď. 
Related to Skt šaknóti 'to be able', Av sak- 
'to agree on smth.'. See *xa^az, *xa^on. 
Bartholomae 1552-1553; Wissmann 
NP 72; Torp-Falk 67-68; Holthausen 
AEEW 147; Mayrhofer III 288-289; 
Pokorný I 522; Vries ANEW 202; 
Seebold 245-246. 

*xa3a-burnaz sb.m.: ON hag-porn 'haw- 
thorn', OE hie^-dorn id., MLG hage-dorn 
id., OHG hagan-dorn id. Compound of 
*xa3on and *purnuz ~ *purnaz. See 
*xa3(i)naz. Torp-Falk 68; Holthausen 
AEEW 146-147; Carr Nom. camp. 48; 
Onions 431; Kluge-Seebold 348. 

*xa3az adj.: ON hagr 'handy, skilful', 




MHG be-hac 'of pleasure'. Related to Skt 
šaknóti 'to be able', Av sak- 'to agree on 
smth.'. See *xa^anan. WGmc words for 
'witch' belong here: OE hď^tesse, hie^tes, 
MDu haghetisse. Bartholomae 1552- 
1553; Torp-Falk 67-68; Karsten MB 
I 10; Holthausen AEEW 144; May- 
rhofer III 288-289; Pokorný I 522; 
Vries AMEW 203; Onions 423; Heider- 
manns 264-265. 

*xa3(i)naz sb.m.: Norw hegn 'fencing, 
fence', OS hagin 'fence', OHG hagan 
'hawthorn'. Derived from *xa3ón. Vries 

*xa3(i)njanan wk.vb.: ON hegna 'to 
hedge, to fence', MLG hegenen id., MHG 
heinen 'to surround widr a hedge'. Derived 
from *xa3(i)naz. Vries AMEW 216. 

*xa3Jaz sb.m.: ON heggr 'bird-cherry', OE 
he^e 'hedge'. Cf. also EFris hegge id., MDu 
hegge id., OHG hegga id. Identical with 
W cae 'enclosure' < *kagios. See *xa3on. 
Torp-Falk 68; Holthausen AEEW 153; 
Onions 434; Vries ANEW 215-216; 
Kluge-Seebold 362. 

*xa3la-stainaz sb.m.: ON hagl-steinn 'hail- 
stone', OE ha^ol-stán id., MLG hagel-stěn 
id., MHG hagel-stein id. Compound of 
*xajlan ~ *xa^laz and *stainaz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 48. 

*xa3lan ~ *xa3laz sb.m./n.: ON hagl 
'hail', OE hď3(e)l, ha^ol id., OFris heil id., 
OS hagal id., OHG hagal id. From IE 
*kokló-, reduplication of *kel- 'colď simi- 
lar to (but not identical with) Skt šíšira- 
'cool, colď. Cf. also *xexlon. Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXVI 208 (to Gk K á x X^ 'pebble'); 
Zupltza Gutt. 207-208 (samé as Uhlen- 
beck); Torp-Falk 68; Holthausen 
AEEW 147; Mayrhofer III 345-346; 
Pokorný I 551; Frisk I 805; Chantraine 
I 507 (Gk ráčili; to Kax^ré^co 'to splash, 
to bubble'); Pokorný I 518, 551; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 108; Vries AMEW 
202-203; Zalizniak II 168; Onions 423; 
Lehmann GED 167; Kluge-Seebold 348. 

*xa35janan wk.vb.: ON haga 'to manage, 
to arrange', OE on-ha^ian 'to be within 
smb.'s powers', OFris hagia 'to please', 

OHG bi-hagon 'to make comfortable'. De- 
rived from *xci3anan (Wissmann MP 72). 
Torp-Falk 67; Holthausen AEEW 147; 
Vries AMEW 202; Seebold 245; Kluge- 
Seebold 91-92. 

*xa35n sb.m.: ON hagi 'pasture', OE hajá 
'enclosure', OS hago 'pasture', OHG hag, 
hac 'fence, enclosure' (< *xa3az). Derived 
from *xa3anan. Zupltza Gutt. 111; 
Uhlenbeck PBB XXLX 332-333 (to Slav 
*košb 'basket'); Torp-Falk 68; Herbig 
Philologus LXXIII 452 (to Lat caulae 
'opening, hole, enclosure', dim. of *caua 
< *kaghá); Holthausen AEEW 147; 
Pokorný I 518; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
101; Vries AMEW 202; Onions 432; 
ICluge-Seebold 348. 

*xa3u-staldaz sb.m.: ON hauk-staldr 
'young man' (with an irreg. hauk- instead 
of *hog-), OE ha3o-steald 'bachelor, young 
man, young warrior', OS hagu-stald id., 
OHG hagu-stalt 'hired worker'. Com- 
pound of *xa3uz (see *xa3az) and *staldaz 
(see *staldan). Torp-Falk 489; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 147; Falk Festschr. Bugge 
Kr. 16 (on ON hauk-); Carr Mom. comp. 
48; Vries AMF LVIII 93-104, AMEW 
214; Seebold 462; Lehmann GED 37; 
ICluge-Seebold 348. 

*xaxsón sb.f: MHG hahse 'back of knee'. 
Identical with Skt káksa- 'armpiť, Olr coss 
'fooť, Lat coxa 'hip'. Meringer f VuS III 
47; Torp-Falk 67; Walde-Hofmann I 
283; Pokorný 1611; Adams TB 136-137 
(adds Toch B kakse 'body part'). 

*xaxtuz sb.m.: ON háttr 'mode, way'. 
Closely related to Olr cucht 'colour' 
(Zupitza Gutt. 207). Hlrt BB XXIV 
231 (to ON hagr 'statě, condition'); Sper- 
ber }VuS VI 18 (samé as Hirt); Vries 

*xaidaz adj.: ON heidr 'bright, cloudless'. 
Cf. also sbst. heid 'brightness of ťhe sky'. 
Identical with Skt keta- 'mark, sign', cf. 
also kehí- 'brightness, lighť. Further re- 
lated to *xaiiuz ~ *xaidiz. Torp-Falk 
64; Karsten MB II 259, 449; Mayrhofer 
I 265; Pokorný I 916-917; Vries AMEW 
217; Heidermanns 265. 




*xaiťfraz adj.: OE hádor 'clear, bright, 
serene', OS hědar 'clear, lighť, OHG 
heitar id. Derived from *xaidaz. Struc- 
turally similar with Skt citrá- 'excellent, 
brighť, Av čiOró 'visible, clear'. Gf. also 
Lith skaidrús 'light, clear'. Zupitza Gutt. 
105; Bartholomae 586-587; Torp-Falk 
64; Holthausen AEEW 143; Karsten 
M II 259, 449; Mayrhofer I 387; 
Pokorný I 916-917; Fraenkel 791; 
Vries ANEW 217; Onions 443; Bammes- 
berger JVom. 247; Heidermanns 265- 
266; Keuge-Seebold 367. 

*xaiduz ~ *xaičtiz sb.m.: Godr haidus 
'way, manner', ON heiór 'honor', OE hád 
'person, degree, rank', OFris -hed, OS hěd 
id., OHG heit id. Identícal with Skt ketú- 
'brightness, form' < *kú-tu- (Gůntert 
Kalypso 49), further related to *(s)kai- 'to 
be bright, to shine', see *xaidaz. Helten 
PBB XVII 288; Zupitza Gutt. 105; Torp- 
Falk 64; Holthausen AEE]V 143; Feist 
231; Mayrhofer I 265; Pokorný I 
916; Zalizniak II 200; Lehmann GED 
168; Bammesberger Jíom. 159; Kluge- 
Seebold 367. 

*xaifstiz sb.f.: Goth haifsts 'conflict, com- 
petition', OE hrést 'violence, fůry', OFris 
hast 'haste', MLG heist 'vehemence'. Cf. 
also WGmc *xaifstaz 'violenť: OE htést(e), 
OFris hast, OHG heisti 'loud'. Related to 
Lith kaipstu, kaipti 'to be dizzy, to ail, to 
be sickly'. ZuprrzA Gutt. 182; Grienber- 
ger Got. 104 (to Lith šaipaús, šaipýtis 'to 
mock, to show one's teeth'); Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXX 286 (against Grienberger); 
Torp-Falk 65; Holthausen AEEW 146, 
427; Feist 231; Pokorný I 542-543; 
Ohmann /^í/TIjfXVI 166-167; Fraenkel 
203; Vries ANE]V 218; Lehmann GED 
169; Kluge-Seebold 359. 

*xaixaz adj.: Goth haihs 'one-eyeď, ON 
theon. Hárr 'one-eyed god (Odin)'. 
Identical with Lat caecus 'blind', Olr caech 
'one-eyeď. Furdier cf. Skt kekara- 'squint- 
eyeď and probably Dac koiko-W8<x 
'nightshade'. Saussure Festschr. Thomsen 
202; Zupitza Gutt. 206, 209; Torp-Falk 
64; Walde-Hofmann I 129; Feist 232; 

Detschew Thr. 551; Mayrhofer I 
264; Pokorný I 519-520; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 100; Vries ANEW 210; Leh- 
mann GED 169; Heidermanns 267. 

*xaila3az adj.: Godr hailags 'holý' (on dre 
Petroassa ring), ON heilagr id., OE hális 
id., OFris hělich id., OS helag id., OHG 
heilag id. Derived from *xailaz II. Ochs 
PBB XLV 102-112; Zupitza Gutt. 105; 
Torp-Falk 65; Holthausen AEEW 148; 
Feist 232; Pokorný I 520; Vries ANEW 
218; Onions 445; Scardigli Goten 219 
223; Benveniste IEL 452; Lehmann GED 
169; Heidermanns 268; Ktuge-Seebold 

*xaila3Ójanan wk.vb.: ON helga 'to make 
holý', OE hálgian id., OFris heligia id., OS 
helagon id., OHG heiligon id. Derived 
from *xaila^az. Holthausen AEEW 
148; Vries ANElť 221; Onions 424. 

*xaila-wandjaz adj.: ON sbst. heil-indi 
'health', OE hál-wende 'conducive to 
health, healing', OHG sbst. heil-ant 
'savior'. Compound of *xailaz II and 
*wandjaz (see *wandjanan). Holthausen 
AEE]V 148; Carr Nom. comp. 60; Vries 

*xailaz I sb.n.: Crim.-Goth iel 'good, 
health', ON heill 'good luck, omen', OE 
htél 'omen, auspice', OS heil 'health, 
luck', OHG heil id. Substantivized 
*xailaz II. Close to W coel 'sign, omen'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 105; Holthausen AEEh' 
144; Feist 290; Pokorný I 520; 
Zalizniak II 223; Vries ANEW 218; 
Lehmann GED 169; Heidermanns 267. 

*xailaz II adj.: Goth hails 'healthy', ON 
heill 'whole, healeď, OE hal 'whole, well, 
sound', OFris hěl 'unhurt, whole, un- 
harmed', OS hěl 'unhurt, unharmed', 
OHG heil 'whole, healthy, unscathed'. 
Related to W coel 'sign, omen', OPrus 
kails 'healthy', Slav *cětb 'whole'. The 
words for 'health' derived from here (OE 
híélu id., OS hěli id., OHG heila, heill id.) 
probably explain the further derivation of 
the noun for 'brain': ON heili 'brain', 
OFris hěli, hal, heila id. Pictet K£ V 
37-38; Zupitza Gutt. 105; Karsten MB II 




266; Gray BB XXVII (to Ose kaíla 'tem- 
ple'); Torp-Falk 65; Wood MLN XXIX 
7 1 (ON heili to Skt šíkha 'tuft of hair'); 
Specht KZ LXIV 2 1 ; Marstrander NTS 
XI 288; Feist 232; Holthausen AEEW 
145, 148; Baetke HG 68-79; Porzig 
Gliedemng 141-142; Pokorný I 520; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 68; Vries ANEW 
218 (ON heili to Mír coelán 'intestine'); 
Zalizniak II 223; Onions 1005; Beck 
Festschr. Eggers 21-25; Stang LS 25, 81; 
Benveniste IEL 451-452, 468; Toporov 
PJa III 136-143; Lehmann GED 169- 
170; Trubachev ESSJa III 179-180; 
Bammesberger Nom. 249; Heidermanns 

*xailesójanan wk.vb.: ON heilsa 'to 
greeť, OE hélsian 'to foretell', OHG hei- 
lison id. Cf. also ON heilla 'to bewitch' < 
*xailzojanan. Derived from *xaileso based 
on *xailaz. ZuprrzA Gutt. 105; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 145; Jóhannesson IEW 
176; Pokorný I 520; Vries ANEW 
218; Benveniste IEL 451; Lehmann 
GED 170. 

*xailibo sb.f.: OGutn haildir 'damages', 
OHG heilida 'health'. Derived from *xail- 
janan or *xailaz. Heidermanns 268. 

•xailjaiian wk.vb.: Goth hailjan 'to heal', 
OSwed hela id., OE hďlan id., OFris hela 
id., OS hělian id., OHG heilen id. Derived 
from *xailaz. Structurally close to Slav 
*cěliti id. Holthausen AEE1V 144; 
Feist 232; Porzig Gliedemng 141; Vries 
ANEW 218; Onions 432; Trubachev 
ESSJa III 178; Lehmann GED 169- 
170; Heidermanns 268; Kluge-Seebold 

*xailnojanan wk.vb. g: Goth ga-hailnan 'to 
be healed, to recover', OGutn hailna 'to 
heal'. Derived from *xailaz. Feist 183; 
Heidermanns 268. 

*xaima-faró sb.f: ON heim-fqr 'return 
home', OE hám-faru 'forcible entry into a 
house'. Compound of *xaimaz ~ *xaimo 
and *faro. Carr Nom. comp. 81 (parallel 

*xaimai ~ *xaimot adv.: ON heima 'at 
home, home', OS hone id., OHG heim id. 

Derived from *xaimaz ~ *xaimiz. Vries 
ANEW 218-219; Lehmann GED 170; 
Fvluge-Seebold 365. 

*xaimaně adv.: ON heiman 'from home', 
OHG heimina id. Derived from *xaimaz ~ 
*xainaz. Vries ANE] V 2 1 9. 

*xaima-5bljan sb.n.: Goth haimopli 'patri- 
monial lanď. Cf. also OHG heimodilis 
'laribus'. Compound of *xaimaz ~ *xaimiz 
and *opljan. ON heimild, heimold 'tide, 
righť does not belong here (despite 
Schwarz GNA 266) and is better to be 
explained from *xaimilipó (Hesselman 
apud Vries). Feist 233; Carr Nom. 
comp. 44; Vries ANE] V 219; Lehmann 
GED 1 70; Kluge-Seebold 365. 

*xaimatjanan wk.vb.: ON heimta 'to 
get back, to bring home the sheep', 
OE hámettan 'to provide with a home'. 
Derived from *xaimaz ~ *xaimiz. Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 148; Vries ANEW 220; 
Onions 430. 

*xaimaz ~ *xaimiz sb.m./f: Goth haims 
'village' (pl. < *xaimo), ON heimr 'abode, 
land, village', OE hátn 'home, house, 
dwelling', OFris ham, hěm id., OS han 
id., OHG heima id. Related to Gk kmijti 
'village', Lith káimas 'village', šeimii 
'family', Slav *slmbja id. May also be 
connected with Olr cóim 'kind, gooď. 
Zupitza Gutt. 49, 185; Torp-Falk 87-88; 
Trautmann BSW 300-301; Holthausen 
AEEW 148; Feist 233-234; Pokorný I 
540; Chemodanov SGGJa I 65; Fraenkel 
251, 970; Trubachev Rod. 165; Vries 
ANEW 219; Zalizniak II 196; Frisk II 
61-62; Onions 445-446; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 600; Lehmann GED 170; 
Bammesberger Nom. 72; Kxuge-Seebold 
365; Vine Festschr. Watkins 685-702 
(rejects comparison with Gk K(ó|jr| 

*xaimiskaz adj.: ON heimskr 'foolish, 
silly', OHG heimisc 'native'. Derived 
from *xaimaz ~ *xaimiz. Vrtes ANEW 

*xaimjanan wk.vb.: ON heima 'to také 
one in', OE héman 'to háve intercourse 
with, to marry', MHG heimen 'to drive 




home'. Derived from *xaimaz ~ *xaimiz. 
Torp-Falk 88; Holthausen AEEW 145; 
Vries AMEW 218; Frisk I 809 (derived 
from KEÍnai 'to lie' which is itself related 
to *xaimaz). 

*xainó sb.f.: ON hein 'hone, whetstone', 
OE han 'boundary stone'. Close to Av 
sami- 'top'. Cf. furťher Gk KÓJvoq 'pine- 
cone' < *ko(i)-no- (Hirt BB XXIV 234). 
Zupitza Gutt. 184; Torp-Falk 64; 
Holthausen AEEW 149; Pokorný I 542; 
Vries AMEW 220; Onions 446. 

*xairaz sb.m.: ON hárr 'hoary', OE hár 
'hoary, grey, olď, OFris her 'high, sub- 
lime', OS her 'high, noble', OHG her 
'great, sublime'. Identical with Slav 
*sén> 'grey', furťher cf. Mír dar 'dark' < 
*keiro-. Sohwentner FB 80-82; Meil- 
let Etudes 321-322, 403 (Slav < Gmc); 
Pedersen KZ XXXVIII 392-393, XL 
176-177; Torp-Falk 65, 88; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 149; Karsten NB II 
258-259; Porzig Gliederung 166; Pokorný 
I 519, 540; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
68; Vries AMEW 212-213; Onions 
442-443; Vasmer-Trubachev III 611— 
612; Bammesberger .Nom. 248; Hei- 
dermanns 269-270; Kluge-Seebold 

*xaisaz adj.: OE has 'hoarse', OFris has 
id., MDu hees id., OHG heis id. Of uncer- 
tain origin. Cf. *xairaz. Torp-Falk 65; 
Holthausen AEEW 149; Pokorný 1519 
(to *xaja Z ); Vries AMEW 213; Onions 
443; Heidermanns 270; Kluge-Seebold 

*xaisraz adj.: ON háss 'hoarse', ME hoors 
id., MLG hesch id., OHG heisar 'rough, 
hoarse'. Derivative of *xaisaz or a com- 
promise form combining *xaisaz and 
*xairaz. Zupitza Gutt. 52; Torp-Falk 
65; Karsten NB II 205, 381-382; 
Pokorný I 519; Vries AMEW 213; 
Heidermanns 270-271. 

*xaitan sb.n.: Goth anda-hait 'confession, 
acknowledgmenť, ON heit 'solemn prom- 
ise, vow', OE hát 'vow, promise', OS 
mase. bi-hět 'calling', OHG mase. bi-heiz 
'promise'. Derived from *xaitanan. Holt- 

hausen AEE]V 149; Feist 46; Seebold 
246-247; Lehmann GED 172. 

*xaitanan str.vb.: Goth haitan 'to call (by 
name), to address', ON heita id., OE hátan 
'to bid, to call, to name', OFris hěta 'to 
call (by name), OS hltan id., OHG heizan 
id. If the originál meaning is 'to name' < 
*'to identify' rather uran 'to call, to sum- 
mon', probably based on neut. *xit (see 
*xt). Brugmann IF VI 89-90 (to Gk 
kÍco 'to go, to drive'); Wood MIM XVI 
310 (samé as Brugmann); Hoffmann 
Festschr. Fick 40-41 (to Gk kTveco 'to set in 
motion'); Zupitza Gutt. 105 (to Slav 
*cěditi 'to strain, to filter'); Petersson 
PBB XLIV 173 (to Osset sidyn ~ se dun 
'to call'); Pedersen Kelt. Gr. II 490-491 
(to Ir cisse 'carried in'); Torp-Falk 64: 
Holthausen AEEW 150; Feist 236-237 
Prokosch CGG 176-178 (from *kei-d-) 
Jóhannesson IEW 198; Pokorný I 538 
Vries AMEW 220; Onions 440; Seebold 
246-248; Abaev III 105-106 (samé as 
Petersson); Lehmann GED 171-172; 
Kluge-Seebold 367. 

*xaitaz adj.: ON heitr 'hoť, OE hát 
id., OFris hět id., OS hit id., OHG heíz 
id. Related to *xajaz. Zupitza Gutt. 
112; Zupitza Gutt. 112; Torp-Falk 89; 
Holthausen AEE]V 149-150; Karsten 
MB I 18, 59; Pokorný I 519; Vries 
AMEW 220; Onions 449; Stang LS 25; 
Heidermanns 271-272; Kluge-Seebold 

*xaitjanan wk.vb.: ON heita 'to brew, to 
heať, OE hdtan 'to heať, OS hetian id., 
OHG heizen 'to light up'. Derived from 
*xaitaz. Holthausen AEEW 146; Vries 
AME]V 220; Onions 433; Heidermanns 
271; Kluge-Seebold 367. 

*xaitj5n sb.m.: Goth bi-haitja 'boaster', 
OE scyld-hete 'enemy, woe', OS scult-hětio 
'bailiff'. Derived from *xaitanan. Feist 
90; Seebold 247. 

*xaij)ina-d5maz sb.m.: ON heidin-dómr 
'headiendom', OE héden-dóm id., MLG 
heiden-dom id., OHG heidan-tuom id. De- 
rived from *xaipinaz. Carr Mom. comp. 
73 (parallel formations). 




*xaibinaz adj.: Goth haipns 'heathen' (with 
syncope), ON heidinn id., OE hréden id., 
OFris hěthin id., OS hěthin id., OHG hei- 
dan id. Derived from *xaipiz with the 
originál meaning 'living on the heath, 
wilď. In individual Germanic languages, 
the word might háve been influenced by 
Lat pdgánus (Grienberger Got. 106, but 
see Vries ANEW 216-217). Attested as 
XouSeivoí (Ptol.), people of Western 
Scandinavia. Simon ~dPh LIII 46-49 
(ON and WGmc from Goth); Jellinek 
GGS 165, 190, Z DADL LXVI 134 
(against Simon); Torp-Falk 64; Holt- 
hausen IF XXX 48 (to *skaiianan ~ 
*skaipanan), AEE]V 146; Wessén ANF 
XLIV 86-91; Schulze Kl. Schr. 519-527 
(Goth haipns as an adaptation of Gk 
Ě9vri); Feist 237-238; Vries ANEW 216; 
Onions 433; Lehmann GED 172-173; 
FCluge-Seebold 364. 

*xaibiz sb.f: Goth haipi 'fielď, ON heiSr 
'heath', OE mase, neut. hied id., OS 
hětha, heitha id. (in pln.), OHG heida id. 
Related to OW coit 'woods', OCorn cuit 
id., Bret coet id. (Fick KZ I 368- 
369). Fick II 76 (to Lat bu-cetum 'pas- 
ture for cattle'); Solmsen K^XXXW 14 
(follows Fick); Braune PBB XLIII 
430-431; Torp-Falk 64; Kxuge Z dw 
XI 26; Holthausen AEEJ\ 7 146; Feist 
237; Pokorný I 521; Vries ANEW 217; 
Zalizniak II 213; Schulze Kl. Schr. 521— 
524; Onions 433; Lehmann GED 172; 
Kluge-Seebold 363. 

*xajaz sb.n.: Goth hais 'torch', OHG hei 
'heať. Probably related to Lith kaistú, 
kaísti 'to become hoť < *kai-t-. Zupitza 
Gutt. 112; Feist 235-236; Pokorný 1519; 
Fraenkel 204; Lehmann GED 171; 
Heidermanns 272. 

*xakón sb.m.: ON haki 'hook', OE haca 
'bolť, OS hako 'bolt, hook', OHG fem. 
hacka id. Identical with Hitt kaká- 'tooth' 
(Puhvel IV 14-15). From here WGmc 
*xakudaz ~ *xakiiaz 'pike' > OE hacod, 
OS hakth, OHG hehhit derivationally sim- 
ilar to Slav *kogbtb 'claw' (Brugmann 
GrundriJ] 11/ 1 427). Cf. also *xdka Z > OE 

hóc 'hook', OFris hok id., MLG hok 
'corner, angle'. Zupitza Gutt. 111; 
Torp-Falk 66; Lewy IF XXXII 160; 
Trautmann BSW 112; Holthausen 
AEEW 143, 167; Pokorný I 537-538; 
Vries ANEW 203 (to Latv kegis 'crutch'); 
Onions 447; Stang LS 30; Vasmer- 
Trubachev II 275; Kluge-Seebold 

*xakulaz ~ *xakuló(n) sb.m./f: Goth 
hakuls 'cloak, mantle', ON hqku.ll 'priesťs 
cope', OE hacele 'cloak, mantle', hada id., 
OFris hezil id., OHG hahhul id. Derived 
from *xakon, lit. a cloak buttoned with 
fibulae (Diefenbach PTKII 513). Hirt 
BB XXIV 277 (from *xoko 'goať related 
to Slav *koza id.); Grienberger Got. 107 
(to ON haka 'chin'); Meillet Etudes 172 
(agrees with Hirt); Uhlenbeck PBB 
XXX 287 (follows Diefenbach); Sperber 
WuS VI 20; Trautmann ~dl\'f VII 
171 (to Slovené kozól 'woven vessel'); 
Wiedemann PBB XXLX 314 (to Latv 
sagša 'cover'); Zupitza Gutt. 106; Torp- 
Falk 67; Holthausen AEE]V 143; Feist 
238-239; Pokorný I 517; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 80; Vries ANEW 280; Zalizniak 
II 182; Lehmann GED 173; Golab Origins 
143; Fvluge-Seebold 385—386. 

*xalba-brunnanaz ~ *xalfoa-forun- 
nenaz adj.: ON hálf-brunnin 'half-burnť, 
OHG halb-brunnan id. Compound of *xal- 
taz and participle of *brennanan. Carr 
Nom. comp. 92 (parallel formations). 

*xalba-daudaz adj.: ON hálf-dauSr 
'half-deaď, OE healf-deád id., OHG 
halb-tot id. Compound of *xalbaz and 
*daudaz. Carr Nom. comp. 92 (parallel 

*xalbaz adj.: Goth halbs 'half, ON hálfr 
id., OE healf id., OFris half id., OS half 
id., OHG halb id. A difficult word. 
Probably related to Skt kálpate 'to suc- 
ceed, to fit, to be partaken by'. Grien- 
berger Got. 107-108 (to Lith šalis 'side'); 
Gůntert TlaSXI 137-138 (to Gk KÓXjtoq 
'pudenda'); Uhlenbeck PBB XXX 287 
(< IE *skel-p- 'to cuť); Pedersen K£ 
XXXVIII 373 (to Slav *xolpb 'slavě, 




serf'); Zupitza Gutt. 106; Torp-Falk 85 
(to OE helfe 'handle', MLG hehe id., 
OHG halb id.); Feist 239; Holthausen 
AEEW 151; Karsten NB I 48; Mayr- 
hofer I 183-184; Pokorný I 926; Vries 
ANEW 204; Lehmann GED 173; Heider- 
manns 272-273; Kluge-Seebold 350. 

*xalbibo sb.f.: ON helft 'half, OFris help, 
halfte id., MLG heljte id. Derived from 
*xaliaz. Torp-Falk 85; Vries ANEW 
221; Keuge-Seebold 350. 

*xalbó sb.f.: Goth halba 'half, OE healfiá., 
OS halba id., OHG halb id. Related to 
*xalbaz. Torp-Falk 85; Holthausen 
AEEWlbl; Feist 239; Vries ANEW 204; 
Zalizniak II 180; Onions 424; Lehmann 
GED 173; Heidermanns 273; Kluge- 
Seebold 350. 

*xalbón sb.f.: ON hálfa 'region, quarter', 
OFris halve 'side', OS halba id., OHG 
halba id. Derived from *xalbaz. Torp- 
Falk 85; Heidermanns 273. 

*xaldan sb.n.: ON hald 'hold, fastening, 
support, custody', OE heald 'guardian- 
ship, protection', OHG mase. burg-halto 
'city advocate'. Derived from *xalianan. 
Holthausen AEE]V 150-151; Vries 
ANEW 204; Seebold 248. 

*xaldanan str.vb.: Goth haldan 'to tend, 
to herd, to graze cattie', ON halda 'to 
hold', OE healdan id., OFris halda 'to 
capture', OS haldan 'to hold', OHG 
haltan id. Related to Toch B kal(t)s- 'to 
goad, to drive', Lat prae-celló 'to surpass, 
to excel' < *keld-, celsus 'soaring, high'. 
Meringer IF XVIII 236; Zupitza Gutt. 
106 (to Gk fScm-KÓkx; 'shepherď), BB 
XXV 99 (to Lat aus-culto 'to listen'); 
Brugmann IF XXXII 1 8 1 (on the vocal- 
ism); Torp-Falk 84; Walde-Hofmann I 
197; Holthausen AEEW 151; Feist 
239-240; Jóhannesson IEW 246-247; 
Pokorný I 548; Onions 444; Vries 
AAEJK204; Seebold 248-249; Lehmann 
Language XVIII 129 (to *kel- 'to drive', cf. 
Skt kaláyati 'to impel, to bear, to carry, to 
do'), GED 173-174; Kluge-Seebold 
351-352; Adams TB 174. 

*xaldaz adj.: Goth comp. ni pe haldis 

'none, by no means', ON adv. heldr 
'rather, more', OS comp. than hald ni 'just 
as', OHG comp. halt 'sooner', adv. halto 
'quickly, swifdy'. A variant of *xalpaz. 
Dtefenbach F7KII 517-518; Fick III 85; 
Grienberger Got. 108—109 (direedy to 
*xalianan 'to hold'); Kroes GRM XXXVI 
345-347; Torp-Falk 85; Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXX 287; Feist 240; Pokorný I 
552; Vries ANEW 221; Lehmann GED 
174; Heidermanns 274; Kluge-Seebold 

*xalinz ~ *xalubz sb.m.: ON hqlSr 'a 
kind of higher yeoman', halr 'man', 
OSwed hdlith 'man, soldier', OE helefd) 
'man, hero' (root stem *xalěps), OS helith 
'soldier, hero', OHG helid id. Probably 
related to Skt kalya- 'healthy, prepared 
for, clever', Gk naXóq 'beautiful', kcxAXi- 
(in compounds) (Specht K£ LXII 257- 
258). Zupitza Gutt. 107; Johansson 
WZKM XLX 237 (to Gk KÍ\y\q 'courser, 
riding horše' < *kelet-); Meillet MSL 
XVII 114 (samé as Johansson); Torp- 
Falk 84 (follow Johansson); Holthausen 
AEEW 144; Specht 128, 195 (direedy to 
Gk koiA.ó<; 'beautiful'); Johansson SF 307 
(from *'man from Hallanď); Mayrhofer 
I 184-185; Pokorný I 524; Vries ANEW 
206; Frisk I 766-767; Zalizniak II 208; 
Frisk I 766—767 (against Specht on 
semantic grounds); Bammesberger Nom. 
215 (to IE *kel- 'to raise'); Kluge- 
Seebold 368; Adams TB 155 (to Toch B 
kaly-ške 'boy, youth'). 

*xaliz adj.: Goth adv. halis-aiw 'hardly 
ever', MHG hel 'weak'. Probably, histori- 
cally connected with *xalipz ~ *xalupz. 
On the other hand, cf. Latv kalst 'to 
dry' and probably Slav *kolěti 'to freeze' 
(Zubatý AfslPh XVI 395). Holthausen 
IF XIV 340 (to Gk KÓXoq mutílateď), 
XXXLX 70; Feist 240; Lehmann GED 

*xalja-runó(n) sb.f: Goth- Lat pl. haliurun- 
nae 'witches' (Jord.), OE helle-rúne 'sor- 
ceress, neeromancer', OHG helli-rúna 
'magie'. Compound of *xaljo and *rúno. 
Carr Nom. comp. 44. 




*xalja-wítjan sb.n.: ON hel-víti 'hell', 
OE helle-wíte 'hell-torment, hell', OS helli- 
witi 'helF, MHG fem. helle-wíze id. 
Compound of *xaljo and *wltjan. Vries 
AMEW 222. 

*xaljó sb.f.: Goth halja 'hell', ON hel 
'abode of the deaď, theon. Hel, the god- 
dess of death, OE hell 'hell', OFris helle 
id., OS hellia id., OHG helia id. Derived 
from *xelanan thus probably repeating the 
semantíc motivation of Gk "Ai8r|<; < *n- 
uid-. Notě Mír luid ar cel 'went to hell' 
(Gůntert Kalypso 34—35), cel 'death'. 
Szadrowsky PBB LXXII 221-223 (to 
*xalluz ~ *xallaz); Zupitza Gutt. 185; 
Torp-Falk 80; Holthausen AEEW 
1454; Feist 240-241; Trier Lehm 52- 
61 ('hell' < 'lattice work'); Pokorný I 
554; Vries AMEW 220-221; Frisk I 
33-34; Zalizniak II 213; Onions 435; 
Lehmann GED 1 74, 1 94; Bammesberger 
Mom. 112; Kluge-Seebold 380-381. 

*xallaz adj.: ON sbst. hall-ieri 'bad season', 
NFris halí 'dry', MHG hel 'weak'. Cf. also 
MDu hael 'dried up' < *xelaz (Matzel K^ 
CV 110). Related to Lat caleo 'to be 
warm', W clyd 'warm' < *klto-, Lith šylú, 
šilti 'to become warm'. Torp-Falk 83; 
Walde-Hofmann I 137; Pokorný I 
551-552; Heidermanns 275. 

*xalló sb.f: ON hqll 'halí' (pardy from 
*xalliz), OE heall id., OS halla id., OHG 
halla id. From *xal-n-o based on *xelanan. 
Torp-Falk 80; Holthausen AEEW 151; 
Pokorný I 554; Vries AMEW 280-281; 
Zalizniak II 193; Onions 424; Kluge- 
Seebold 350. 

*xalluz ~ *xallaz sb.m.: Goth hallus 
'stone slab, rock', ON hallr 'big stone, 
boulder', OE heall 'rock'. Related to 
Mír coll 'head, leader', Lat collis 'hill' < 
*kolnis (or *klnis), Lith kálnas 'mountain', 
Latv kalus id. Zupitza Gutt. 47, 106; 
Torp-Falk 86; Bugge BB XXXII 24 (to 
Skt šila 'stone, rock, crag'); Hirt BB 
XXIV 278 (to OPrus kalso 'flat cake'); 
Brugmann IF XVII 487, XXLX 233; 
Holthausen AEEW 151; Walde- 
Hofmann I 245; Feist 241; Pokorný I 

544, 925; Fraenkel 209-210; Vries 
AMEW 205; Zalizniak II 200; Lerchner 
112; Wagner R'Z XCVII 281-283 (to 
Lat callum 'callous', Olr calath 'hard'); 
Hamp IF LXXXI 36-38; Lehmann GED 

*xalmaz sb.m.: ON háhnr 'straw', OE 
neut. healm 'stalk, straw', MLG halm 
id., OHG halm id. Identical with Hitt 
kalam(m)a- 'broom, rake', Gk Ká^anoq 
'reeď, Lat culmus 'stalk', OPrus šalme 
'straw', Latv salms id., Slav *solma id. 
Zupitza Gutt. 182; Torp-Falk 85; 
Trautmann BSW 298; Holthausen 
AEEW 151, AMIV 104; Walde-Hofmann 
I 303-304; Pokorný I 612; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 62-63; Frisk I 760-761; Vries 
AMEW 206; Zalizniak II 227; Onions 
430; Vasmer-Trubachev III 7 1 3; Puhvel 
IV 18; Kluge-Seebold 351. 

*xalojanan wk.vb.: OFris halia 'to calT, 
OS halon id., OHG halon id. Identical 
with Lat calo 'to call', further related 
to Hitt kaleš- id., Gk Kareto id. Torp- 
Falk 83; Walde-Hofmann I 141-142; 
Pokorný I 548-549; Frisk I 763-764; 
Onions 424; Seebold 253-254; Kluge- 
Seebold 380. 

*xalón sb.m.: ON hali 'tail'. Closely re- 
lated to Skt šala- 'staff', Mír cail 'spear'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 182; Torp-Falk 82; 
Mayrhofer III 313-314; Pokorný I 
552; Vries AMEW 204. 

*xalsa-bainan sb.n.: ON fem. háls-beina 
'neckbone', MLG hals-ben id., OHG hals- 
bein id. Compound of *xalsaz and *bainan. 
Carr Mom. comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*xalsa-fan3an sb.n.: ON háls-fang 'em- 
bracing', OE heals-fan^ 'compensation 
paid by one sentenced to the pillory', 
OFris hals-fang 'rape'. Compound of *xal- 
saz and *jan^an ~ *fanxan. Carr Mom. 
comp. 72 (parallel formations). 

*xalsa-manjan sb.n.: ON háls-men 'neck- 
lace', OE mase. heals-mene id., OLG 
hals-meni id. Compound of *xalsaz and 
*manjan. Carr Mom. comp. 48. 

*xalsaz sb.m.: Goth hals 'neck', ON háls 
id., OE heals id., OFris hals id., OS hals 




id., OHG hals id. Together with Lat col- 
lus, collum id. and Mír coll 'head, chief' 
continues IE *k"olso- (Falk ANF XLI 
120). No traces of the initial *k"- in Gmc 
(Noreen IF IV 320-321). Solmsen K'Z 
XXXIV 547 (follows Noreen); Stokes IF 
XII 187 (on the Irish form); Tor- 
bjórnsson Festschr. Noreen 257; Zupitza 
Gutt. 50, 106; Torp-Faek 82; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 151; Walde-Hofmann I 
245; Feist 241-242; Krahe SuV 75; 
Porzig Gliederung 1 1 3; Pokorný I 639- 
640; Chemodanov SGGJa I 88; Vries 
ANEW 206; Zalizniak I 132; Lehmann 
GED 175; Keuge-Seebold 351. 

*xalsjan sb.n.: ON helsi 'collar', MHG 
helse id. Derived from *xalsaz. Vries 
ANEW 221. 

*xals5janan vvk.vb.: ON hálsa 'to em- 
brace', OS helsian id., OHG halson, halsen 
id. Derived from *xahaz. Vries ANEW 

*xaltaz adj.: Goth halts 'crippled, lamě', 
ON haltr id., OE healt id., OFris halt 
id., OS halt id., OHG halz id. Related to 
Arm kat lamě', Gk keXXÓv axpepXóv, 
jtXáyiov (Hes.), Olr co// 'destruction, 
ruin'. ZuprrzA Gutt. 107; Torp-Falk 
84; Feist 242-243; Holthausen AEEW 
152; Karsten MB I 41; Sutterlfn IF 
XXV 67 (to Lat claudus 'lamě'); Walde- 
Hoffmann I 231 (to Skt khoda- 'limping, 
lamě', Lat claudus); Speoht 130 (to Russ 
koldyka 'lamě person'); Trier Holz 49 (to 
*xultaň)\ Pokorný I 547; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 85; Vries ANEW 206; Onions 
425; Lehmann GED 175 (from *M-, 
*klád- 'to strike'; originál meaning in 
Gmc: *'broken bones'); Heidermanns 

*xaltín sb.f: ON helti 'lameness', OFris 
strump-helte 'lameness cause by mutila- 
tion', OS spuri-helti 'limping', OHG sěr- 
halzi 'disability caused by injury'. Derived 
from *xaltaz. Heidermanns 276. 

*xaltjanan wk.vb.: ON heltask 'to become 
halť, OHG ir-helzen 'to lamě'. Derived 
from *xaltaz. Heidermanns 276. 

*xaljíaz adj.: ON hallr 'sloping, leaning to 

one side', OE heald 'bent, inclineď, OFris 
north-hald 'directed northwards', OS hold 
'inclined, merciful', OHG hald 'bent 
down'. Related to *xaldanan (cf. also *xal- 
panan > OSwed halla 'to hold'). Torp- 
Falk 82-83; Holthausen AWN 104 (to 
Skt kátaka- 'bracelet, ring', Lith at-kalte 
'back'), AEEW 151; Pokorný I 552 (to 
Lith šalis 'side'); Vries ANEW 205; 
Onions 434; Lehmann GED 403; Hei- 
dermanns 276-277; Kluge-Seebold 350; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*xalj)ín sb.f: Goth wilja-halpei 'partisan- 
ship, partiality', OHG uo-haldi 'steep 
pláce'. Derived from *xalpaz. Feist 563; 
Vries ANEW 205; Onions 434; Heider- 
manns 276. 

*xalj)janan wk.vb.: ON helia 'to pour ouť, 
OE hyldan 'to incline, to benď, OS af-hel- 
dian 'to cease', OHG gi-helden 'to incline, 
to tilť. Derived from *xalpaz. Zupitza 
Gutt. 1 1 3; Torp-Falk 83; Holthausen 
AEEW 158; Vries ANEW 221; Heider- 
manns 277. 

*xalj5ojanan wk.vb.: ON halla 'to lean 
sideways', OHG haldon 'to be tilted, to 
benď. Derived from *xalpaz. Torp-Falk 
82-83; Heidermanns 277. 

*xamalaz I sb.m.: ON prop. Hamali, 
MLG hamel 'wether', MHG hamal id. 
Substantivized *xamalaz II. Torp-Falk 
73; Holthausen AWN 105 (to Skt neut. 
sámala- 'stain, spot, faulť), AEEW 152; 
Pokorný I 929; Vries ANEW 206-207 
(to IE *skep- 'to cuť); Heidermanns 277; 
Fvluge-Seebold 353. 

*xamalaz II adj.: ON hamal-kyrni 'a 
kind of seeď, OHG hamal 'mutilateď. 
Identical with Slav *komoh> 'hornless' 
(Schulze K^ XL 259), further connected 
with *kom~b 'lump'. Karsten NB II 233; 
Berneker I 554 (against Schulze); Torp- 
Falk 73; Meillet MSL XIV 376; Wiss- 
mann AWNP 97-98 (secondary derivative 
of *xamalojari); Pokorný I 929; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa X 174—175; Heidermanns 
277; Kluge-Seebold 353. 

*xamal5janan wk.vb.: ON hamla 'to 
mutilate', OE hamelian id., OFris homelia 




id., OHG bi-hamalon 'to cut, to strike'. 
Derived from *xamalaz II. Torp-Falk 
73; Holthausen AEE]\' 148; Heider- 
manns 277; Kluge-Seebold 353. 

*xam(a)15n sb.f.: ON hamla 'oar-loop', 
OHG hamila 'satyrion, orchis'. Related to 
Lith kamblys 'leafless stock', Slav *komblb 
'butt-end (of a tree)'. Further cf. *xamalaz 
II. Fraenkel 213; Vries AME1 V 2 7 (to 
Gk Kiinetí; id.). 

*xamaraz sb.m.: ON hamán 'hammer', 
OE hamor, hamer id., OFris hamer, homer 
id., OS hamar, hamur id., OHG hamar id. 
With a metathesis of the anlaut similar to 
that of slav *kamy, continues a thematic 
derivative of IE *ak-men- 'stone': *akmoros 
identical with Skt ašmará- 'stony' (Streit- 
berg IF II 419). Thus, the originál mean- 
ing of the Germanic word was 'stone 
hammer'. Pedersen KZ XXXII 247; 
Detter ZPADL XLII 57 (to *xamala Z II, 
cf. Lat saxum 'large stone, rock' ~ seco 'to 
cuť); Zupitza Gutt. 108; Torp-Falk 74; 
Gůntert WitS XI 140 (to *xamalaz II 
with a secondary attraction to *ak-men-), 
Labyrinth 21 (to pre-Gk Kanápa 'covered 
carriage, vaulted chamber'); Holthausen 
AEE1T 149; Fraenkel KZ LXIII 
183-184; Mayrhofer I 60; Pokorný I 
19; Vries ANEW 207; Zalizniak I 132; 
Onions 425; Stang LS 25; Schelesniker 
Festschr. Olberg 23-26; Maher JIES I 
441-442; Kluge-Seebold 352-353. 

*xamaz sb.m.: ON hamr 'skin, shape', OE 
ham 'covering, garment, shirť, hamá 'cov- 
ering', MLG ham id., OHG hamo 'fishing- 
neť. Probably related to Skt šarm 
'Prosopis spicigera' (Zupitza BB XXIV 
182) and further to *kem- 'to cover'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 182; Torp-Falk 74; 
Holthausen AEE\V 148; Mayrhofer 
IE 299; Pokorný I 556; Vries ANEW 

*xam(e)stró sb.f: OS hamustra 'curculio, 
corn-weevil', OHG hamustra 'hamster'. 
Probably borrowed from Lat comestor 
'glutton' (Murianov Etim. 1983 105). 
However, the obvious connection with 
Slav *xoměstor~b 'hamster' remains un- 

clear. Fick BB II 266 (to Lat cumera 
'chest, box' < *komeso-); Berneker I 395 
(< Slav); Fraenkel 896; Onions 425. 

*xamfaz adj.: Goth hamfs 'mutilated, 
maimeď, OS haf 'witír crippled hands', 
OHG hamf 'mutilated'. Related to Olr 
camm 'crooked, benť and further to Gk 
Kaunri 'benď, Lat campus 'fielď < *'bend- 
ing', Lith kařhpas 'corner, edge', Slav 
*kqp~b 'hill, island' (Saussure Recueil 598). 
Dtefenbach V1V II 529-531 (to Gk 
kojitq) 'to strike'); Schroder lig. Anz. 
XXVI 59 (to ON hnafa 'to cut off'); 
Aufderhaar Líhnw. 21-22 (WGmc < 
Goth); Zupitza Gutt. 1 08; Torp-Falk 74- 
75; Walde-Hofmann I 148-149; Feist 
243; Pokorný I 525; Fraenkel 213-214; 
Frisk I 774-775; Trubachev ESSJa XII 
56-57; Lehmann GED 175-176; Puh\t;l 
IV 61-63 (adds Hitt kappi- 'small, littíe' 
<? *kampi-); Heidermanns 278. 

*xam(m)in3az sb.m.: ON hemingr 'skin of 
the hide shanks', prop. Hemingr; OE 
hemrnins 'a kind of shoe', OFris hemminge 
'leather wear, shoe', OHG prop. Haming. 
Derivedfrom *xam(m)o. YmjíMVA 1919, 
133; Holthausen AEESY 155; Vries 

*xam(m)janan wk.vb.: ON hemja 'to 
restrain, to hold back', OE hemman id., 
OFris hemma 'to mutilate', MDu hemmen 
'to slow down', OHG gi-hemmen 'to 
humiliate'. Derived from *xam(m)ó. 
Zupitza Gutt. 108; Lowenthal KZ 
XLVII 146 (to Gk kiÍhoq 'a kind of 
planť, Slav *konb 'horše'); Torp-Falk 74; 
Holthausen AEE]V 155; Pokorný I 555; 
Vries AJÍE]V 222; Kluge-Seebold 369. 

*xam(m)5 sb.f: ON hqm 'ham', OE ham 
id., MLG ham(m)e id., MHG hamme id. 
From *xanmo < *komma, an ablaut vari- 
ant of *knama: Gk kviÍhti 'leg, shank', Olr 
cnáim 'bone' (Fick KZ I 368-369). 
Torp-Falk 74; Holthausen AEEW 148; 
Pokorný I 613-614; Frisk I 883; Vries 
ANEW 279; Zalizniak II 225; Onions 

*xam(u)laz sb.m.: Norw dial. humul 'bar', 
MHG hamel 'bar, roď. Related to 




*xam(a)lb~n. Torp-Falk 74 (to Gk ícánai; 
'vine-pole, pole, shafť). 

*xan(a)paz sb.m.: ON hampr 'hemp', OE 
hienep id., OS hanup id., OHG hanaf, hanif 
id. An early borrowing from Lat cannabis 
id. < Gk KíivvapK; id. Hoops ]Vald~ 
bdume 472—473 (from Scythian or Thra- 
cian); Lewy IF LIII 122; Torp-Falk 70; 
Holthausen AEEW 145; Vries AMEW 
208; Zalizniak II 187; Onions 436 
(related to Lat cannabis); Kluge-Seebold 

*xanda3az ~ *xanctÍ3az ~ *xan<iu3az 
adj.: Goth handugs 'wise', Norw hendig 
'deft, adroit, quick', OE list-hendi^ 'having 
skilful hands', OHG hantag, hantig 'wise'. 
Derived from *xanduz (Meillet MSL LX 
49). Kern TMTL XX 245-246; Grien- 
berger Got. 110 (to Lidi kandiis 'snappy, 
acrimonious'); Blankenstein IF XXI 
115; Zupitza Gutt. 206; Zupitza Gutt. 
206; Torp-Faek 71; Feist 244; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 155; Kluge Mom. Stamm 
100 (to Gk kevtÉco 'to prick'); Feist 
244; Pokorný I 567; Meid Wortbild. 192; 
Lehmann GED 176 (follows Kluge); 
Heidermanns 278-279. 

*xanda3Ín ~ *xandu3in sb.f: Goth han- 
dugei 'wisdom', OHG hantagi 'sharpness, 
agony, pain'. Derived from *xanda^az ~ 
*xandi$az ~ *xanduyiz. Feist 244; Hei- 
dermanns 279. 

*xandjanan wk.vb.: ON henda 'to catch, 
to piek up', OE 3e-hendan 'to hold', OFris 
henda, handa 'to catch'. Derived from *xan- 
duz. Holthausen AEE1V 155; Vries 
AMEW 222; Seebold 255. 

*xandlan ~ *xandló sb.n./f: OE handle 
'handle', MLG hantel id., OHG hantilla 
'towel'. Derived from *xanduz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 149; Onions 426. 

*xandl5janan wk.vb.: ON hqndla 'to han- 
dle, to manage', OE handlian 'to feel, to 
handle', OFris handelia, hondelia 'to han- 
dle', OS handlon 'to act, to deal', OHG 
hantalon 'to handle, to feel'. Derived from 
*xandlan ~ *xandlo. Holthausen AEE1 1 ' 
149; Vries ANEU t 208; Onions 426; 
Kluge-Seebold 353. 

*xandu-banón sb.m.: ON hand-bani 
'homicide', OE hand-bana id., OS hand- 
bano id. Compound of *xanduz and 
*banon. Carr Mom. comp. 48. 

*xandu-lamaz adj.: ON hand-lami 'with 
a lamě hanď (rastem), OHG hant-lam 
id. Compound of *xanduz and Hamaz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 90 (parallel formations). 

*xandu-lausaz adj.: ON hand-lauss 'with- 
out hands', OFris hand-las id., MHG 
hande-los id. Compound of *xanduz and 
Hausaz. Carr Mom. comp. 89 (parallel 

*xandu-ma3enan sb.n.: ON hand-megin 
'strength of hand, strength', OE hand- 
m&sen id., OS hand-magan id. Compound 
of *xaniuz and *masenan. Carr Mom. 
comp. 48. 

*xandu-saxsan sb.n.: ON hand-sax 'short 
sworď, OE hand-seax id., OHG *hand-sahs 
id. (> Fr hansart). Carr Mom. comp. 49. 

*xandu-werkan sb.n.: ON hand-verk 
'handiwork', OE hand-weorc id., OS hand- 
werk id., OHG hant-werc id. Compound of 
*xanduz and *werkan. Carr Mom. comp. 
72 (parallel formations). 

*xandu-wurxtaz adj.: Goth handu-waurhts 
'handmade', OE hand-worht id. Com- 
pound of *xanduz and *wurxtaz. Feist 
245; Carr Mom. comp. 88 (calque of Gk 
X£ip07toir|TÓi; in Godi and of Lat manufac- 
tum in OE); Velten JEGP XXLX 349 
(calque on Greek); Lehmann GED 177. 

*xančtuz sb.f: Goth handus 'hanď, ON 
hqnd id. (root stem), OE hand id., OFris 
hand, hond id., OS hand 'side', OHG hant 
'hanď. Derived from *xenpanan (Grimm 
DG 35), cf. Lidi ranka 'hanď ~ renkú, 
riňkti 'to gather'. Loewenthal AMF 
XXXIII 123-124 (to Slav *č í ú 'to 
begin'); Zupitza Gutt. 183; Torp-Falk 
71; Holthausen AEEW 149; Feist 
244-245; Fraenkel 736; Vries AMEW 
281; Zalizniak II 208; Onions 425; 
Wagner ZfceltPh XXXII 76-77; Seebold 
255; Markey JIES XII 261-292; Huld 
120 (to Alb thua ~ thue 'nail'); Lehmann 
GED 176-177; Bammesberger Mom. 
155-156; Kluge-Seebold 353. 




*xan3Janan wk.vb.: ON hengja 'to hang 
up, to suspenď, OFris hingia id., OHG 
ir-henken id. Causative of *xanxanan ~ 
*xan3anan. Vries AMEW 222; Seebold 
250; Lehmann GED 168. 

*xanxan sb.n.: Goth faura-hah 'curtain', 
OHG bruoh-hah 'belt, girdle'. Derived 
from *xanxanan ~ *xan^anan. Feist 145; 
Seebold 250. 

*xanxanan ~ *xan3anan str.vb.: Goth 
hahan 'to hang, to make hang', ON hanga 
id., OE han id., OFris hua id., OS hahan 
id., OHG hahan id. Related to Hitt 
kaňka-, kankiya- id. (Sturtevant Language 
VII 172). Probably further connected with 
Skt šáňkate 'to doubt, to fear', Lat cúnctor 
'to hesitate', cf. with a similar metaphoric 
usage Goth saiwala unsare hahis (John 10: 
24). Meillet MSL XV 351-352 (pho- 
netics of Goth); Torp-Falk 70; Feist 
230-231; Holthausen AEEW 169; 
Walde-Hofmann I 307; Jóhannesson 
IEW 207-208; Mayrhofer III 290; 
Pokorný I 566; Vries AMEW 208 (to 
*xakon); Kammenhuber KZ LXXVII 63 
(on Hitt); Onions 426; Seebold 249-250; 
Lehmann GED 168; Puhvel IV 48-51; 
Kluge-Seebold 354-355. 

*xanxa-sin(a)w6 sb.f.: ON há-sin 
'Achilles' tendon, hamstring', OE hóh-sinu 
id., OFris hoxene id., MDu haes-sene id., 
OHG hah-sina. Compound of *xanxaz 
II and *sin(a)wó. Torp-Falk 67; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 168; Carr Mom. comp. 49; 
Vries AMEW 213; Lehmann GED 168; 
Kluge-Seebold 346. 

*xanxaz I sb.m.: Run dat. sg. hahai 
'courser', OHG háh-, hang- (in prop.). 
Related to Gk kt|kÍco 'to gush, to bub- 
ble forth', Lith šoku, šókti 'to spring, to 
dance' < *(s)kek-. Or samé as *xanxaz II? 
Pokorný I 522; Fraenkel 1021-1022; 
Frisk I 838. 

*xanxaz II sb.m.: ON há-mót 'ankle-joinť, 
OE hóh 'heef. Related to Lith kinka 
'leg, thigh, knee-cap' (Zupitza Gutt. 
115). Torp-Falk 67 (to Lat coxa 'hip'); 
Petersson IF XXXV 271-272; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 168; Pokorný I 566; 

Fraenkel 239; Vries AMEW 199; 
Onions 434; Stang LS 27-28; Kluge- 
Seebold 346; Dybo BSA 20. 

*xanxěnan ~ *xan3ěnan wk.vb.: Goth 
hahan 'to hang', ON hanga id. (part of 
forms), OE hanjian id., OFris hangia id., 
OS hangon id., OHG hangěn id. Derived 
from *xanxanan ~ *xan^anan. ON há 'to 
wear (by sickness or work), to make 
depenď < *xanxenan belongs here rather 
than to Lith kaňka 'pain' (despite Zupitza 
Gutt. 111, 132). Zupitza Gutt. 133; 
Torp-Falk 70; Holthausen AEEW 149; 
Feist 230-231; Vries AMEW 200; 
Seebold 250. 

*xanxilaz ~ *xanxilon sb.m.: ON htell 
'heel', OE héla id., OFris hěla id., MDu 
hiel, hiele id. Derived from *xanxaz II. 
Cf. similar forms in Skt kaňkala- 'scrag, 
shelf, Lith kenkle 'knee-cap'. Meringer 
IF XVII 121 (ON fusll to OHG huohill 
'small plow'); Zupitza Gutt. 115; Torp- 
Falk 67, 70; Holthausen AEEW 167; 
Mayrhofer I 137; Fraenkel 239; Vrles 
AMEW 209-210, 276; Onions 434; 
Lehmann GED 189; Kluge-Seebold 346; 
Dybo BSA 20. 

*xanxistaz ~ *xan3Ístaz sb.m.: ON 
hestr 'stallion', OE hen^est 'horše, steeď, 
OFris hanxt, hengst, hingst id., MDu henxt 
id., OHG hengist 'gelding'. Cf. Celt 
*kankstiká 'maře': W caseg, Bret pl. kezeg, 
OCorn cassec (from Gmc?). Superlative 
of *xanxaz I. Sperber WuS VI 21 (to 
MHG hagen 'draught animal'); Schrader- 
Nehring I 626 (to Lat cant(h)erius 'geld- 
ing, ass, mule' < *canctirius); Torp-Falk 
70; Holthausen AEEW 155; Pokorný I 
522 (to Lith šankús 'quick, fasť); Vries 
AMEW 226; Zalizniak II 227; Onions 
436; Rasmussen APIIKU rV 140; Kluge- 
Seebold 369. 

*xanxuz sb.m.: ON hár 'thole'. Identical 
with Skt šankú- 'peg, spike', cf. also Slav 
*sqkb 'branch'. Zupitza Gutt. 798; 
Torp-Falk 70; Sperber ]\'uS VI 20 (to 
ON hagr 'handy, skilful'); Zupitza Gutt. 
133, 184; Mayrhofer III 290; Pokorný 
I 523; Vries AMEW 209 (to *xoxon); 




Vasmer-Trubachev III 798; Lehmann 
GED 189. 

*xank5 sb.f.: ON hqnk 'hank, coil', mase. 
hanki 'hasp, clasp', MLG hank 'handle'. 
See *xakBn. Torp-Falk 67 (to Lith kéngé 
'hook'); Fraenkel 255 (Lith kéngé < 

*xanon sb.m.: Gouh hana 'cock, rooster', 
ON hani id., OE hana id., OFris hana, hona 
id., OS hano id., OHG hano id. Cf. also 
WGmc *xan(n)jo > OE han, hen 'hen', 
OFris henne id., MLG henne id., OHG 
henna id. Originally, a 'singer', cf. Gk 
ř|i-Kavó<; 'rooster'. Further connected 
with Lat cano 'to sing', Olr canim id. 
Unwerth PBB XXXVI 23; Mar- 
strander NTS III 247, VII 335- 
337; Zupitza Guit. 108; Brugmann IF 
XXXVII 249-253; Suolahti DVN 228- 
242; Torp-Falk 69; Holthausen AEEW 
149, 155; Walde-Hofmann I 154-155; 
Feist 243-244; Porzig Gliederung 200; 
Pokorný I 525-526; Frisk I 626; Vries 
ANEW 208; Zalizniak I 153; Onions 
436; Lehmann GED 176; Bammesberger 
Nom. 176-177; Kluge-Seebold 348. 

*xanso sb.f.: Goth hansa 'troop, cohort, 
crowď, OE hós 'company, band', MLG 
hanse 'company', OHG hansa 'cohort, 
company'. May be compared with Skt 
šámsati 'to praise, to declare, to vow', Lat 
cénseo 'to tax, to assess' (Zupitza Gutt. 
109). Bugge PBB XII 418-419 (from 
IE *kom-sed- 'to sit together'); Osthoff 
PBB XIII 425-426 (from *kon-d-td, to 
*dS- 'to give'); Wiedemann BB XXVII 
212 (to *xenpanari); Zupitza Gutt. 109; 
Torp-Falk 71; Meissner apud Feist (to 
*xunslan); Helm PBB XXLX 194-196; 
Kaufmann Z dph XXXVIII 238-240; 
Schnetz apud Lehmann GED \11 (to Lat 
scandula 'shingle', from IE *(s)kend- 'to 
split up, to strew'); Rooth ]\ T ortst. 168 
(follows Meissner); Holthausen AEEW 
171; Walde-Hofmann I 198-200; Feist 
245-246; Mayrhofer III 284-285 (sepa- 
rates Skt from Lat); Pokorný I 566; 
Zalizniak I 147; Onions 427; Ben- 
veniste IEL 63—65; Lehmann GED 177; 

Bammesberger Nom. 116 (to *xenpanan); 
Kluge-Seebold 355. 

*xantjanan wk.vb.: ON henta 'to fiť, OE 
hentan 'to pursue, to folio w'. Unclear. 
Holthausen AEEJ\ t 155; Vries ANEW 
222; Onions 441, 453 (to *xenpanan). 

*xappan sb.n.: ON happ 'good luck'. Cf. 
a derivative in OE htsp-líc 'equal'. 
Compared with Olr cob Victory', Lith 
kabus 'tenacious, prehensile', Slav *kobb 
'omen, fortuně telling', *koba 'premoni- 
tion' (Schachmatov AfslPh XXXIII 90). 
Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 116; Torp-Falk 74 
(reconstruct *xampan); Pokorný I 610; 
Fraenkel 200-201; Vries ANEW 542; 
Fraenkel 200; Onions 427; Trubachev 
ESSJaX 101. 

*xarfoistu-měnóbz ~ *xarfoustu- 
měnóbz sb.m.: ON haust-mánudr 
'autumn month, September', OE hierfest- 
mónad id., OHG herbist-manod id. Com- 
pound of *xarbistuz ~ *xarbustuz and 
*ménopz. Carr Nom. comp. 72 (parallel 

*xarbistuz ~ *xarfoustuz sb.m.: ON 
haust 'autumn' (neut.), haustar-tími 'au- 
tumn period' (reflects old mase), OE 
hierjest 'harvest, autumn', OFris herjst id., 
OHG herbist id. Derived from IE *karp — 
*kerp-\ Hitt karp-, karap- 'to piek, to pluck' 
(Sturtevant Language VI 155—156), Lat 
carpo id., Gk Kapitó^ 'fruiť (Hirt IF 
XXXVII 233-234). Cf. *xarfa Z from 
which *xarbistaz can be formally derived. 
Brugmann IF XXVIII 373 (to Lat castro 
'to emasculate, to prune' < *carp(i)stro); 
Zupitza Gutt. 114; Torp-Falk 79; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 145; Walde-Hofmann I 
172-173; Pokorný I 944; Vries ANEW 
214; Frisk I 792-793; Zalizniak II 168; 
Onions 429; Puhvel IV 91-98; Kluge- 
Seebold 370. 

*xardin sb.f: ON herdi 'hardihooď, OHG 
hertz 'rigidity'. Derived from *xarduz. 
Heidermanns 281. 

*xardin ~ *xardjó sb.f: ON pl. heriar 
'shoulder, OHG harti id. Derived from 
*xariuz (Hellouist ANF VII 29) and his- 
torically identical widi *xardín. Schmidt 




Vok. II 25 (to Russ pl. *kortyški 'shoul- 
ders' — but this form does not exist); 
Hirt PBB XXIII 351 (to Lat cartilago 
'cartilage'); Zupitza Gutt. 115 (follows 
Sohmidt); Torp-Falk 78 (follow 
Schmidt); Lané JEGP XXXII 293 (to IE 
*sker- 'to cuť); Vries AMEW 223. 

*xarďjanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-hardjan 'to 
harden', ON herda 'to temper (of iron), to 
clench, to fasten', OE hyrdan 'to make 
harď, OFris herda 'to strengthen', OS her- 
dian id., OHG herten 'to harden'. Derived 
from *xarduz. Holthausen AEEW 159; 
Feist 246; Vries AMEW 223; Onions 
427; Lehmann GED 177; Heidermanns 

*xardót adv.: ON haria 'very', OE hearde 
'severely, very much', OFris herdě 'very', 
MLG herdě id., OHG harto id. Derived 
from *xarduz. Lehmann GED 177. 

*xardu-xertaz adj.: Goth deriv. hardu- 
hairtei 'hard-heartedness', OE heard-hcort 
id. Compound of *xarduz and *xerton. 
Feist 246; Lehmann GED 177. 

*xardu-líkaz adj.: ON harí-ligr 'hard, 
severe', OE heard-líc id., OHG hart-líh 
'tenacious'. Derived from *xarduz. Hei- 
dermanns 281. 

*xardu-rěďaz adj.: ON hard-ráSr 'hard in 
counsel, tyrannical', OE heard-rtéd 'stead- 
fast, firm'. Compound of *xariuz and 
*rliaz. Carr Mom. comp. 95 (parallel 

*xarduz adj.: Goth hardus 'hard', ON 
hardr id., OE heard 'hard, austere, stern, 
firm', OFris adv. herdě 'firmly, very', OS 
hard 'hard', OHG hart id. Related to 
Lith kartits 'bitter', Slav *kort-~t>tt> 'shorť. 
Karsten MB II 361-362; Zupitza 
Gutt. 109; Meillet Etudes II 325; Torp- 
Falk 78; Feist 246-247; Holthausen 
AEEW 152; Walde-Pokorny I 354; 
Pokorný I 531; Chemodanov SGGJa 
I 109; Fraenkel 225; Frisk II 9-10; 
Vries AMEW 210-211; Onions 427; 
Benveniste IEL 366-367; Strunk MSS 
XXXrV 169-170 (on the comparison 
with Gk Kparúi; 'strong'); Trubaohev 
ESSJa XI 104; Lehmann GED 177; 

Bammesberger JVom. 262; Heidermanns 
280-282; Kluge-Seebold 358. 

*xarfaz sb.m.: ON prop. Harfr, Swed harv 
'harrow'. Related to Gk Kapnou 'fruiť, 
Kpróniov 'sickle', Lat carpo 'to piek, to 
pluck', Mír corrán 'sickle'. Torp-Falk 
79; Walde-Hofmann I 172-173; Trier 
Holi 70; Pokorni- I 944; Vries AMEW 
211; Frisk I 792-793. 

*xari-fardiz sb.f: ON her-ferd 'military 
expedition', OFris here-ferd id., OS here- 
vart id., OHG heri-fart id. Compound of 
*xariz ~ *xarjaz and *fardiz. Carr Mom. 
comp. 73 (parallel formations). 

*xari-fulkan sb.n.: ON her-fólk 'men of 
war', OE here-folc 'people forming an 
army', OFris hiri-folk 'men of war'. Com- 
pound of *xariz ~ *xarjaz and *fulkan. 
Carr Mom. comp. 49. 

*xari-xurnan sb.n.: ON her-horn 'trum- 
pet', OHG heri-hom id. Compound of 
*xariz ~ *xarjaz and *xurnan. Carr Mom. 
comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*xari-mannz sb.m.: ON her-madr 'war- 
rior', OE here-mann 'soldier', MDu her- 
man id., OHG heri-man id. Compound of 
*xariz ~ *xarjaz and *mannz. Carr Mom. 
comp. 49. 

*xari-skelduz ~ *xari-skeldiz sb.m.: 
ON her-skjqldr 'war-shielď (if not from 
MLG), MLG her-schilt id., MHG her- 
schilt 'shield as a sign of a levý'. Com- 
pound of *xariz ~ *xarjaz and *skelduz ~ 
*skeldiz. Carr Mom. comp. Ti (parallel 

*xari-skipan sb.n.: ON her-skip 'warship', 
OHG heri-skif id. Compound of *xaúz ~ 
*xaijaz and *skipan. Carr Mom. comp. 83 
(parallel formations). 

*xari-we3az sb.m.: ON her-vegr 'war 
padl', OE here-wes 'highway', OFris here- 
wei 'war patíi', MLG her-wech id., MHG 
her-wec id. Compound of *xariz ~ *xarjaz 
and *we^az. Carr Mom. comp. 49. 

*xari-wěčtiz sb.f.: ON pl. her-nádir 
'armor', OE here-wéd id. Cf. also MLG 
neut. here-wade id. Compound of *xaúz ~ 
*xarjaz and *wediz. Carr Mom. comp. 73 
(parallel formations). 




*xari-wěpnan sb.n.: ON her-vápn 'wea- 
pon', OE here-wdpen id. Gompound of 
*xariz ~ *xarjaz and *wepnan. Carr 
Mom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xari-w5pan ~ *xari-wópaz sb.n./m.: 
ON her-óp 'war-cry', OE here-wóp 'shout 
raised by an army'. Compound of *xaúz 
~ *xaijaz and *wopan ~ *wopaz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xariz ~ *xarjaz sb.m.: Goth harjis 
'army', ON herr 'host, people, army', OE 
here 'army', OFris here id., OS heri id., 
OHG neut. heri id. Related to Mír cuire 
'crowď, Lith karias 'army, war', OPrus 
kargis 'army'. Neckel KZ LX 284 
(*Hari- as a deky in ancient prop. dat. 
Hari-gasti); Zupitza Gutt. 109; Torp-Falk 
76; Specht KZ LX 130-138; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 157; Feist 247; Pokorný 
I 615-616; Buga III 950-951; Fraenkel 
220; Vries AMEW 224-225; Zaliznl\k II 
213; Onions 429; Benveniste IEL 91, 93, 
247; Toporov PJa III 221; Lehmann 
GED 177-178; Kxuge-Seebold 362-363. 

*xarjanaz sb.m.: ON Hetjann (Odin's epi- 
thet). Identical with Gk Koípavoc; 'king, 
head of the army' (Osthoff IF V 
275-277; Bugge PBB XXI 422), Phryg 
kuryan-eyon 'chief, king' (Lubotsky Kadmos 
XXVII/1 23). Furdrer connected with 
*xariz ~ *xarjaz. Torp-Falk 76; Specht 
KZ LX 130; Pokorný I 615; Vries 
AMEW 223-224; Frisk I 894-895; Leh- 
mann GED 178; Orel Phrygian 438. 

*xarjojanan wk.vb.: ON herja 'to harry, to 
despoil, to waste', OE her^ian 'to pillage, 
to plunder', OFris ur-heria 'to make raids', 
OS herión, herrón id., OHG herión, herron 'to 
plunder, to raiď. Derived from *xariz ~ 
*xarjaz. Torp-Falk 76; Holthausen 
AEEW 157; Vries AMEW 223; Onions 

*xarmaz I sb.m.: ON harmr 'sorrow, grief ', 
OE hearm 'harm, injury, grief, OFris herm 
'sorrow, grief, OS harm id., OHG harm 
id. Identical with Jšanma- 'shame', Slav 
*sormb id. (Meillet Etudes 428) and, fur- 
ther, with Lith šarma 'frosť (Larest Věstník 
LGUXN 150-153 with other examples 

of this semantic evolution). Kartsen MB 
II 245-246; Zupitza Gutt. 183-184; 
Meillet Etudes 428; Torp-Falk 79; 
Trautmann BS][ t 303; Holthausen 
AEE]V 152; Pokorný I 615; Fraenkel 
965; Vries AMEW 212; Zalizniak I 132; 
Onions 428; Vasmer-Trubachev III 
724; Koivulehto Festschr. Alinei 133-147; 
Kluge-Seebold 357. 

*xarmaz II adj.: ODan harm 'angry', OE 
hearm 'causing harm, grievous', OS harm 
'grievous'. See *xarmaz I. Heidermanns 

*xarmij35 sb.f: ON hermd 'vexation, 
anger', OHG harmida 'calamity'. Derived 
from *xarmaz I. Vries AME]V 224. 

*xarmojanan wk.vb.: ON harma 'to 
bewail', OE hearmian 'to harm, to hurt, to 
injure', OHG harmen 'to sadden'. Derived 
from *xarmaz I. Vries AME\ V 2 1 2 . 

*xarmón sb.m.: OE hearma 'shrewmouse 
(?)', OS harmo 'weasel, shrewmouse', 
OHG harmo id. Identical with Lith šarmuo, 
šermuo id. Torp-Falk 79; Trautmann 
BSW 300; Pokorný I 574; Fraenkel 
965; Kluge-Seebold 371. 

*xarpa-sla3Íz sb.m.: ON hqrpu-slagr 'strik- 
ing the harp', OE hearp-sleje id. Com- 
pound of *xarpon and *slasiz. A secondary 
composition vowel in ON. Carr Mom. 
comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xarpa-stren3az sb.m.: ON hqrpu-s, 
'harp string' (secondary -u-), OE 
střeny id. Compound of *xarpon and 
*stren3az. Carr Mom. comp. 81 (parallel 

*xarpón sb.f: ON harpa 'harp', OE hearpe 
id., OS harpa id., OHG harpfa id. Cf. also 
ON munn-harpa 'cramp in the mouth 
from colď. Related to Lat corbis 'basket', 
Lith kařbas id., Slav *korb'b ~ *korba id. 
Sperber ]\ r uS III 68—77 (to *xarfaz); 
Zupitza Gutt. 114, KZ XXXVI 65 (ON 
munn-harpa to Gk Kpá|rPoq 'dry'); Torp- 
Falk 78; Trautmann BS]V 1 1 7 — 
118; Holthausen AEEW 152; Walde- 
Hofmann I 272-273; Pokorný I 948 (to 
*(s)kerb- 'to turn, to benď); Fraenkel 
220; Vries AMEW 2\2 (ON munn-harpa to 




G dial. Harpf 'woman'); Zalizniak I 
155; Onions 428; Trubachev ESSJa 
XI 52-54; Lůhr Expr. 264-265; Kluge- 
Seebold 356—357. 

*xarskaz adj.: Norw dial. harsk 'with 
a hard voice', MLG harsch 'harsh, rough'. 
Derived from or related to *xariuz (Holt- 
hausen AWN 107). Karsten MB II 450; 
Torp-Falk 80; Pokorný I 532-533; 
Vries AMEW 212-213 (to Lith karšiú, 
kafšti 'to comb'); Puhvel IV 109 (to Hitt 
karši- 'harsh'); Heidermanns 282-283. 

*xaru3az sb.m.: ON hqrgr 'heathen altar of 
stones', OE hearj 'temple, idol', OHG 
harug 'holý grove, holý stone'. Borrowed 
from Continental Celt *karrika 'stone' 
(OW carrecc, OBret carrec) or, rather, from 
its non-IE source (Hubschmidt Pyren. 
31-32, 65-66). Noreen Abnfi 87, 829 
(to Lat carcer 'prison'); Meringer WuS X 
188 (samé as Noreen); Torp-Falk 77; 
Specht R'Z LXIV 12; Ekwall MASO III 
41 (to Swed dial. har 'stony grounď); 
Holthausen AEE1 \ r 152; Pokorný I 
532 (to IE *kar- 'hard'); Vries ANEl\ r 
281; Zalizniak I 132; Vendryes C-31; 
Friedrich Trees 150 (to OPrus karige 
'rowan-tree'); Bammesberger Mom. 156 
(< *xar3u£). 

*xarubaz sb.m.: ON pl. Hqrdar 'Hords, 
inhabitants of the Hardangerfjord in 
Norway', OE pl. Hďredas id. Also attested 
as Lat Harudes, Gk Xapo\>8e<;. Probably 
further related to WGmc *xarupaz 'foresť 
(OE harad, MHG hart). (Grienberger 
ZDADL XLVI 166). Torp-Falk 76-77; 
Holthausen AEE]V 145; Pokorný I 
532 (to Olr caur 'hero' < *karuts)\ Vries 
ANEW 29,1. 

*xasla-xnuts sb.f: Swed hassel-not 'hazel- 
nuť, OE htesel-hnutu id., MLG hasel-note 
id., OHG hasal-nuz id. Compound of 
*xaslaz and *xnutz. Garr Mom. comp. 49. 

*xaslaz sb.m.: ON hasl 'házel', OE hesel 
id., MDu hasel id., OHG hasal id. 
Identical with Lat corulus 'hazel-shrub, 
filbert-shrub' < *kosulo-, Olr coll 'házel', 
OW coll id. < *koslo-. (Zupitza Gutt. 206). 
Torp-Falk 76; Holthausen AEE]V 146; 

Walde-Hofmann I 280; Krahe SuV 80 
Porzig Gliederung 194; Pokorný I 616 
Vries AMEW 213; Zalizniak II 174: 
Onions 432; Kluge-Seebold 359. 

*xasnaz adj.: OHG hasan 'polished, fine'. 
Identical with Lat canus 'grey' < *kasno- 
(Weise BB II 289). Cf. also Hitt kaši- 
'shade of white'. Schwentner FB 80; 
Vasmer ZfilPh II 57-58 (adds Slav '''sosna 
'pine' < *'grey tree'); Walde-Hofmann 
I 156; Pokorný I 533; Puhvel IV 
119-120; Heidermanns 283-284. 

*xas5n ~ *xaz5n sb.m.: ON heri 'hare', 
OE hara id., OFris hasa id., MLG hase id., 
OHG haso id. Related to W ceinach id. < 
*kasi-n-ako-, OPrus sasins, cf. also Skt šašá- 
id. < *šasá- (Fórsterman KZ I 498) and 
Hitt gagastiia- 'hare (?)' (Puhvel TV 17). A 
taboo word based on the color adjective 
preserved in *xasnaz, *xaswaz. Zupitza 
Gutt. 183; Schwentner FB 79-80; 
Hendriksen IF LVI 27; Torp-Falk 76; 
Holthausen AEE]V 149; Porzig Glie- 
derung 197; Mayrhofer III 316-317, 
Sprache VII 181; Pokorný I 533; Chemo- 
danov SSGJa I 58; Vrtes ANEW 223; 
Zalizniak I 153; Onions 427; Kluge- 
Seebold 358-359. 

*xasp(j)5n sb.f: ON hespa 'hasp, fasten- 
ing', OE hcepse 'hasp, clasp', MLG haspe 
id. Unclear. Loewenthal ANF XXXV 
233 (to Slav *kosa); Petersson AfslPh 
XXXVI 137-138; Torp-Falk 71 (recon- 
struct *xaps-, to Lidi kabé 'small hook'); 
Holthausen AEE]\ t 156; Vries ANE\V 
225-226; Onions 430; Kluge-Seebold 

*xaswaz adj.: ON hqss 'grey', OE hasu 
id., MHG heswe 'pale, duli'. Related to 
*xasnaz. Schwentner FB 80; Torp- 
Falk 87; Holthausen AEEW 149; 
Pokorný I 533; Vries ANEW 282; 
Zalizniak I 153; Bammesberger Nom. 
244; Heidermanns 284; Hilmarsson Mat. 
156 (to Toch B kaswo 'eruption, inflam- 
mation of the skin'). 

*xatalaz ~ *xatulaz adj.: OESc of-hatul 
'extremely pleasanť, OE hatol, hetol 'hos- 
tile, evil', OS hatulo 'hate-filleď, OHG 




hazzal 'guileful, malicious'. Derived from 
*xataz ~ *xatez, *xatjanan. Holthausen 
AEEW 150; Heidermanns 284-285. 

*xataz ~ *xatez sb.m./n.: Goth hatis 
'hatred, anger', ON hatr id., OE hete id., 
OFris hat id., OS heti id., OHG haz id. 
Related to Toch A kat 'destruction', Av 
sádra- 'grief, sorrow', Ose cadeis 'enmity', 
Gk 10)805 'sorrow', Mír caiss 'hatreď. 
Zupitza Gutt. 184; Bartholomae 1570- 
1571; Torp-Falk 68-69; Holthausen 
AEEW 157; Feist 247-248; Ernout- 
Meillet 698 (to Lat odl 'to hatě' with 
a "preformant" *k); Pokorný I 517; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 87; Frisk I 
836-837; Zalizniak II 223; Onions 430; 
Lehmann GED 178; Bammesberger Nom. 
212; Keuge-Seebold 359. 

*xatjanan wk.vb.: Goth hatjan 'to hatě', 
OE hettan 'to hatě', MHG hetzen 'to 
pursue'. Derived from *xataz ~ *xatez. 
Torp-Falk 68; Holthausen AEE1V 158; 
Feist 248; Peeters K^GI 168; Lehmann 
GED 178; Kluge-Seebold 372. 

*xatěnan ~ *xatojanan wk.vb.: Goth 
hatan 'to hatě', ON hata id., OE hatian id., 
OFris hatia id., OS haton id., OHG hazzon 
id. Derived from *xataz ~ *xatez. Kuhn 
K~l I 95; Torp-Falk 68; Holthausen 
AEEW 150; Feist 247; Vries AMW 213; 
Onions 430; Lehmann GED 178. 

*xattuz sb.m.: ON hqttr 'hooď, OE hstt 
'hať, OFries hath 'hooď. Cf. also WGmc 
*xodaz > OE hód 'coat widr a hooď, OE 
hod 'hooď, OFris hod id., OS hod id., 
OHG huot id. Of unknown origin. 
Zupitza Gutt. 207; Torp-Falk 69 (to Lat 
cassis 'helmeť); Holthausen AEEW 146, 
167 [*xodaz to Lat cassis 'helm'); Pokorný 
1516; Vries ANEW 282; Onions 430, 
447; Kluge-Seebold 389-390. 

*xa|5(a)r5n sb.m.: OHG hadara 'lump', 
early G Hader 'quarrel'. Derived from 
*xapuz. Identical with Slav *kotera ~ 
*kotora 'quarrel' (Bugge K~ XXXII 49). 
Skt sátu- 'enemy' is derivationally less 
close. Zupitza KZ XXXVII 400; 
Uhlenbeck PBB XXVI 287 (to Arm kotor 
'serap, fragment'); Torp-Falk 69; May- 

rhofer III 294; Trubachev ESSJa XI 
200-201; Kluge-Seebold 346 (separates 
OHG from this etymon). 

*xajíuz sb.m./f: Burg *hapus 'íighť, ON 
hqd 'war, slaughter', theon. Hq&r, OE 
headu-deór 'brave, stout in war', OFris -had 
(in prop.), OS hathu- id. (in prop.), OHG 
prop. Hadu-wig id. Identical with Hitt 
kattu- 'spiteful', Olr cath id., Thrac uheon. 
Kóxtu; (Fick Spracheinh. 422). Torp-Falk 
69; Holthausen AEE]\ t 153; Detschew 
Thr. 258-259; Pokorný I 534; Vries 
ANEW 278-279; Frisk I 932; Kobler 
711; Puhvel IV 138-140; Kluge- 
Seebold 346; BouTKAN OFED s.v. 

*xaubudan ~ *xaubiďan sb.n.: Goth 
haubip 'heaď, ON haufud id., OE heáfod 
id., OFris haved, had id., OS hobid id., 
OHG houbit id. Secondary (taboo?) vari- 
ants of *xabuian (Noreen AJVF VI 310). 
Marstrander Kl. 25 (the first syllable 
influenced by the following -u-)\ Zupitza 
Gutt. 103; Torp-Falk 73; Holthausen 
AEEW 150; Feist 248; Pokorný I 530 
(analogical influence of *xúbon); Zaliz- 
niak I 141; Onions 432; Lehmann GED 
178-179; Bammesberger Mom. 215-216; 
Kluge-Seebold 360. 

*xau3az ~ *xau3an sb.m./n.: ON haugr 
'mound, cairn', OHG houg 'hilT. A vari- 
ant of *xauxaz with a different stress pat- 
tern. Close to Lith kaukas 'swelling, uleer', 
Slav *kuka 'hook' (Wood IF XVIII 35). 
Zupitza Gutt. 110; Torp-Falk 91; 
Trautmann BS]\ t 121-122; Fraenkel 
229-230; Vries ANEW 213-214; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa XIII 86-87; Heidermanns 
286; Kluge-Seebold 386. 

*xauxa-foer3an ~ *xauxa-ber3az 
sb.n.: ON há-bjarg 'high rock', OE 
héah-beor3 'high mountain'. Compound 
of *xauxaz and *ber^an ~ *ber^az. Carr 
Mom. comp. 86 (parallel formations). 

*xauxa-xertaz adj.: Goth hauh-hairts 
'haughty, prouď, OE heáh-heort id. Com- 
pound of *xauxaz and *xertaz (see *xerton). 
Feist 249; Carr JVom. comp. 94 (parallel 
formations); Lehmann GED 171, 179. 

*xauxa-líkaz adj.: ON há-ligr 'high, 




sublime', OE heá-lic 'high', OHG hoh-lih 
id. Derived from *xauxaz. Heidermanns 
*xauxa-saliz sb.m.: ON pl. há-salir 'high 
halí', OE heáh-sele id. Compound of 


*salaz. Carr Mo 

*xauxaz and 
comp. 58. 

*xauxa-stadiz sb.m.: ON há-staSr 'high 
pláce', OE heáh-stede id. Compound of 
*xauxaz and *stadiz. Carr Mom. comp. 58. 

*xauxaz adj.: Goth hauhs 'high', ON hár 
id., OE heáh id., OFris hach id., OS hoh 
id., OHG hoh id. Closely related to Toch 
A koc, B kauc 'high'. Further cf. Skt koca- 
'desiccation', kucati 'to curve', NPers koz 
'bent, crookeď, Lith kaiikas 'bump, swell- 
ing', Slav *kuka 'hook' (Wood IF XVIII 
35), Olr cúar 'crookeď < *kukro-. Kuhn 
KZ I 137; Schweizer KZ I 558, 560; 
Karsten MB I 62; Zupitza Gutt. 110, 
132; Torp-Faek 91; Feist 249; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 150; Mayrhofer I 269; 
Pokorný I 589; Fraenkel 229-230; 
Vries AVEIT 210; Onions 440; Stang LS 
27; Trubachev ESSJa XIII 86-87; 
Lehmann GED 179; Bammesberger Mom. 
237; Heidermanns 285-286; Kluge- 
Seebold 378; Adams TB 208; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*xauxibó sb.f.: Goth hauhipa 'heighť, ON 
hďd id., OE hihdo id., MDu hogede id., 
OHG hohida id. Derived from *xauxaz. 
Pipping SMFXIl/l 68 (ON < *xaxwipó); 
Torp-Falk 91; Holthausen AEE1V 158; 
Feist 249; Vries AMEW 276; Onions 
435; Lehmann GED 179; Bammesberger 
Mom. 117; Heidermanns 286. 

*xauxin sb.f.: Goth hauhei 'heighť, OS hóhi 
id., OHG holil id. Derived from *xauxaz. 
Feist 249; Lehmann GED 179; Heider- 
manns 286. 

*xauxjanan wk.vb.: Goth hauhjan 'to 
make high', OESc hoghia 'to raise', OE 
héan id., OFris haa id., OLG ir-hoen id., 
OHG gi-hohen id. Derived from *xauxaz. 
Structurally close to Slav *kučiti 'to touch, 
to gather'. Holthausen AEE]\ r 158; 
Feist 249; Trubachev ESSJa XIII 81; 
Lehmann GED 179; Heidermanns 286. 

*xaulaz ~ *xaulón sb.m./f: ON haull 
'rupture, hernia', OE heála 'rupture', 
OHG holá id. Related to Gk Kr|Xr| 'hump, 
hernia' < *kauela, Lith kula 'swelling', 
Slav *kyla 'hernia' (Solmsen KZ XXXI 
471). Zupitza Gutt, 110; Buga RFV 
LXXI 54; Torp-Faek 66; Fíretschmer 
KZ XXXI 471-473 (on Gk kt|A,ti); 
Trautmann BS] V 144; Holthausen 
AEEW 150; Pokorný I 536-537; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 109; Fraenkel 306; 
Frisk I 839-840; Vries A]\E] I' 2 1 4; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa XIII 262-263. 

*xaunaz adj.: Goth hauns 'low, humble', 
OE heán 'low, mean, abjecť, OFris hana 
'low, humble', OHG hdni 'shameful'. 
Close to Gk kcxwÓí;' kokÓi;, OK^ripóí;, 
kXtípoí; (Hes.), Latv kauns 'ignominy, 
shame'. Zupitza Gutt. 110 (to MHG 
huren 'to cower'); Torp-Falk 66; Feist 
249-250; Holthausen AEEW 152; 
Pisani KIL LXXVI/2 30 (to Toch A gaňi 
'shame'); Pokorný I 535; Frisk I 803; 
Chantraine 506; Stang LS 27; Lehmann 
GED 1 79; Bammesberger Mom. 246 (from 
*xawwanan); Heidermanns 286-287; 
Fvluge-Seebold 380. 

*xaunij}6 sb.f: Goui haunipa 'silence, 
humility', OE hýnd, hýndu 'abasement, 
humiliation', OFris hrnde 'injury', OS 
honitha 'ignominy, shame', OHG honida 
'disgrace'. Derived from *xaunaz. Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 159; Feist 249; Heider- 
manns 287. 

*xaunjanan wk.vb.: Goth haunjan 'to 
abase, to humiliate', OE hýnan 'to abuse, 
to humiliate', OFris hena 'to get over', OS 
gi-hónian 'to abase, to humiliate', OHG 
honěn id. Derived from *xaunaz. Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 159; Feist 249; Heider- 
manns 287. 

*xaupaz sb.m.: OE héap 'heap, pile, 
crowď, OFris háp id., OS hop id., OHG 
houf id. A phonetically irregular counter- 
part of IE *koupo- (with Gmc *-p- < IE 
*-p-?)'. Av kaofa- 'hilT, Lith kaupas id., Slav 
*kupa ~ *kupij 'heap, group (of trees)'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 22, 115; Bartholomae 
431; Torp-Falk 94-95 (< *koupn-)\ 




Holthausen AEE1 V 152; Pokorný I 
590-591 (thinks of a separate IE *keub-), 
591; Fraenkel 231; Zalizniak I 132; 
Onions 432; Stang LS 27 (to Lith kaúbras 
'hill'); Trubaohev ESSJa XIII 107-108; 
Kluge-Seebold 360. 

*xausaz sb.m.: ON hauss 'skuli'. Identical 
with Skt kosa- 'cupboard, treasury', Lith 
káušas 'skuli, laddle, scoop' (Hirt BB 
XXIV 278). Johansson IF XLX 125- 
1 33; Zupitza Gutt. 111; Mayrhofer I 
273; Pokorný I 953; Fraenkel 231-232; 
Vries /LVETI' 214. 

*xauzjanan ~ *xausjanan wk.vb.: 
Goth hausjan 'to hear', ON heyra id., OE 
hýran id., OFris hěra id., OS horian id., 
OHG hořen id. Related to Gk koÉco 'to 
notě', (ÍkoÚco 'to hear' with unclear 
á- (Delbrůgk K£ XVI 271), Lat causo 
'to také heeď. See *skawwojanan. Grien- 
berger Got. 111 (preposition *x- and 
main stem *ausjanan)\ Zupitza Gutt. 206; 
Torp-Falk 66; Holthausen AEE]V 159; 
Walde-Hofmann I 186-187; Feist 251- 
252; Pokorný I 587-588; Frisk I 890- 
891; Vries ANEW 226; Onions 433; 
Lehmann GED 180-181; Kluge-Seebold 

*xawjanan wk.vb.: ON heyja 'to execute, 
to perform', OE híe^an 'to perform'. 
Probably connected with *xawwanan. 
Zupitza Gutt. 122 (to Gk okeíioí; 'vessel, 
implemenť, Slav *kutiti); Torp-Falk 66; 
Holthausen AEEW 158; Vries ANEh r 
226; Van Windekens I 237-238 (to Toch 
A ktsets 'finished, perfecť, B ktsaitse 'old'). 

*xawwan sb.n.: ON hqgg 'stroke, blow', 
OE 3e-heáw 'striking together, gnashing'. 
Derived from *xawwanan. Holthausen 
AEEW 153; Vries ANEW 280; Seebold 

*xawwanan str.vb.: ON hqggva 'to strike, 
to smite', OE heáwan 'to cut, to hew', 
OFris hawa id., OS pret. ga-hio id., OHG 
houwan id. Related to Toch A ko-, B kau- 
'to kill', Lat cúdo 'to strike', Lith káuju, 
káuti id., Slav *kujq, *kovati 'to forge' 
(Bugge Á'~ XLX (1870) 414). Hirt BB 
XXIV 276; Zupitza Gutt. 122; Meillet 

MSL XIV 355; Torp-Falk 65-66; 
Trautmann BS]V 123; Holthausen 
AEEW 153; Walde-Hofmann I 300-301 
Jóhannesson IEW 177; Pokorný I 535 
Fraenkel 232; Vries ANEW 280 
Onions 439; Seebold 251; Lindeman 
Verschárfung 15.7; Lehmann GED 181; 
Kluge-Seebold 360; Adams TB 208 

*xawwjan sb.n.: Goth hawi 'hay', ON hey 
id., OE ácj id., OFries ha, hai, hě id., OS 
hói id., OHG hewi, hou id. Derived from 
*xawwanan (Pott apud Feist). The origi- 
nál meaning was 'cut grass'. Lidén 
Festschr. Bugge 94 (reconstructs *xa3wjan); 
Uhlenbeck PBB XXII 191 (to Slav 
*kovylb 'feather-grass, Stipa pennata'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 52, 75, 122; Torp-Falk 66; 
Holthausen AEEW 158; Feist 252; 
Pokorný I 535; Vries ANEW 226; 
Zalizniak I 145; Onions 431; Seebold 
251; Lindeman Verschárfung 16.10; Leh- 
mann GED 181; Bammesberger Nom. 
65-66; Kluge-Seebold 372. 

*xazčtaz sb.m.: ON haddr 'woman's hair'. 
Cf. OE heordan 'hards of flax', MDu hede 
'flax fiber, oakum', OFris hede 'oakum'. 
Related to Olr cass 'curi' < *kastos, Lith 
kasa 'plaiť, OPrus kexti 'plaited hair', Slav 
'''kosa id. Zupitza Gutt. 103; Torp-Falk 
76; Trautmann BS]V 120; Holthausen 
AEE]V 156; Pokorný I 585; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 61-62; Fraenkel 226; 
Vries ANEW 200; Trubachev ESSJa XI 
131-133; Kluge-Seebold 362. 

*xazjanan wk.vb.: Goth hazjan 'to praise', 
OE herian id. Unclear. Fick I 42, 420 
(to Skt šasti 'to order, to direcť, Av sasti 
'to call, to learn'); Vaniček Lat. 68 (to Lat 
carmen 'verse, song'); Zupitza Gutt. 184; 
Torp-Falk 76; Holthausen AEE]V 
157; Feist 252-253; Pokorný I 530- 
531 (reconstructs *kar- 'to praise'), 533; 
Vrtes ANE1V 224 (to Skt carkarti 'to make 
mention of < *ker-); Lehmann GED 181 
(against comparisons with *kens-). 

*xazwaz sb.m.: ON hqrr 'flax', OFris her, 
har id., OHG har, haro id. Substantivized 
*xaswaz? Alternatively, a derivative of IE 
*kes- 'to comb': Hitt kišdi- 'to comb', Slav 




*česati id. (Kluge-Seebold 345). Hirt 
BB XXIV 275; Torp-Falk 79 (recon- 
struct *xarwaz < *xarzwaz); Vries AMElť 

*xexlón sb.f.: ON héla 'hoar frosť. Close 
to Skt šiíira- 'cool, colď, Lith šešelis 
'shade, shadow' reduplicated from IE *kel- 
'colď. Cf. *xa$lan ~ *xa$laz. Zupitza 
Gutt. 184; Torp-Falk 84; Mayrhofer III 
345-346; Pokorný I 551; Fraenkel 
975-976; Fraenkel 976. 

*xelanan str.vb.: OE helan 'to conceal, to 
hide', OFris hela id., OS helan id., OHG 
helan id. Related to Lat celo 'to hide, to 
conceal', Olr celid 'to conceal' (Gůntert 
Kalypso 34—35). Zupitza Gutt. 1 85; Torp- 
Falk 80-81; Holthausen AEEW 154; 
Walde-Hofmann I 198-199; Jóhannes- 
son IEW 242-244; Pokorný I 553; 
Seebold 252-253; Lehmann GED 174, 
193; Kluge-Seebold 363. 

*xeldiz ~ *xeldjó sb.f.: ON hildr 'battle' 
(nom. sg. < *xeliiz), OE hild id., OS hildi 
id., hild id., OHG hilt(i)a id. Related to 
Olr coll 'destruction', Mír ceallach 'war', 
W coll 'destruction', Bret koll id. (Stokes 
BB LX 88). Forsterman KZ I 104; 
Zupitza Gutt. 107; Torp-Falk 82; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 160; Lané Language LX 
247; Trier PBB LXVI 241; Pokorný I 
547; Chemodanov SGGJa I 97; Vries 
AMEW 226-227; Zalizniak II 213. 

*xelmaz sb.m.: Gour hilms 'helmeť, ON 
hjálmr id., OE helm id., OFris helm id., OS 
helió-helm id., OHG helm id. Close to Skt 
neut. šárman- 'protection, shelter, cover' 
(Bugge BB III 118), Thrac t^aX^óq 'hide' 
(Tomaschek Thr. 11/ 1 10). See *xelanan. 
Marstrander MVA 1925/1 32 (to Lat 
cuhnen 'point, summit, ridge'); Torp-Falk 
80; Holthausen AEE]V 154; Feist 
255; Detsghew Thr. 175; Mayrhofer III 
310-311; Pokorný I 553; Vries AMEW 
230; Zalizniak I 132; Onions 435; See- 
bold 252; Lehmann GED 183; Kluge- 
Seebold 369. 

*xelmón ~ *xalm5n sb.m.: OE helma 
'helm, rudder', MLG helm 'oar shafť, 
OHG joh-halmo 'yoke rudder'. Related to 

Liťh kélmas 'tree stump', OPrus kalmus 
'cane'. Zupitza Gutt. 113, 152; Persson 
Beitráge 147-149; Torp-Falk 82; Traut- 
mann BSW 126; Holthausen AEEW 154 
Pokorný I 546, 924-925; Fraenkel 237 
Vries AMEW 230-231 (from *skel-b-) 
Onions 435. 

*xelpa-lausaz adj.: ON hjálp-lauss 'help- 
less', ME help-less id., OFris helpe-lds id., 
MHG helfe-los id. Compound of *xelpo 
and *lausaz. Carr Mom. comp. 89 (paral- 
lel formations). 

*xelpanan str.vb.: Goth hilpan 'to help', 
ON hjálpa id., OE helpan id., OFris helpa 
id., OS helpan id., OHG helfan id. With 
unclear differences in consonantism, con- 
nected with Lith šelpiii, šelpti id. Cf. 
also OLith šelbtis (Meillet BSL XXI 
126, XXLX 31) which, however, seems 
to háve a secondary -b- (Fraenkel 971). 
Zupitza Gutt. 185; Torp-Falk 85; 
Trautmann BSW 302; Feist 255-256; 
Holthausen AEEW 154; Jóhannesson 
IEJV 250; Trier Lehm 56; Pokorný I 554; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 76; Vries AMEW 
231; Fraenkel 971-972; Zalizniak II 
196; Onions 436; Seebold 254-255; 
Lehmann GED 183; Kluge-Seebold 368. 

*xelpó sb.f: ON hjqlp, hjálp 'help', OE 
help id., OFris helpe id., OS helpa id., 
OHG helfa id. Cf. Burg *hUps id. Derived 
from *xelpanan. Torp-Falk 85; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 154; Pokorný I 554; 
Vries AMEW 233; Zalizniak II 196; 
Onions 436; Seebold 254; Bammes- 
berger Mom. 110; Kobler 711; Kluge- 
Seebold 374. 

*xeltan sb.n.: ON hjalt 'knob at the end of 
a sworďs hilť, OE hilt 'handle', OS helta 
id. (fem.), OHG helza id. (fem.). Con- 
nected with *xultan. Torp-Falk 84; 
Falk MVA 1914/6 24; Holthausen 
AEEW 160; Pokorný I 547; Vries 
AMEW 231; Zalizniak II 174; Onions 

*xelb5n sb.f: ON hilla 'shelf, MLG hilde 
'manger'. Probably derived from *xelanan. 
Torp-Falk 81 (to Lith keliú, kélti 'to lift'); 
Pokorný I 553-554; Vries AMEW 227. 




*xemena-kundaz adj.: Goth himina-kunds 
'heavenly', OE heofon-cund id. Compound 
of *xemenaz and *kuniaz. Feist 256; 
Carr Nom. comp. 88 (parallel formations); 
Lehmann GED 183. 

*xemena-leuxm5n sb.m.: ON himin- 
Ijómi 'heavenly lighť, OE heofon-leóma id. 
Compound of *xemenaz and Heuxmon. 
Carr Nom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xemena-tun3lan sb.n.: ON himin-tungl 
'luminary, heavenly body', OE heqfon- 
tunsol id., OS heb an-tungal id. Cf. also 
OHG himil-zungal id. Compound of 
*xemenaz and Hun^lan. Carr Nom. comp. 
50; Zalizniak I 144; Lehmann GED 

*xemena-wan3az sb.m.: ON himin-vangr 
'heaven, heavenly fielď, OS hetan-wang 
id. Compound of *xemenaz and *wan^az. 
Carr Nom. comp. 56. 

*xemenaz sb.m.: Goth himins 'sky, 
heaven', ON himinn id., OE heofon id., OS 
heban id. Cf. also heteroclytic /-forms: 
OFris himel, himul id., OS himil id., OHG 
himil id. With a metathesis of the anlaut 
and modifications of vocalism, continues 
a thematic derivative of IE *ak-men- 'vault 
of stone, sky': Skt ášman- 'stone, rock, 
heaven', Av asman- 'stone, heaven', Gk 
otK|itov '(meteoric) stone, anvil', aKjuov 
oúpavóq (Hes.), Lith akmuo 'stone', Slav 
*kamy id. (Reiohelt KZ XLVI 343, IF 
XXXII 23-57). Bartholomae 207- 
208; Torp-Falk 73; Lané Language XI 
193 (to Latv kamwsis 'shoulder'); Fraen- 
kel KZ LXIII 183-184; Holthausen 
AEEW 156; Feist 256; Prokosch CGG 
87 (dissimilation of sonorants in *xemelaz 
< *xemenaz); Zonderreger AnZDA LXXI 
152 (variation of /- and n-suffixes); 
Benveniste Origines 1 7 (to Gk Kanápa 
'covered carriage, vaulted chamber'); 
Porzig Gliederung 75, 190; Mayrhofer I 
60-61; Pokorný I 19, 557 (from IE 
*kem- 'to cover'); Fraenkel 5; Vries 
ANEW 227 (against Reichelt); Zaliz- 
niak I 132; Frisk I 54; Onions 433; 
Schindler Kratylos XV 152; Hamp JL III 
83-90; Maher JIES I 441-462 (from the 

originál meaning *' sharp thing' > 'axe' > 
'thunder' > 'sky'); Lehmann GED 183— 
184 (related to *xamaz)\ Kluge-Seebold 

*xemerón sb.f: OHG hemera 'hellebore'. 
Identical wiťh Lith pl. kemeraí 'Eupa- 
torium cannabinum L.', Slav *čema~b 
'hellebore' (Zupitza KZ XXXVII 399). 
Loewenthal ]VuS^Í 185; Torp-Falk 74; 
Pokorný I 558; Fraenkel 251-252; 
Stang LS 16; Trubachev ESSJa IV 

*xenčtj6(n) sb.f: ON hind 'hind, roe' (root 
stem), OE hind 'hinď, OS hindi- (in 
cmpn.), OHG hinta id. From *ken-t- rela- 
ted to Skt kamna- 'young', Gk Koavóq 
'new', Lat re-cěns 'fresh, young, new'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 207; Torp-Falk 71 (to Gk 
KEiiái; 'young deer'); Holthausen AEE]\' 
160; Walde-Hofmann I 423-424; Mayr- 
hofer 1151; Pokorný I 556 (to Skt šáma- 
'hornless'), 563-564; Vries ANEW 228; 
Frisk I 754-755; Zalizniak II 208; 
Onions 441; Kluge-Seebold 375. 

*xenkójanan wk.vb.: ON hinka 'to limp, 
to hobble', OE hincian id. Cf. a secondary 
strong verb in MLG hinken id., OHG 
hincan id. Related to *xakorň Kluge- 
Seebold 375 (to Gk ará^a) id.). 

*xenbanan str.vb.: Goth fra-hinpan 'to také 
captive, to capture', OSwed hinna 'to 
gain'. Any connection with Gk kevtsco 'to 
prick, to goaď? Torp-Falk 70-71; 
Holthausen ffXX 326 (to Lat scando 'to 
climb, to rise'); Feist 161; Seebold 255— 
256; Lehmann GED 176. 

*xenb5(n) sb.f: ON hinna 'film, mem- 
bráně', OE hion 'bone of the head (?)'. 
Probably derived from *xenpanan. Ltdén 
BB XXI 107 (to Olr ceinn 'scale'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 116; Torp-Falk 71; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 160; Pokorný I 929; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 99; Vries ANEW 

*xerďjaz sb.m.: Goth hairdeis 'herdsman, 
shepherď, ON hirfiir id., OE hierde id., 
OS hirdi id., OHG hirti id. Derived from 
*xerdo. Structurally close to Lith keřdžius 
'shepherď. Trautmann BS]V 127-128; 




Holthausen AEEW 159; Feist 234; 
Pokorný I 579; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
72; Fraenkel 242; Vries AMEW 229; 
Zalizniak I 137; Onions 437; Ben- 
veniste 48; Lehmann GED 170-171; 
Bammesberger Mom. 67; Fsluge-Seebold 

*xerďó sb.f.: Goth hairda 'herd, flock', ON 
hjorb id. (pardy *xerdiz), OE heord id., OS 
herda 'sequence, shifť, OHG herta 'herd'. 
Connected with Skt íárdha- 'crowd, 
mighť, Av sarsSa- 'type', Gk KÓpOuc; 
'heap', MW cordd 'crowď, OPrus kerdan 
'tíme', Slav *čerda 'series, row, herd' (Fiok 
KZXX 167-168). WGmc *xerian > OE 
heorda 'deerskin', OHG herdo 'fleece' is 
derived from *xerdo. Meillet MSL VIII 
297, Etudes II 256-257; Zupitza Gutt. 
105, 115; Bartholomae 1566-1567; 
Torp-Falk 78; Trautmann BSW 
127-128; Holthausen AEEW 156-157; 
Feist 234; Lehmann Language XVIII 130 
(to *ker- 'to grow'); Mayrhofer III 
309-310; Pokorný I 579, 941; Vries 
AMEW 233 (to *ker- 'to braiď), 255 (to 
ON hredr 'scrotum', Lat cortex 'bark') 
Frisk I 921-922; Zalizniak II 193 
Onions 437; Benveniste IEL 48 
Trubaohev ESSJa IV 60-63; Lehmann 
GED 170-171; Kxuge-Seebold 370. 

*xersjaz sb.m.: ON hirsi 'milleť, OHG 
hirsi id. Any relation to *xersnon ~ *xers- 
nan? Torp-Falk 80 (to *ker- 'to feed, to 
grow'); Pokorný I 577. 

*xersn(j)a-skělo sb.f.: ON hjarn-skál 
'skuli', OHG hirni-scala id. Compound of 
*xersnon ~ *xersnan and *skelo. Carr 
Mom. comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*xersnón ~ *xersnan sb.m./n.: ON 
hjarni 'brain', ME herně id., MDu hersene 
id. Cf. also OHG hřmi id. < neut. *xerzn- 
jan. Based on a poorly attested mase. 
*xerson 'crown of the heaď: ON hjarsi. 
Closely related to the stem of oblique 
cases in Skt širsn- (of šíras- 'head'), cf. also 
Gk KÓpari 'temple'. Further connected 
with Lat cerebrum 'brain', Gk KÉpo^ 
'heaď. Zupitza Gutt. 185; Torp-Falk 
76; Walde-Hofmann I 203-204; Mayr- 

hofer III 341; Pokorný I 574-576; 
Vries AMEW 231-232; Frisk I 826-827, 
923 (ícópcri from Keípto 'to cuť); Bammes- 
berger Mom. 67—68; Kluge-Seebold 

*xertón sb.n.: Goth hairto 'hearť, ON hjar- 
ta id., OE heorte id. (fem.), OFris herte, hirte 
id., MLG herte id., OHG herza id. Related 
to Hitt kir-, kart- id., Toch A kri Svili', B 
pl. kdryaň 'hearts', Arm sirt 'hearť, Gk 
Kap8ía id., Lat cor id., Olr eride id., Lith 
širdis id., Slav *sbrdbce id., *serda 'mid- 
dle'. Zupitza Gutt. 182; Torp-Falk 77; 
Trautmann BSW 302; Holthausen 
AEEW 157; Walde-Hofmann I 271-272; 
Feist 234-235; Pokorný I 579-580; 
Vries AMEW 2"i2; Frisk I 787-788; 
Zalizniak II 177; Onions 433; Fraenkel 
986-987; Vasmer-Trubachev III 605- 
606; Benveniste IEL 143; Szemerényi 
Scňpta 1290-1292; Lehmann GED 171; 
Bammesberger Mom. 1 75; Puhvel IV 
189-191; Kluge-Seebold 372; Adams 
TB 165. 

*xer|5az sb.m.: OE heord 'hearth', OFris 
herth, herd id., OS herth id., OHG herd id. 
Related to Skt karta- 'cavity, hole', Slav 
*čbrta 'line, edge' and other derivatives 
of *(s)ker-t- 'to cuť denoting a (bound- 
ary) line. The delimiting function of the 
hearth, or of a log in it, is well attested in 
other traditions: SCr badnjak and Alb 
buzeni (Toporov Etim. 1974 3-15; Orel 
AED 43-44). Torp-Falk 75; Holt- 
hausen AEE][ T 157 (to Lat carbo 'coaF, 
cremare 'to burn'); Muhlenbaoh-Endzelin 
I 375 (to Latv cpi 'hot stones in a sauna', 
Slav *čerm> 'hearth'); Mayrhofer I 173; 
Pokorný I 941-942; Onions 433; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa IV 161, XI 58-60 (to Slav 
*korda ~ *krada 'pile of logs'; phonetically 
impossible); Lehmann GED 180 (to *xur- 
jan ~ *xurjaz). 

*xerbraz sb.n.: Goth pl. hairpra 'intestines, 
bosom, hearť, OE hreder 'breast, bosom' 
(mase.?), OHG smala-herdar 'small intes- 
tine, guť. May be connected with ON 
hredr 'scrotum'. Derived from *xerpaz. 
Saussure MSL VI 246-248 (to *xerton, 




with suffix *-tro-); Jóhansson PBB XV 
229 (samé as Saussure); Meillet Etudes 
167 (to *kert- 'to weave'); Zupitza Gutt. 
111; Torp-Falk 77, 102; Mayrhofer I 
257; Holthausen AEEJ V 173; Feist 235; 
Lehmann GED 171 (from *(s)ker- 'to cuť). 

*xerutuz ~ *xerutaz sb.m.: ON hjqrtr 
'stag, harť, OE heorot id., OFris hert id., 
OS hirot id., OHG hiruz id. Derivationally 
identical with Gk KOpu8ó<; 'crested lark' < 
*korudos. Further related to *ker(uj- 'horn' 
(Fórsterman KZ I 497), see *xuman. 
Zupitza Gutt. 116; Torp-Falk 76; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 156; Pokorný I 576; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 58; Vries ANEW 
234; Frisk I 924; Zalizniak II 200; 
Onions 429; Kluge-Seebold 377. 

*xeruz sb.m.: Goth haims 'sworď, ON 
hjqrr id., OE heoru id., OS heru- (in 
cmpn.). Related to Mír coire id. Luft 
KZ XXXVI 145 (from *(s)ker- 'to cuť); 
Zupitza Gutt. 182; Torp-Falk 75; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 157; Feist 235; Pokorný 
I 939-940 (to Lith kiřvis 'axe'); Vries 
ANEW 234; Zalizniak I 152; Lehmann 
GED 171; Bammesberger jYom. 156. 

*xerznan sb.n.: ON hjarn 'hard frozen 
snow'. Close to Arm sarn 'ice', Slav *serm> 
'layer of ice, hard snow', Lith šefkšnas 
'hoar-frosť, Latv sěrns, serksnis, s^rsna id. 
(Sohulze Kl. Schr. 112-114). Zupitza 
Gutt. 185; Torp-Falk 78; Trautmann 
BSW 303; Krogmann KZ LXIV 133- 
134; Holthausen ANW 116; Pokorný I 
573; Fraenkel 973-974; Vries ANEW 
231; Vasmer-Trubachev III 608. 

*xerzon sb.m.: ON hjani 'hinge', OE heor- 
ra 'bar, hinge'. Might be related to Lith 
skefsas 'across', Slav *čerz'b 'through, 
across' (secondary development of *čerst>) 
< *(s)kert-s-o. Zupitza Gutt. 1 1 3; Torp- 
Falk 80; Falk MM 1910 12 (to Lat cardo 
'door-hinge'); Trautmann BSW 129-130; 
Holthausen AEEW 156; Trier Holz 
73-74; Jóhannesson IEJť 830; Vries 
ANE1V 232; Vasmer-Trubachev IV 

*xeufanan str.vb.: Goth hiufan 'to lament, 
to wail', OS pres. hioian id., OHG pres. 

hiufit, hiufit id. Of unknown origin. 
Weinhold KZ I 251; Grienberger Got. 
113; Zupitza Gutt. 117; Torp-Falk 95; 
Bezzenberger BB XVI 120 (to Lith 
šaukiu, Saúkti 'to shout, to calT); Torp- 
Falk 95; Feist 258 (to *keu- 'to howP); 
Holthausen AEEW 155; Jóhannesson 
IEW 177-178; Pokorný I 535-536; See- 
bold 256 (to Skt káuti 'to cry', Gk kcokÚco 
id.); Lehmann GED 185. 

*xeufrójanan wk.vb.: ON hjúfra 'to pant, 
to heave', G dial. hivern 'to lamenť. 
Derived from *xeufanan. Mohr ZDADL 
LXXV 252 (ON < WGmc); Vries 
ANEW 233. 

*xeup5n sb.m./f.: Norw dial. hjúpa 'briar', 
OE héopa 'briar', OS hiopo 'briar', OHG 
hiufo id. Related to *xaupaz (Torp-Falk 
95) repeating the semantic ratio between 
OPrus káaubri 'thorn' and Lidi kaubré 'hill' 
(Sohmalstieg 330). Zupitza Gutt. 185 
(to Slav *šipfb 'thorn'); Trautmann BSW 
349 (to OPrus kaáubri 'thorn'); Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 156; Pokorný I 595; 
Onions 441; Stang LS 27. 

*xeurja-líkaz adj.: ON hjr-ligr 'smiling, 
sweeť, OE un-hír-líc 'fierce, savage, dis- 
mal', OS sbst. un-hiur-lík 'monster', OHG 
sbst. un-hiur-lih id. Derived from *xeurjaz. 
Torp-Falk 88; Feist 517; Holthausen 
AEEW 159; Kluge 252 (from *xiw-ra-); 
Pokorný I 539-540; Heidermanns 291. 

*xeurjaz adj.: ON hýrr 'sweet, smiling, 
milď, OE hýře 'pleasant, gende, milď, 
MDu on-ghehiere 'terrible', OS un-hiuri 
'eery, uncanny', OHG hiuri 'simple'. 
Connected with *xiwan. Torp-Falk 88; 
Holthausen ^££11' 159; Vries ANEW 
276; Lehmann GED 376; Heidermanns 
290-291; Kxuge-Seebold 307. 

*xewjan sb.n.: Goth hiwi 'form, appear- 
ance', ON hý 'down (of plants or hair)', 
OE hiw 'shape, form, appearance'. Prob- 
ably derived from *xawwanan. Grien- 
berger Got. 114 (to Skt šyavá- 'brown, 
dark-brown', Mír céo 'fog'); Zubatý KZ 
XXXI 12 (to Skt skunati 'to cover'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 207; Torp-Falk 88-89 
(samé as Grienberger); Holthausen 




AEEW 159; Feist 259; Pipping Xenia 165; 
Vries ANEW 274 (to Skt šyává- 'brown, 
dark-brown', Slav *siub 'grey'); Onions 
451; Lindeman Verschárfimg 16.11; Leh- 
mann GED 185; Hilmarsson Mat. 207- 
208 (to Toch B kwele 'black' < *kiwolo-). 

*xěbaz sb.m.: ON háfi 'pock-net for her- 
ring fishing', Du haafneť. Derived from 
*xqjjanan. Vries ANE1 V 201 . 

*xěbiz ~ *xófoiz adj.: ON hicfr 'fit, 
proper', OE be-héfe 'necessary'. Derived 
from *xajjanan. Holthausen AEEW 
167-168; Vries ANEW 276; Seebold 
245; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 104-105, 
KZ CV 115-116, 119; Heidermanns 

*xěxwon sb.f: ON há 'second hay-crop, 
aftermath'. Identical with Skt neut. šáka- 
'pot-herb, vegetable', Lith šekas 'freshly 
mown hay'. Torp-Falk 68; Trautmann 
BSW 301; Mayrhofer III 320-321; 
Pokorný I 544; Fraenkel 970-971; 
Vries ANEW 199. 

*xělaz I adj.: ON halí 'slippery', OE hál- 
stán 'crystal', OHG hali 'smooth'. 
Probably related to Lith šqlu, šálti 'to 
freeze', Skt sišira- 'cool, colď. ICarsten 
NB II 380; Zupitza Gutt. 184; Torp-Falk 
83-84; Holthausen AEEW 145; Mayr- 
hofer III 345-346; Pokorný I 551 
Fraenkel 960-961; Vries ANE]V 205 
Lerohner 94; Matzel KC CV 110 
Heidermanns 289. 

*xělaz II adj.: ON háll 'cunning', MLG hal 
'hidden, secreť. Derived from *xelanan 
(unless historically identical with *xelaz I). 
Torp-Falk 81 (to Lat celo 'to hide, to 
conceal'); Vries ANEW 205 (to *xaljo). 

*xě r adv.: Goth her 'here', ON hér id., OE 
hér id., OFris hír id., OS her id., OHG hiar 
id. Continues *ka-r- (Jelltnek PBB XV 
298-300) further related to *xl. Sievers 
PBB XVI 238-240, XVIII 403; Torp- 
Falk 63, 87; Brugmann IF VI 89-90; 
Holthausen AEEW 157; Kluge Urgerm. 
123-124; Feist 254; Pokorný I 609; 
Vries ANEW 222-223; Onions 437; 
Rtnge Sprache XXX 138-150 (lowering 
of *i to *ě); Lehmann Phon. 72-73, GED 

182; Bammesberger Nom. 259; Kluge- 
Seebold 374. 

*xěran sb.n.: ON hár 'hair', OE hér id., 
OFris her id., OS har id., OHG har id. 
Related to Lith šerys 'bristle', Latv sars 
id. wiuh a different vowel grade. Detter 
ZDADL XLII 55 (to IE *sker- 'to cuť); 
Torp-Falk 75; Holthausen AEEW 
145; Pokorný I 583; Fraenkel 973 
Vries ANEW 210; Zalizniak I 141 
Onions 423; Adams JIES XVI 69-93 
Bammesberger Nom. 96; Kxuge-Seebold 

*xěrjon sb.f: ON hara 'hair, grey hair', 
OE hiére 'hair-cloth'. Derived from *xeran. 
Holthausen AEEW 145; Vries ANEW 

*xl pron.: Goth dat. himma 'this', OE hé 
'he', OS he, hi id., OHG hěiá. Notě neut. 
forms: Goth acc. hita 'iť, ON hitt, OE 
hit id., OFris hit, het id., MDu het id. 
Continues IE demonstrative *kei-, cf Alb 
si-vjet 'this year', Lith fis 'this', Slav *sb id. 
Further cf. Hitt ka- 'this (one)'. Torp- 
Falk 63 (< *xé), 87; Trautmann BSW 
304; Holthausen AEE] V 150, 161; Feist 
255, 258; Pokorný I 539-540, 609-610; 
Fraenkel 990; Onions 488; Vasmer- 
Trubaghev III 591-592; Lehmann GED 
181-182; Puhvel IV 3-12; Orel AED 

*xiďrět adv.: Gouh hiclre 'hither', ON héSra 
'here, hitíier', OE hider 'hither'. Derived 
from *xí. Structurally similar to Lat 
citra 'on this side', (ultro et) atro '(here 
and) there'. Torp-Falk 87; Walde- 
Hofmann I 222 (no historical connection 
between Gmc and Lat); Holthausen 
AEEW 158; Feist 255; Vries ANEW 21 5; 
Onions 442. 

*xixur5 ~ *skixuró sb.f: ON skjór 'mag- 
pie', OE hiyre id. (< *xijuroj, OHG hehara 
'jay'. Of imitative origin. Torp-Falk 89 
(to Gk kÍcccx 'jay, Garrulus glandarius'). 

*xindaně adv., prep.: Goth hindana 
'beyonď, OE híndan 'from behinď, OS 
hindan 'from beyonď, OHG hintana 
'behinď. A secondary locative. Based on 
*xini- derived from *xi (Streitberg GE 




132; Brugmann Dem. 144). Kogel PBB 
XVI 514; Wiedemann BB XXVII 199 (to 
Skt kamna- 'young'); Zupitza Gutt. 116; 
Holthausen AEEW 160; Feist 256; 
Tisohler HEG I 539-542 (to Hitt katta(n) 
'down, under'); Vries AMEW 228; 
Onions 441; Lehmann GED 184; Kluge- 
Seebold 375. 

*xindr(5n) adj., adv.: Godi hindar 'behind, 
beyond, over to, the other side of ', ON 
compar. hindri 'hinder, hindmosť, OE 
hinder 'back, behind, down', OFris hindera 
'beyond', OS hindiro id., OHG hintar 
'behind', adj. hintaro. An old comparative 
of *xin-, a derivative of *xi. Torp-Falk 
87; Holthausen AEE\V 160; Feist 
256—257 (comparative form of *xind-)\ 
Pokorný I 609; Vries AMEW 228; 
Onions 441; Lehmann GED 184; Kluge- 
Seebold 375—376. 

*xindrójanan wk.vb.: ON hindra 'to 
hinder, to keep behind', OE hindrian 
id., OFris hinderia id., MLG hinderen id., 
OHG hintaron id. Derived from *xindr(on). 
Torp-Falk 87; Holthausen AEEW 160; 
Vries AMEW 228; Onions 441; Kluge- 
Seebold 375. 

*xit(j)o(n) sb.f: Goth heito 'fever', ON 
híta 'heating', OE hitt id., OHG hizza 
id. Gonnected wiuh *xaitaz. van Helten 
PBB XXX 241 (to Slav *sbjati 'to shine'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 112; Torp-Falk 89; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 161; Feist 253; Pokorný 
I 519; Vries AME]V 229; Zalizniak II 
216; Onions 433; Lehmann GED 181; 
Kluge-Seebold 377. 

*xlwan sb.n.: Goth heiwa-fiauja 'master of 
the family', ON pl. hjón, hjún 'man and 
wife', OE pl. híwan 'members of a house- 
holď, OFris pl. hmna id., OS hiwa 
'spouse, family member', OHG pl. híwun 
id. Close to Skt sívá- 'dear, intimate', šivá- 
'kind, friendly, dear', Lat cTuis 'citizen', 
Latv sieva 'wife'. Tuoker Notes 37; 
Torp-Falk 88; Holthausen AEEW 161; 
Walde-Hofmann I 224-225; Feist 253- 
254; Mayrhofer III 344, 376; Pokorný 
I 540; Chemodanov SGGJa I 65; Vries 
AMEW 233; Zalizniak II 177; Schulze 

Kl. Schr. 201; Onions 440; Benveniste IEL 
273-275; Lehmann GED 181-182; Bam- 
mesberger Mom. 69; Kluge-Seebold 366. 

*xíwisk(j)an sb.n.: ON hýski 'family, 
householď, OE híwisc id., OS hiwiski 
'family', OHG hiwisci id. Derived from 
*xíwan. Torp-Falk 88; Holthausen 
AEEW 161; Vries AMEW 276. 

*xladan sb.n.: ON hlad 'pile, stack, barn', 
OE hhed 'heap, pile'. Derived from *xla- 
panan. Torp-Falk 110; Holthausen 
AEEW 161; Vries AMEW 234; Seebold 

*xlaxjanan str.vb.: Goth hlahjan 'to 
laugh', ON hlteja id., OE hlehhan id., OS 
pret. hlog id., OHG Moc 'adrisiť. A de- 
scriptive stem formally close to Slav 
*klekotb 'laughter, noise', Mír clocc 'bell', 
Lat glocio 'to cluck'. Gf. in particular Gk 
kXíÁggco id. Zupitza Gutt. 117, 191; 
Torp-Falk 110; Feist 259; Holthausen 
AEEW 163; Walde-Hofmann I 606; 
Jóhannesson IEW 277-278; Pokorný I 
600; Vries AMEW 241; Frisk I 879; 
Onions 518; Seebold 257-258; Tru- 
baohev ESSJa LX 191-192; Lehmann 
GED 185 (to IE *kel- 'to shout, to call'); 
Kluge-Seebold 498. 

*xlaxtraz sb.m.: ON hlátr 'laughter', OE 
hleahtor id., OHG neut. hlahtar id. Derived 
from *xlaxjanan. Torp-Falk 1 1 0; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 162; Pokorný I 600; 
Vries AMEW 235; Zalizniak II 200; 
Seebold 258. 

*xlaibaz sb.m.: Goth hlaifs 'breaď, ON 
hleifr 'loaf, OE Máj id., OFris hlěf id., 
OHG leib, hleib id. Derived from *xlip- 
janan (Kern TMTL V 55). Zupitza BB 
XXV 94 (to Olr cliab 'basket'); Schrader 
Festschr. Sievers 5-1 1 (to Gk K^ípavoi; 'cov- 
ered earthen vessel'); Pedersen IF V 50, 
KZ XXXVIII 393-394 (related to Slav 
*xlěb~b 'breaď which, however, is from 
Gmc); Persson Beitráge 303 (to Lat libo 
'to také out as a sample, to také a little 
of, Gk Aoi(3t| 'pouring, drink-offering'); 
Torp-Falk 109; Paschall JEGP VIII 
18-24 (samé as Zupitza); Schrader- 
Nehring II 245; Mohl MSL VII 403 




(from Uralic); Kluyver TJVTL VIII 254- 
257 (from an unknown source); Kozlov- 
skij AfslPh XI 386 (samé as Pedersen); 
Grienberger Got. 114 (samé as Schra- 
der); Pedersen IF V 50 (to Lat llbum 
'flan, cake'); Lidén PBB XV 514-515 
(samé as Pedersen); Stender-Pedersen 
Slav.-germ. 297-299 (Slav < Gmc); Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 162; Feist 260; Trier 
Lehm 59 (to IE *klei- 'to lean, to benď) 
Vries AMEW 236; Zalizniak I 132 
Onions 533; Lehmann GED 185-186 
Bammesberger Nom. 52; Rluge-Seebold 

*xlaibón sb.m.: Goth ga-hlaiba 'compan- 
ion', OHG gi-leibo id. Derived from 
*xlaipaz. Calqued by Rom *com-panio id. 
(Bruch 81). Velten JEGP XXLX 345 
(calque from Rom); Feist 183; Lehmann 
GED 139. 

*xlaidrjó sb.f: OE hlteder 'ladder', OFris 
hledere, hladder id., MLG ledder id., OHG 
leitara, leitar id. Derived from IE *khi-, cf. 
*xlinójanan. Structurally close to Mír 
clithar 'hedge' and similar other deriva- 
tives (Zupitza A^XXXV 259, Gutt. 186), 
see *xlipró. Torp-Falk 112; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 161; Porzig Gliederung 
124; Pokorný I 601; Onions 511; 
Ktuge-Seebold 514. 

*xlainaz ~ *xlainó sb.m./f: Goth mase. 
or neut. hlain(s) 'hill', Norw dial. fem. 
hlein 'slope'. Etymologically close to Olr 
clóen 'crooked, unjusť, Lith šlainus 
'crookeď. Further related to *xlinqjanan. 
Zupitza Gutt. 186; Torp-Falk 111; Feist 
260-261; Pokorný I 601; Fraenkel 997; 
Lehmann GED 186. 

*xlainiz adj.: OE hlene 'lean, meagre', LG 
leen id., early G lehne 'gendy sloping'. De- 
rived from *xlinqjanan. Structurally close 
to Lith šlainus 'sloping, oblique', Latv 
slains 'swaying', Olr clóen 'crooked, unjusť. 
Holthausen AEE]V 161; Onions 520; 
Stang LS 29; Pokorný I 601; Fraenkel 
997; Heidermanns 291-292. 

*xlaiwan ~ *xlaiwaz sb.n./m.: Goth 
hlaiw 'tomb, grave', Run hlaiwa id., OE 
hláw, hliéw 'rising ground, a funeral 

mounď (< *xlaiwiz), OS hleo 'grave, 
burial mounď (mase), OHG (h)lěo id. 
(mase). Closely connected with Lat clluus 
'mounď < *kleiuos, Lith šleívas 'with 
crooked legs, crookeď (Solmsen K£ 
XXXVIII 453). Further see *xlinojanan. 
Sůtterlin IF XXV 72; Zupitza Gutt. 
186; Torp-Falk 112; Holthausen 
AEEW 162; Walde-Hofmann I 237; 
Feist 261; Mladenov 669 (to Slav *xlěut> 
'sty, pen'); FCrahe SuV 75; Trier Lehm 
54; Porzig Gliederung 109; Pokorný I 
601; Chemodanov SGGJa I 90; Fraenkel 
1001-1002; Vries AMEW 234; Zalizniak 
II 187; Onions 519; Lehmann GED 186; 
Bammesberger JVom. 69. 

*xlakkojanan wk.vb.: ON hlakka 'to cry, 
to seream', OFris hlakkia 'to laugh'. Of 
imitative origin. Formally close to Gk 
K^á^to 'to seream, to bárek' < *KXayyjto. 
Cf. also *xlaxjanan. Zupitza Gutt. 1 1 8, 
162; Torp-Faek 110 (reconstruct *xlank-, 
cf. Lat clango 'to clang, to sounď); 
Pokorný I 599-600; Vries ANEW 235; 
Frisk I 863-864; Lehmann GED 185. 

*xlammiz sb.m.: ON hlemmr 'lid, cover', 
OE úht-hlem 'din made in the early morn- 
ing', OFris hlem 'blow'. Derived from 
*xlemmanan. Torp-Falk 111; Fírahe 
SuV 78; Vries AME1 V 237; Seebold 264; 
Lehmann GED 186. 

*xlam(m)6janan wk.vb.: ON hlamma 
'to give a duli, heavy sounď, OS Mamon 
'to rush'. Derived from *xlammiz. Mar- 
tinet Gem. 142, 144; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 91 (to Lat dámo 'to shouť); 
Seebold 264. 

*xlanďan sb.n.: ON Mand 'urine', OE 
hland id. Unclear. Zupitza Gutt. 1 1 8; 
Torp-Falk 111 (to Lith klanas 'puddle'); 
Walde-Pokorny I 500; Holthausen 
AEEW 162; Chemodanov SGGJa I 77; 
Vries ANE1\ t 235. 

*xlankiz ~ *xlankjó(n) sb.m./f: ON 
Mekkr 'link, chain of links', OE hlenca 
'link', hlence id., OS Manka 'hip, thigh', 
OHG hlanca 'hip'. Related to *xlankjanan. 
Torp-Falk 110; Holthausen AEE]V 
162; Onions 530; Fvluge-Seebold 310. 




*xlankjanan wk.vb.: ON hlekkjask 'to 
get impeded, to suffer miscarriage', OE 
3e-hlencan 'to roli, to wrap', MLG lenken 
'to benď, MHG hnken id., OHG ir-lenken 
'to dislocate (a limb)', uz-lenken 'to un- 
buckle'. Implies an unattested str. vb. 
*xlenkanan related to Lat dingo 'to shuť, 
Slav *kleknqti 'to squat, to kneel' (Johans- 
son PBB XIV 298). Holthausen 
AEEW 162; Walde-Hofmann I 233-234; 
Pokorný I 603; Vries ANEW 237; 
Trubachev ESSJa X 33-34; Kluge- 
Seebold 310 (to Lith lenkiú, leňkti 'to 
benď); Adams TB 222 (to Toch AB klánk- 
'to doubť). 

*xlabanan str.vb.: Goth af-hlapan 'to bur- 
den', ON hlaoa 'to loaď, OE hladan 'to 
heap, to pile up', OFris part. hleděn 'to 
loaď, OS pres. hladan id., OHG hladan id. 
Related to Lith klóti 'to spread ouť and 
Slav *kladq, *klasti 'to puť (Lottner K^_ 
XI 179; Scherer GBS 21). Torp-Falk 
110; Trautmann BSW 135-136; Feist 6; 
Holthausen AEEW 161; Jóhannesson 
IEW 273-274; Pokorný I 599; Vries 
ANEJť 234; Fraenkel 274-275; Onions 
511; Stang LS 29-30; Seebold 258-259; 
Trubachev ESSJa LX 187-188; Lehmann 
GED 5; Kluge-Seebold 499. 

*xlab5n sb.f.: ON hlada 'store-house, 
barn', MDu lade 'foodocker', MHG lade 
id. Derived from *xlapanan. Kluge- 
Seebold 498. 

*xlauniz sb.f.: ON hlaunn 'buttock, 
haunch'. Identical with Skt šroni- 'hip, 
loin, buttock', Av sraoni- 'buttock', Lith 
šlaunis 'hip'. Cf. also Lat clúnis 'buttock', 
W člun id. Petersson IF XXXV 269- 
270; Zupitza Gutt. 186; Bartholomae 
1633; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 121; Traut- 
mann 5.5*1 V 306; Torp-Falk 109; Walde- 
Hofmann I 239; Mayrhofer III 395; 
Pokorný I 607; Fraenkel 1000; Vries 
ANEW 235. 

*xlaupan ~ *xlaupaz sb.n./m.: ON 
hlaup 'leap', MLG lop 'jump', OHG louf 
'run'. Derived from *xlaupanan. Torp- 
Falk 110; Seebold 260. 

*xlaupanan str.vb.: Goth us-hlaupan 'to 

leap forth, to leap up', ON hlaupa 'to 
leap, to jump', OE hleápan id., OFris Mapa 
'to run, to hasten', OS pret. uz-hliopun id., 
OHG hloufan id. Related to Lith šlumbu, 
šlubti 'to become lamě', klumbú, klúbti 'to 
stumble' (with depalatalized *«-), Latv 
slubít 'to limp' (Hoffmann Festschr. Fick 
51). Zupitza Gutt. 118119, 145; Torp- 
Falk 109-110; Feist 532-533, PBB 
XXXII 452-453; Holthausen AEEW 
162; Specht 130-131; Trier Lehm 58; 
Jóhannesson IEW 262-263; Pokorný I 
630; Mattausch á'~ LXXVII 137-139; 
Vries ANEW 235; Fraenkel 276, 1009; 
Onions 520; Mottausch R'Z LXXVII 
129-139; Seebold 259-261 (to Gk 
kÉXevjOoc; 'way, course', Lith keliáuti 'to 
travel, to wander'); Knobloch }\ 7 uSBez- 
50-51 (to Lith klúpti); Lehmann GED 382; 
Fsluge-Seebold 506. 

*xlautaz sb.m.: Goth hlauts 'lot, inherit- 
ance', ON hlautr 'lot', OS hlot 'lot, prop- 
erty', OHG loz, hlóz id. Cf. *xlutiz. 
Derived from *xleutanan. Zupitza Gutt. 
1 1 9; Torp-Falk 1 1 3; Holthausen 
AEEW 163; Feist 262; Kluge 445-446; 
Pokorný I 605; Vries ANE1\ r 235; 
Zalizniak II 200; Seebold 265; Leh- 
mann GED 187; Bammesberger Nom. 52; 
Fvluge-Seebold 525. 

*xlefanan str.vb.: Goth hlifan 'to steal'. 
Close to Toch B kdlyp- id., Gk k^Ékto) id., 
Lat depo id., OPrus au-klipts 'concealeď 
(Schulze A"/?J XLLX 252). Zupitza Gutt. 
118; Torp-Falk 111; Walde-Hofmann I 
232; Feist 263-264; Pokorný I 604; 
Frisk I 870-871; Seebold 261; Lehmann 
GED 187; Adams TB 175-176. 

*xlemmanan str.vb.: ON pret. hlam 'to 
clink', OE hlimman 'to sound, to roar', 
OHG pres. limmit 'infremuiť. Related to 
Lat clamo 'to call', Lidi šlamu, Uameti 'to 
chirp' . Zupitza Gutt. 118; Torp-Falk 
111; Berneker I 526 (to Slav *klbno, *kl§ti 
'to damn'); Holthausen AEEW 162-164; 
Walde-Hofmann I 227; Jóhannesson 
IEW 247-249; Pokorný I 548-550; 
Fraenkel 998-999; Vries ANEW 238; 
Seebold 263-264. 




*xleutn5n ~ *xleumaz sb.m.: Goth 
hliuma 'hearing', ON hljómr 'sound, tuně, 
voice'. Identical with Av sraoman 'hearing' 
< *kku-men- further related to IE *kleu- 
'to hear'. Fórsterman K^ I 8; Knob- 
lauch K~^ I 573; Zupitza Gutt. 186 
Bartholomae 1 634; Torp-Falk 1 1 2 
Pokorný I 605-607; Lehmann GED 188 
Kluge-Seebold 516. 

*xleumunčtaz sb.m.: OHG hliumunt 'testi- 
mony, glory'. Structurally close to Toch 
A klyom, B klyomo 'noble' < *kleumont- and 
Skt šromata- 'good reputation'. Further see 
*xleumon ~ *xhumaz. Můller K^ XIX 
47 (to Lat crimen 'verdict, judgmenť) 
Torp-Faek 112; Mayrhofer III 373 
Pokorný I 605-607; Vries ANEW 238 
Fvluge-Seebold 516; Adams TB 231. 

*xleutanan str.vb.: ON Ujita 'to get by 
lot, to get, to undergo, to suffer', OE hleó- 
tan 'to cast lots', OS hliotan id., OHG 
hliozan id. Related to Lith kliudaů, kliuiýti 
'to make hang on, to push', kliaudaú, 
klaudýti 'to prevent, to be in the way'. 
Further connected with Lith klipsu, kliuti 
'to hang on', Latv kjut 'to become', kjútas 
'fate'. Sohrader K'Z XXX 495 (to Gk 
K^á8o5 'branch'); Wood MP V 274 
(samé as Schrader); Zupitza Gutt. 119 
Grienberger Got. 115; Torp-Falk 113 
Holthausen AEE\V 162; Feist 262 
Jóhannesson IEW 275-276; Pokorný I 
604-605; Fraenkel 274; Vries AMEW 
238-239; Onions 537; Seebold 264- 
265; Stang LS 29; Lehmann GED 186; 
KVluge-Seebold 525. 

*xleuban sb.n.: Goth hliup 'hearing (?), 
silence (?)' (hap. leg.), ON hljód 'hearing'. 
Continues a derivative in *-to- of IE 
*kleu- 'to hear'. Structurally close to Av 
sraota- 'hearing'. Bartholomae 1633; 
Torp-Falk 112; Feist 264; Petersen 
Language XV 89-90 (on Toch A klots, 
B klautso 'ear'); Porzig Gliederung 180; 
Pokorný I 605-606; Vries ANEW 238; 
Lehmann GED 180; Bammesberger JVom. 
79-80; Heidermanns 294. 

*xleubran sb.n.: Icel hljódur 'tone', OE 
hleódor 'hearing, noise, sound', OHG hlio- 

dar-saz 'magie'. Identical with Skt neut. 
šrotra- 'ear', Av srao&ra- 'hearing' < *kleu- 
tro- further related to *kleu- 'to hear'. See 
*xleupan. Bartholomae 1633; Torp- 
Falk 112; Holthausen AEEW 162; 
Mayrhofer III 373; Pokorný I 605- 
607; Vrtes AMW 238; Lehmann GED 
1 88; Bammesberger Nom. 86. 

*xleuzan sb.n.: ON hlýr 'cheek', OE hkór 
id., OS hleor id. Glose to Av sraoša- 'hear- 
ing', Olr clúas 'ear', Slav *slux~b 'hearing'. 
See *xleufran. Torp-Falk 1 1 3; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 162; Bugge AjYF II 216; 
Pokorný I 606; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
99; Vries AMEW 241. 

*xlewaz sb.n.: Run prop. hlewa-gastiz. 
Related to the Indo-European word for 
'glory': Toch A klyu, B kálywe 'glory', Skt 
šrávas- 'glory, praise, renown', Av sravah- 
'worď, Gk K^.éoq 'glory', Olr clú id., 
Slav *slovo 'word'. Bartholomae 1643— 
1644; Mayrhofer III 389; Frisk I 
869-870; Ltndeman Verscharfung 16.14; 
Lehmann GED 188. 

*xleweďaz adj.: ON hléSr 'famous'. 
Identical with Gk kXeitÓ? id. < *kleu- 
eto-. It is possible to compare this word 
with Slav sbst. *kleveta 'calumny' without 
assibilation of *k-. Further see *xlewaz. 
Falk Festschr. Bugge Kr. 17; Pokorný I 
605-606; Vries ANEW 236; Frisk I 
877-878; Trubachev ESSJa X 14-17; 
Heidermanns 296. 

*xlěwan5janan wk.vb.: ON hlána 'to 
thaw', G dial. láunen id. Derived from 
*xlěumz. Torp-Falk 109; Vries ANEW 
235 (to *xliwart). 

*xlěwaz adj.: ON hher 'warm, milď (sec- 
ondary j«-stem), MDu laeu, lan id., OHG 
Ido id. Probably to Gk kXú^co 'to rinse, to 
cleanse'. See *xlutraz. Schmidt Vok. II 
454; Karsten NB II 421-422; Torp- 
Falk 109 (to Lat caleo 'to be warm'); 
Walde-Hofmann I 239-240; Pokorný I 
552, 607; Vries ANEW 241; Frisk I 
876-877; Onions 538; Darms Vrddhi 
54-60; Heidermanns 294-295 (to *xli- 
wan); Fvluge-Seebold 505. 

*xlidan sb.n.: ON hltá 'gate, gateway', OE 




hlid 'lid, cover', OFris hlid id., OS hlid id., 
OHG ubar-lit id. Derived from *xlídanan. 
Identical with Skt šritá- 'adhering to 
smth., situateď, Gk óÍ-kXÍtoc; 'stable', Lith 
pa-šlitas 'curveď continuing derivatives 
in *-to- based on IE *klei- 'to lean'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 119; Torp-Falk 111; 
Holthausen AEE]V 163; Mayrhofer III 
388-389; Pokorný I 601-602; Vries 
AMEW 237-238; Frisk I 873-875 
Zalizniak I 141; Onions 526-527 
Seebold 262; Bammesberger Nom. 56 
Kluge-Seebold 518. 

*xlino sb.f.: OHG hlína 'back (of a chair), 
lattice'. Close to Gk kXÍvt\ 'couch, bier'. 
Further related to *xlinójanan. Pokorný 
I 601; Frisk I 876-877; Kluge- Seebold 

*xlinójanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. lina 'to 
lean', OE hlinian id., OFris léna id., OS 
hlinon id., OHG hlinen id. See *xlino. 
Derivationally close to Gk kMvcd 'to 
benď, Lat clind in clínatus 'inclined, bent, 
sunk', Lith šlienú, šliěti 'to lean'. Persson 
Beitráge 915; Torp-Falk 111; Trautmann 
BS1 V 308; Walde-Hofmann I 234-236; 
Pokorný I 601; Fraenkel 1004; Frisk I 
873-875; Onions 520; Lehmann GED 
186; ííluge- Seebold 510-511; Adams 
TB 223-224 (to Toch AB klín- 'to be 

*xliwan sb.n.: Goth mase. hlija 'booth, 
tenť (leg. *hliwa), ON hlé 'lee', OE hléow 
'shelter, protection', OFris hli id., OS hleo 
'shelter from bad weather' (mase.). Con- 
tinues IE *klei-, cf. *xlípro. Zupitza Gutt. 
119; Grdínberger Got. 117; Uhlenbeck 
PBBXXX 291 (to *klei- 'to benď); Torp- 
Falk 109 (to *xlěwaz); Holthausen 
AEEW 163; Feist 263-264; Vries AKEW 
235-236 (to W clyd 'warm'); Onions 522; 
Lehmann GED 187-188; Kluge- Seebold 

*xliwibó sb.f.: ON hlýša 'shed, a part of 
the ship', OE hlíwd 'protection, shelter'. 
Derived from *xliwan, *xliwjanan. Hol- 
thausen AEEW 163; Vries ANE]\ r 240. 

*xliwjanan wk.vb.: ON hlýja 'to cover, 
to shelter', OE hlýwan 'to make warm, to 

protéct'. Derived from *xliwan. Torp- 
Falk 109; Holthausen AEE]V 163; 
Vries AME]V 240. 

*xlíbanan str.vb.: OHG líbán 'to protéct, 
to care'. Continues IE *khi- 'to benď, cf. 
*xliwan, *xlípr5. Torp-Falk 112; See- 
bold 261-262. 

*xlíbjanan wk.vb.: Goth hleibjan 'to shield, 
to protéct', ON hlífa 'to give cover or 
shelter', OHG líben 'to protéct, to care'. 
Derived from *xlíbanan. Aufrecht K^ I 
311 (to Lat clipeus 'schielď); Froehde BB 
XXI 329 (follows Aufrecht); Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXX 291 (to Slav *slěfrb 'blinď); 
Torp-Falk 112; Feist 262; Trier Lehm 
56; Jóhannesson IEW 242-244; Vries 
ANEW238; Seebold 261; Lehmann GED 

*xlíbó sb.f: ON hlíf 'cover, shelter, pro- 
tection', OHG líbá 'calming'. Derived 
from *xlíbanan. Zupitza BB XXV 94 (to 
Mír cliab 'basket'); Loewenthal ]VuS LX 
176; Trier Lehm 56; Vries ANEW 238; 
Seebold 262. 

*xličtanan str.vb.: OE tó-hlídan 'to yawn, 
to gape, to open', OFris hlídá 'to cover', 
OS bi-hlídan 'to lock, to cover'. See 
*xlíbanan. Zupitza Gutt. 119; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 163; Pokorný I 600-602; 
Seebold 262-263; Kluge-Seebold 518. 

*xlM5(n) sb.f: ON hlid 'slope', OE neut. 
hlid id., MLG lít, lite id., OHG lita id. To 
*xlíianan. Structiirally close to Mír clíath 
'hurďe'. Torp-Falk 111; Holthausen 
AEEW 164; Vries ANEW 231; Lehmann 
GED 187; Fvluge-Seebold 514. 

*xlíj)r5 sb.f: Goth hleipra 'tenť. Identical 
with Umbr kletram 'litter' < *klítra, Lat 
dim. clítellae 'pack-sadďe' based on *clítra. 
Cf. also Mír clithar 'fence'. Meringer 
IF XVI 210 (on semantic development); 
Zupitza KZ XXXV 259; Torp-Falk 
112; Feist 263; Porzig Gliederung 124; 
Pokorný I 601; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
102; Lehmann GED 187; FCluge-Seebold 

*xlóanan str.vb.: ON hlóa 'to bellow, to 
roar', OE hlówan id., OLFrank luoian 'to 
low, to moo', OHG hluoen 'to roar'. 




Probably distantly related to Lat dámo 'to 
shouť. Zupitza Gutt. 118; Torp-Falk 
83; Holthausen AEEW 164; Walde- 
Hofmann I 227; Onions 538. 

*xlÓ3Íz adj.: Norw dial. and-log 'inclined to 
laugh', OHG ant-hluogi 'merry'. Back for- 
mation of *xlo^janan ~ *xloxjanan. Further 
derived from *xlaxjanan. Karsten NB I 
117; Matzel Kratylos XXXIV 137, KZ 
CV 122-123; Heidermanns 296. 

*xl53Janan ~ *xloxjanan wk.vb.: Goth 
uf-hlohjan 'to make laugh', ON hlcegja id. 
Causative of *xlaxjanan. Torp-Falk 110; 
Feist 512; Vries ANEJi* 241; Seebold 

*xludaz adj.: OHG prop. Hlud-wig. From 
IE *klutó- 'famous': Skt šrutá- 'heard, 
famous', Av šrůta- 'heard', Gk kA-utoc;, 
Arm lu 'known'. Lat in-clutus 'famous'. 
Bartholomae 1648; Walde-Hofmann I 
690-691; Mayrhofer III 372-374; 
Pokorný I 605-607; Frisk I 877-878. 

*xluniz sb.m.: ON hlynr 'maple tree', OE 
hlyn id., LG lone, láne id. Probably con- 
nected with Maced ícXivó-xpoxov 'a kind 
of maple' (Theothrastes), Slav *klem> ~ 
*klbrtb 'maple', W kelyn id. Schróder IF 
XVII 316; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 378; 
Vasmer VB XXI 126 (to Gk Aoíiva iSXr] 
'small Carpathian mountains'); Torp- 
Falk 113; Holthausen AEEW 165; 
Stang LS 28-29; Specht 60 (to OHG 
Im-boum 'maple'); Pokorný I 603; Vrtes 
ANEW 240-241; Trubachev ESSJa EK 

*xlustiz sb.f: ON hlust 'ear, the inner part 
of the ear', OE hlyst 'hearing' (fem., 
mase), OS hlust 'hearing, ear'. Struc- 
turally similar to Skt srůsti- 'obedience', 
Olr chas 'ear' < *kloustá. Derived from 
*xluian. ZuprrzA Gutt. 186; Torp-Falk 
113; Holthausen AEEW 165; Mayr- 
hofer III 394; Pokorný I 606; Vries 
ANEW 240; Zalizniak II 228; Onions 
531; Bammesberger KZ LXXXII 298- 
303; Kluge-Seebold 526. 

*xlutiz sb.m.: ON 'lot, share' (pardy 
< *xlutuz), OE Myt 'share', OFris neut. 
hlot 'lot', OHG hluz id. Cf. also *xluton ~ 

*xlutan. Derived from *xleutanan. Schra- 
der KZ X 475 (to Gk K^áSoq 'branch'); 
Torp-Falk 113; Holthausen AEEW 
165; Pokorný I 605; Vries ANEW 240; 
Zalizniak II 200; Onions 537; Seebold 
265; Bammesberger Nom. 133. 

*xlutójanan wk.vb.: ON hluta 'to draw 
lots', MLG loten, lotten id. Derived from 
*xlutiz. Vries /UVEir 240. 

*xlutón ~ *xlutan sb.m./n.: ON hluti 
'part, share', OE hlot 'loť, OFris hlot id., 
MLG lot id., OHG hluz id. Derived from 
*xleutanan. Holthausen AEE\V 164; 
Seebold 265. 

*xluzan sb.n.: ON hler 'shutter, dooř', 
mase. hleri id. The phrase standa á hleri 'to 
stand eavesdropping' may preserve dre 
originál meaning of the vvord rather than 
be a metaphor. Related to IE *kleu-s-\ 
Tokh A kly os- , B klyaus- 'to hear', Av 
sraoša- 'hearing', Olr sluas 'ear'. Bar- 
tholomae 1634-1636; Pokorný I 606. 

*xlúdaz adj.: OE hlúd 'loud', OFris hlud 
id., OS hlúd id., OHG lút id. Stands close 
to adj. *klutós derived from *kleu- 'to 
hear', cf. Skt šrutá- 'heard, famous', Gk 
kA.utÓc; 'famous', W clywed 'hearď, Arm lu 
'known'. See *xludaz. Torp-Falk 1 1 2 — 
113; Holthausen AEEW 164; Mayr- 
hofer III 373; Pokorný I 605-606; 
Dybo VSJa 33; Vries ANEW 238; Frisk 
I 877-878; Onions 538; Heidermanns 
296-297; Kluge-Seebold 507. 

*xlúdjanan wk.vb.: ON hlýoa 'to hearken, 
to listen', OE hlýdan 'to sound, to make 
a loud noise', OFris hledá 'to ring', OS 
á-hludian 'to pronounce', OHG hlúten 
'to sounď. Related to *xludaz. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 165; Vries ANEW 240. 

*xlútraz adj.: Goth hlutrs 'clean, pure', OE 
hlutor 'clear, pure', OS hluttar 'clear, pure', 
OHG hlútar 'clear, pure, lighť. Related 
to Gk K^ti^to 'to wash off' < *kludio, and 
furdrer to Lat duo 'to cleanse', Lith šlúoju, 
šlúoti 'to sweep, to clean up'. See *xlewaz. 
Zupitza Gutt. 119 (to Slav *kl'uditi 'to 
cleanse' rather than to Gk kW^co); Torp- 
Falk 113; Berneker I 527 (against 
Zupitza); Trautmann BS]V 307; Walde- 




Hofmann I 239-240; Feist 264-265 
Holthausen AEE] V 164; Pokorný I 607 
Fraenkel 1010-1011; Frisk I 876-877 
Lehmann GED 188; Heidermanns 297- 
298; Kluge-Seebold 507. 

*xlútrín sb.f.: Goth hlutrei 'purity', OHG 
hlutarl 'sincerity, clarity'. Derived from 
*xlútrai. Feist 264; Lehmann GED 188; 
Heidermanns 298. 

*xnaÍ3waz adj.: Godi hnaiws 'low', OE 
hnáh 'bent, low'. Derived from *xnl- 
Swanan. Holthausen AEE\V 166; Feist 
265; Seebold 266; Lehmann GED 188; 
Heidermanns 298. 

*xnaÍ3wjanan wk.vb.: Goth hnaiwjan 'to 
make low, to humble', ON hneigja 'to 
bow, to bend, to incline', OE hná^an 
'to cause to bow, to bring low', OHG 
hneigen 'to bow'. Derived from *xnai^waz 
or *xni3wanan. Torp-Falk 98; Holt- 
hausen AEE]Y 165; Feist 265; Vries 
ANEW 242; Lehmann GED 188; Seebold 
266-267; Heidermanns 298. 

*xnaikjanan wk.vb.: Icel hneikja 'to strike, 
to kick', OE hnécan 'to kill', OHG neihhen 
'to sacrifice'. Implies unattested str. *xník- 
janan of unknown etymology. Cf. *xnait- 
janan. Holthausen AEE]V 165; Vries 
ANE1V 243 (to Gk cuto-Kvaíeo 'to scrape, 
to rub off'). 

*xnaisjanan wk.vb.: ON hneisa 'to dis- 
grace', MHG nesen 'to tormenť. Related 
to *xnaison > ON hneisa 'disgrace, shame'. 
Cf. *xnaitjanan. Sturtevant Language III 
170 (to *naitjanan); Vries ANEW 242. 

*xnaitjanan wk.vb.: ON hneita 'to cut, to 
wound (?)', MLG neten 'to strike', OHG 
neizen 'to oppress, to exhaust, to destroy'. 
Causative of *xnitanan. On the other 
hand, cf. *naitjanan. Vries AME]V 242— 

*xnakkaz ~ *xnakkón sb.m.: ON 
hnakki 'occiput, napě', MLG nacke, necke 
id., OHG nac, nacko id. Related to Toch 
A kňuk 'neck, napě'. Another ablaut grade 
is probably represented in Skt šaňkhá 
'conch', Gk KÓyxo? id., KÓyxri id. < 
*konkho-. Zupitza Gutt. 207; Torp-Falk 
97 (to Olr cnoc 'hill'); Holthausen AEE] I' 

166; Marttnet Gem. 137, 188; Mayr- 
hofer III 290-291; Pokorný I 558 (to IE 
*ken- 'to press, to squeeze'), 614; Vries 
ANEW 242; Frisk I 889-890; Chan- 
traine I 550-551; Onions 605 (to Olr 
cnocc 'hill' < Celt *knukkos); Zalizniak II 
178; Kluge-Seebold 580. 

*xnappaz sb.m.: ON hnappr 'button', OE 
hnďpp 'cup, bowl', OS hnapp 'scoop', 
OHG napfbowV. Related to Gk Kvántco 
'to card or to comb wool', Lith knabóti 'to 
pluck ouť. Torp-Falk 97; Holthausen 
AEE] V 165; Marttnet Gem. 194; Vries 
ANEW 242; Zalizniak I 132; Levickij 
IF CIII 223-224 (to *xneupanan); Kluge- 
Seebold 582. 

*xnappjanan wk.vb.: ON hneppa 'to but- 
ton', OE hnteppan 'to strike (?)', G dial. 
nepfen 'to limp'. Derived from *xnappaz. 
Zupitza Gutt. 120; Torp-Falk 97 (from 
*knabh-n-, to Gk KvájtTco); Holthausen 
AEE] i' 165; Marttnet Gém. 170, 175; 
Pokorný I 562; Fraenkel 277; Vries 
ANEW 243; Frisk I 881-882; Heider- 
manns 299. 

*xnask(w)uz adj.: Goth hnasqus 'soft, del- 
icate', OE hnesce id., WFris nesk id., MDu 
nesch, msch 'soft'. Of unknown origin. 
Karsten MB II 408; Grienberger Got. 
117-118 (to Gk Kváco 'to scratch'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 99, 120; Torp-Falk 97-98; 
Wood PBB XXIV 530 (to Skt khadati 
'to chew, to bite, to eať < *kn3Í-)\ Torp- 
Falk 97; Feist 265 (to *knes- in Gk Kvé- 
topoc; 'netde'); Holthausen AEE] V 166; 
Pokorný I 561; Bammesberger Sprache 
XXI 188; Lehmann GED 188-189 (from 
IE *ken- 'to rub, to scrape'); Heidermanns 

*xnawwuz adj.: ON hiiQggr 'niggardly, 
stingy', OE hneáw 'stingy, near, nig- 
gardly', WFris nau 'narrow', MLG nouwe 
'narrow', MHG ge-nou 'careful, thorough'. 
Derived from *xnewwanan. Karsten J\B 
II 189, 378-380; Torp-Falk 99; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 166; Pokorný I 562; 
Ltndeman Verscháifung 143; Vries ANE]V 
246; Onions 610; Kluge-Seebold 312. 

*xneučtanan str.vb.: ON pret. sg. hnaui 




'to strike, to punch', MLG neden 'to 
riveť, OHG bi-hniutit 'muniť. Based 
on *xnewwanan. Probably related to Gk 
kvÚí^o 'itch', Latv knudet 'to itch'. Torp- 
Falk 100; Jóhannesson IE]V 213-214; 
Pokorný I 559-563; Vries ANEW 244; 
Frisk I 886; Seebold 268; Kluge- 
Seebold 589. 

*xneupanan str.vb.: Goth dis-hniupan 'to 
rend, to break apart, to tear', OE pret. 
sg. a-hneop 'to pluck, to tear'. Cf. also 
OSwed niupa 'to pinch'. Related to Lith 
kniáubtis 'to cover the face with hands and 
to incline one's heaď, kniumbii, kniúbti 'to 
kneel and to touch the ground with one's 
face'. Torp-Falk 100; Grienberger 
Got. 56—57 (to Latv knubt 'to turn, to 
benď); Persson Beitráge 882 (to Gk kvíků 
'to scratch'); Torp-Falk 100; Feist 1 19— 
120; Holthausen AEEW 166; Pokorný 
I 91 (to IE *ken- 'to scratch, to rub'); 
Fraenkel 278; Seebold 269; Lehmann 
GED 91. 

*xneusanan str./wk.vb.: ON hnjósa 'to 
sneeze', MLG nesen id., OHG niosan id. 
Of imitative origin (Vries IF LXII 1 36- 
150). Torp-Falk 100-101; Porzig Glw- 
derung 212; Jóhannesson IEW 213-214; 
Pokorný I 953 (to Skt ksáuti 'to sneeze'); 
Vries ANEW 244; Onions 606; Seebold 
269; Kluge-Seebold 588. 

*xnewwanan str.vb.: ON hnoggva 'to 
humble, to bring down', OHG hniuwan 
'to punch, to crush'. Related to Gk Kvóto 
'to scratch'. Meringer WuS I 22-23; 
Torp-Falk 99; Jóhannesson IEW 213 
214; Pokorný I 559-563; Vries ANEW 
246; Frisk I 887; Seebold 270. 

*xnippjanan wk.vb.: ON hnippa 'to poke 
in the side', ME nippen 'to pinch', LG nip- 
pen 'to sip', G dial. nipfen id. Gf. Lith knibti 
'to fall, to benď. Zupitza Gutt. 120; 
Torp-Falk 99 (to Gk kvuico 'to scratch'); 
Pokorný I 562; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
76; Vries ANEW 243. 

*xnissón sb.f.: Icel hnissa 'strong 
směli'. Close to Gk Kviaoc, kvÍgt| 'steam 
and odour of fat, smell or savor of a 
burnt sacrifice' < *knid-s-ia. Further cf. 

Lat mdor 'vapor, steam, smell' (Johansson 
KZ XXX 416-417). Torp-Falk 98; 
Walde-Hofmann II 166-167; Pokorný I 
*xnitz sb.f: OE hnitu id. (traces of cons. 
stem), MLG něte, nit id., OHG niz id. 
Related to Gk KÓviq id., Arm anic 'louse' 

< *k(o)nid-, Alb théri ~ theni id. < *konid- 
and probably Mír sněd 'niť < *s(k)nida 
(Fick II 316; Pedersen KZ XXXLX 343, 
387). Cf. * 3 nito. Persson SVSU X 
94-96; Meillet MSL XXII 143; Torp- 
Falk 98-99; Holthausen AEEW 166; 
Pokorný I 608-609; Frisk I 912-913; 
Onions 611; Griepentrog í Vurzelnomina 
474-476; Orel AED 476; Kluge- 
Seebold 589. 

*xnÍ3wanan str.vb.: Goth hneiwan 'to 
decline', ON hníga 'to bow dow, to sink', 
OE hní^an 'to bend, to bow', OFris hniga 
id., OS hnigan id., OHG nigan id. Close to 
Lat conlueo 'to shut the eyes, to overlook' 

< *kom-kneig"h- (Osthoff PBB VIII 274; 
Walde-Hoffmann I 261). Meillet MSL 
XV 101-103 (development of *~3W-); 
Uhlenbeck PBB XXX 291 (to Slav 
*niknqti 'to lower, to plummeť); Zupitza 
Gutt. 100; Torp-Falk 98; Feist 265- 
266; Holthausen AEE1\ t 166; Walde- 
Hofmann I 261; Krahe SuV 78; Jóhan- 
nesson IEW 264; Pokorný I 608; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 91; Vries ANEW 
243; Seebold 266-267 (to *xnípanan); 
Lehmann GED 189; Kluge-Seebold 585. 

*xnlpanan str.vb.: ON part. hnipinn 
'drooping, desponding'. Related to Lith 
kneibiú, knéibti 'to pluck ouť. Torp-Falk 
99; Jóhannesson IEW 264; Pokorný I 
608; Fraenkel 277-278; Vries ANEW 
243; Seebold 267. 

*xnípójanan wk.vb.: ON hnípa 'to be 
downcast, to droop', OE hnipian 'to 
bow the heaď. Derived from *xnlpanan. 
Zupitza Gutt. 120; Torp-Falk 99; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 166; Pokorný I 608; 
Vries ANEW 243; Seebold 267. 

*xnítanan str.vb.: ON hnita 'to strike, 
to wound to the death', OE hnítan 'to 
strike', OS hnitan id. Related to Gk Kvinto 




'to scratch, to pounď, Latv knidět 'to 
itch', kniedet 'to riveť (if not a loanword). 
Zupitza Gutt. 120; Torp-Falk 98; Holt- 
hausen AEEl\ r 166; Jóhannesson IE]\ t 
213-224; Pokorný I 562; Vries ZF LXII 
142-143, AMEW 244; Frisk I 884-885; 
Seebold 267-268. 

*xnóanan wk.vb.: OHG nuoen 'to plane, 
to shave'. Close to Gk Kváto 'to rub, 
to scratch', Mír cnáim 'to consume'. 
Pokorný I 560-561; Frisk I 880-881; 
Dybo BSA 94. 

*xnukkaz ~ *xnukk5n sb.m.: Icel 
hnokki 'sniall iron hook', OE hnocc 'hook, 
penis', MDu nocke 'cut on the arrowheaď. 
Related to *xnutz. Related to Dac oikou- 
jtvoúi; 'plant fipúyyiov' (< *-kvov^), 
Mír cnú 'nuť, Lat mix id. Torp-Falk 
99-100 (to Gk kvuí^óv áépa ájtivécpeAov, 
Hes.); Holthausen AEEW 166-167; 
Vries AMEW 245 (to *ken- 'to squeeze, to 

*xnuk(k)ilaz sb.m.: ON hnykill 'clew (of 
yarn)', LG niickel 'hill'. Derived from 
*xnukkaz ~ *xnukkon. Vries AME]V 245. 

*xnukkjanan wk.vb.: ON hnykkja 'to 
pull violently', LG nucken 'to kick, to 
punch'. Related to *xnukkaz ~ *xnukkon. 
Martinet Gém. 77; Vries AMEW 245. 

*xnukkjaz sb.m.: ON hnykkr 'a kind of 
wresder's movemenť, MLG nuck, nucke 
'řlip, hitch'. Derived from *xnukkaz ~ 
*xnukkón. Vries AMEW 245. 

*xnutz sb.f: ON hnot 'nuť, OE hnutu id., 
MLG not, notě id. (i-stem), OHG nuz, hnuz 
id. (i-stem). Related to Dac cjikou-jivoÚÍ; 
'plant T]pt>yyiov', Mír cnú 'nuť, Lat nux id. 
See *xnukkaz ~ *xnukkon. Lohmann 
ZfceltPh XLX 62-64; Zupitza Gutt. 207; 
Torp-Falk 100; Vendryes MSL XXI 41 
(on the dissimilation in Latin); Hol- 
thausen AEEW 167; Walde-Hofmann 
II 191-192; Detschew Thr. 559-560; 
Pokorný I 558; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
101; Vries AMEW 244-245; ZalizniakII 
208; Onions 618; Griepentrog Wurzel- 
nomina 471—473; Kluge-Seebold 594; 
Adams TB 202 (adds Toch B kontac(e) 
'nut (?)'). 

*xnuzon sb.m.: ON hnqri 'sneeze', OE 
hnora id. Derived from *xneusanan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 167; Vries AMEW 246. 

*xnúj)5n ~ *xnúbaz sb.f./m.: Goth hnupo 
'pointed stake, spike', ON hnúdr 'knob, 
balí'. Probably derived from *xnewwanan. 
Any connection with *knútaz? Peter- 
sson AfslPh XXXVI 150-151 (to Russ 
snyč 'catch (of a lock)', Czech snít 
'bough'); Torp MTF XVI 144 (to Latv 
knutě, knutele 'long stick', itself from Slav 
*knutb); Torp-Falk 100; Thumb K£ 
XXXVI 190-192 (to Gk kevtÉco 'to 
prick'); Feist 266; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
733; Vries AMEW 245 (follows Torp); 
Lehmann GED 189 (to *ken- 'to scrape, to 

*x5bi]3Ó sb.f: ON ó-ho>fi 'indecency', 
MLG he-hofte 'neeď. Derived from *xebiz 
~ *xoíiz. Heidermanns 288. 

*xóbo sb.f: OS hóba 'plot of lanď, OHG 
huoba, huob id. Close to Gk kíjtoc; 'garden' 
(Meyer R'Z VII 28). Schrader R'Z X 
473; Zupitza Gutt. 103; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 107; Frisk I 842; Bammesberger 
Mom. 111. 

*xófan sb.n.: ON hóf 'measure, modera- 
tion', OFris bi-hof id., MLG be-hof id., 
MHG be-huqf 'profit, advantage'. Closely 
related to Gk Kcímri 'handle', Lith kúopa 
'crowd, flock, band, penalty for damage 
caused by catde'. Torp-Falk 73; Holt- 
hausen AEEl\ r 168; Trier Z dph LXX 
344; Pokorný I 528; Vries AMEW 
246-247; Frisk II 63; Seebold 245 (to 
*xajjanan); Kluge-Seebold 92. 

*xófaz sb.m.: ON háfr 'hoof, OE hóf id., 
OFris hoj id., OS hoj id., OHG huoj 
id. Related to Skt šaphá- id., Av sofa- id. 
Zupitza Gutt. 186; Bartholomae 1557- 
1558; Torp-Falk 90; Holthausen 
AEEW 168; Mayrhofer III 297; 
Pokorný I 530; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
106; Vries AMEW 247; Zalizniak I 132; 
Onions 447; Kluge-Seebold 386. 

*x6fjanan wk.vb.: ON hajá 'to hit, to 
aim', OE be-hófian 'to need, to require', 
OFris bi-hovia 'to aim', MLG be-hoven 
id. Derived from *xojaz. Torp-Falk 73; 




Holthausen AEEW 168; Vries ANEW 

*xox5n sb.m.: Goth hoha 'plow'. Cf. also 
OHG huohili 'small plow' (Grimm Gesch. 
40). Related to Skt šakhá 'branch', Alb 
theke 'fringe', Lith saka id., Slav *soxa 
'plow' (Bartholomae BB X 290; Meil- 
let BSL XXXVI/107 111, Etudes 158, 
174). Hehn Kult. 565; Hoops H'aldbáume 
499-501; Pedersen A'"" XXXVI 332, 
XXXVIII 391; Zupitza Gutt. 138; 
Meringer IF XVII 121; Schrader- 
Nehring II 208-209; Trautmann BSW 
297; Feist 266-267; Mayrhofer III 
321-322; Pokorný I 523; Fraenkel 
957-958; Vasmer-Trubachev III 729- 
730; Lehmann GED 189; Orel AED 473. 

*xólan sb.n.: ON hól 'praise, flattery', 
OE hól 'vain speech, calumny, slander'. 
Deríved from *xelanan (Grienberger Got. 
6-7). Uhlenbegk FBB XXX 291 (to 
Lat calumnia 'trickery, artifice, falše accu- 
sation', Slav *xvala 'praise'); Torp-Falk 
90 (to Lat caluor 'to deceive, to devise 
tricks', calumnia); Uhlenbeck PBB XXX 
291-292 (to Lat caló 'to calT); Holt- 
hausen AEEW 168; Vries ANEW 247; 
Lehmann GED 189 (to IE *kěl- 'to be- 
witch, to deceive'). 

*xóljanan wk.vb.: ON hala 'to praise, to 
flatter', OE hélan 'to slander'. Derived 
from *xó~lan. Holthausen AEEW 168; 
Vries ANEW 278 (to Gk Kristo 'to 
charm, to bewitch'); Lehmann GED 189. 

*x515janan wk.vb.: Goth holon 'to slan- 
der', OE hólian id. Derived from *xolan. 
Torp-Falk 90; Holthausen AEEW 169; 

*xónaz sb.n.: ON pl. hans 'hens, fowl', 
OS hon 'hen', OHG huon id. (residual s- 
stem). Long grade variant of *xanon. Cf. 
the samé ablaut grade in Slav *kan'a 
'hawk' < *koniá. Vaniček Lat. 48 (to 
Lat cicónia 'stork'); Brugmann IF 
XXXVII 249; Zupitza Gutt. 108; 
Meillet MSL XII 213; Holthausen IF 
XXXLX 67; Torp-Falk 69-70; Vries 
ANE]V 21Ů (to Lat conia 'stork'); Lehmann 
GED 176; Kluge-Seebold 386. 

*xópan sb.n.: ON hóp 'small landlocked 
bay', OE Jen-hóp 'fen-heap', OFris hop 
'circle', Du hoep id. Of unknown origin. 
Torp-Falk 71 (to Gk KÓijPoq 'roli, band, 
girth'); Holthausen AEEW 169; Vries 
AKEW 248; Onions 447; Toporov PJa 
III 108 (to *xappan). 

*xóra-čí5maz sb.m.: ON hór-dómr 'adul- 
tery', OFris hor-dóm 'whoredom'. Derived 
from *xorón. Onions 1005. 

*x5ra-kwenón sb.f: ON hór-kona 'adul- 
teress', OE hór-cwene id. Compound of 
*xoran and *kwenon. Carr Nom. comp. 81 
(parallel formations). 

*xóran sb.n.: ON hór 'adultery, fornica- 
tion', OE hór 'adultery', OFris hor 'adul- 
tery, fornication', OS hor-hus 'brothel', 
OHG huor 'adultery, fornication'. See 
*xoraz. Zupitza Gutt. 64; Torp-Falk 90; 
Holthausen AEEW 170; Vries ANEW 
249; Lehmann GED 190. 

*xoraz sb.m.: Goth hors 'fornicator, adul- 
terer', ON hórr id. Related to Lat citrus 
'dear', Olr caraim 'to love', Latv kdrs 
'lusty, greedy'. Zupitza Gutt. 122; 
Torp-Falk 90; Walde-Hofmann I 175; 
Feist 267-268; Pokorný I 515; Dybo 
VSJa 27; Vries ANEW 249; Onions 
1005; Van Windekens I 147 (adds Toch 
B an-kare 'immorality (?)'); Lehmann GED 
190; Bammesberger Mom. 75, 97; Kluge- 
Seebold 389. 

*x6r5janan wk.vb.: ON hóra 'to commit 
adultery', MLG hořen id., OHG huoron id. 
Derived from *xorai. Torp-Falk 90; 
Vries ANEW 249. 

*xóron sb.f: ON hóra 'whore, harloť, OE 
hóře id., MLG hóře id., OHG neut. huor 
id. Derived from *xóraz. Torp-Falk 90; 
Machek Slavíci XXI/2 259-261 (from 
Slav *kun>va id.); Holthausen AEE]\ j 
170; Pokorný 1515; Vries AME]V 249; 
Martynov Slav-germ. 297-210 (follows 
Machek); Zalizniak I 155; Onions 1005; 
Kluge-Seebold 389. 

*xrabnaz sb.m.: Burg *hramns 'raven', ON 
hrafii id., OE hnefn id., OS naht-hraian 
'nocticorax', OHG hrabán, raban 'raven'. 
Derived from *xrabon. Zupitza Gutt. 23, 




124; Suolahti DVN 174-179; Torp- 
Falk 103; Holthausen KZ XXVII 623 
(to Lat crepo 'to rattle, to crack'), AEE\V 
171; Pokorný I 569; Vries ANEW 250; 
Zalizniak II 220; Onions 741; Lehmann 
GED 192; Kobler 711; Rluge-Seebold 

*xrafoón sb.m.: MLG rave 'raven', OHG 
rabo id. Of imitative origin. Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXVI 305 (to Lat crepo 'to rattle, to 
crack', Latv krepet 'to be dirty'); Suolahti 
DVN 174-179; Torp-Falk 103; Pokorný 
I 569; Zalizniak II 220; Onions 741; 
Rluge-Seebold 662. 

*xradjanan wk.vb.: OE hreddan 'to rid, 
to savé', OFris hredda id., OHG ir-retten 
id. Identical with Skt ératháyati 'to loosen' 
(further related to šrathnati 'to become 
loose') and Slav *krotiti 'to tame' (Maghek 
Slavia XVI 187). Vasmer-Trubachev II 
383; Kluge-Seebold 683. 

*xraxilaz ~ *xra3Ílan sb.m./n.: ON 
hrtell 'weaver's roď, OE hřebel 'garmenť, 
OFris hreil id., OHG hregil id. Cf. also 
OE hreil 'reel' (Torp ANF XXIV 95). 
Of unknown origin. Bezzenberger BB 
XXVII 170 (to Slav "krosno 'loom'); 
Torp-Falk 101 (to Gk KepKÍ<; 'weaver's 
shuttle'); Holthausen AEE]V 171; 
Pokorný I 618 (to Gk KpÉKío 'to weave, 
to strike'); Vries A/VET I 7 263; Onions 736. 

*xraifjanan wk.vb.: ON hreifa 'to swing'. 
Close to Lith kraipaú, kraipýti 'to turn', 
cf. also kreípti id. (Zupitza Gutt. 125; 
Pedersen IF V 57). Persson Beitrdge 
949; Trautmann BSW 140; Pokorný I 
937; Fraenkel 292; Vries ANEW 252. 

*xraÍ3r6n sb.m.: ON hegri 'heron' (with 
dissimilation), OE hrá^ra id., OS regera 
id. (fem.), MLG reiger id., OHG reigaro, 
reigar id. Probably, results from a dissimi- 
lation of *xran^ron based on *xren^anan. 
Torp-Falk 104 (to Slav *krikt> 'shouť or 
Gk Kpíi^co 'to creak'); Holthausen AEE] I ' 
172; Chemodanov SGGJa I 59; Vrdís 
A/VEIK216 (to Gk aor. KpÍKe 'to creek, to 
screech'); Onions 438. 

*xrainaz sb.m.: ON hreinn 'reindeer', OE 
hrán id. From *xramiz- (Johansson KJ? 

XXX 339) (to*xurnan); Holthausen 
AEEW 172; Vries ANEW 252; Onions 
752; Kluge-Seebold 679-680. 

*xrainis5janan wk.vb.: ON hreinsa 'to 
cleanse', OHG reinison id. Derived from 
*xrainiz. Vries ANEW 252-253; Leh- 
mann GED 193. 

*xrainib5 sb.f: Gouh un-hrainipa 'impu- 
rity', OHG hreinida 'purification, clean- 
sing'. Derived from *xrainjanan. Feist 
520; Lehmann GED 190; Heidermanns 

*xrainiz adj.: Goth hrains 'clean', ON 
hreinn id., OFris hrene id., OS hreni id., 
OHG reini id. From *kroi-ni- probably 
related to Skt sn- 'beauty', Av sn- id., Gk 
Hom Kpeítov 'noble'. Karsten MB II 
181-182; Zupitza Gutt. 217; Torp-Falk 
104; Feist 268-269; Kluge PBB VIII 
525 (adjective in *-ni- from IE *krei- 'to 
cuť, furtírer related to *(s)ker-)\ Pokorný 
I 618, 946; Vries ANEW 252; Lehmann 
GED 190; Heidermanns 302-303; Kluge- 
Seebold 677. 

*xrainín sb.f: Goth hrainei 'cleanliness', 
OHG reini id. Derived from *xrainiz. 
Feist 268; Lehmann GED 190; Heider- 
manns 303. 

*xrainja-xertaz adj.: Goth hrainja-hairts 
'pure in hearť, OHG rein-herzi id. Com- 
pound of *xrainiz and *xerton. Feist 268; 
Lehmann GED 190. 

*xrainjanan wk.vb.: Goth hrainjan 'to 
cleanse', OS hrenian id., OHG reinen id. 
Derived from *xrainiz. Feist 268; Leh- 
mann GED 190; Heidermanns 303. 

*xraiwan sb.n.: ON hru 'corpse, carrion', 
OE hráw 'body, corpse', hréw id., OFris 
Áí"ě-ř"a/^'corpse-robbery', OS hrěu 'corpse', 
OHG hrěo, reo id. (í-stem in pl.). Cf. also 
Goth hraiwa- in hraiwa-dúbo 'turde-dove' 
< *'dove of death', *'dove of corpses' 
(Sghrader II 141-142; Wiedemann BB 
XXVIII 32). Substantivized adjective 
related to Gk Kpoióc; 'sickly, weak', Lith 
kreívas 'crookeď, Slav *kriub id. (Solmsen 
IF XXXI 466-467). Stokes Urkelt. 97 
(to Olr crí 'body'); Bugge PBB XXIV 
427-428 (to *xrawaz); Zupitza Gutt. 208; 




Grienberger Got. 1 1 9; Unwerth PBB 
XXXVI 3 (traces of j-stem); Torp-Falk 
101 (to Latv krija 'bark'); Wiedemann BB 
XXVIII 30-32 (to Slav *čewo 'womb'); 
Torp NNEO 558 (to Lett krijat 'to flay'); 
Wood MLN XVIII 15 (to *skrei- 'to 
turn'); Neokel Z dadl lxxi 187-188; 
Holthausen AEE]V 172; Feist 269; 
Pokorný I 936; Fraenkel 203; Vries 
ANEW 263; Zalizniak II 187; Frisk II 
22; Ebbinghaus GL XVI 9-13 (Goth to 
Gk KÓpocíj 'raven', Lat carvus id.); Leh- 
mann GED 190-191. 

*xrakjanan wk.vb.: ON hrekja 'to worry, 
to vex', OFris hreka 'to tear'. Related to 
Lith krangú, krágti 'to tower, to overhang'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 125; Torp-Falk 101 (to Skt 
kárjati 'to pain, to tormenť); Schefte- 
lowitz Zflnd II 279; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 107; Fraenkel 286; Vries 
ANEW 254. 

*xramaz sb.m.: MLG raem 'frame, 
rack', OHG ram id. Identical widi Slav 
*krorrtb 'loom, edge' (Zupitza Gutt. 122). 
Feist 270; Stang LS 31; Pokorný I 945; 
Trubachev ESSJa XII 185-186. 

*xrammaz ~ *xrammón sb.m.: ON 
hrammr 'paw, palm', OE hramma 'cramp, 
spasm', MLG ram, ramme id. An emphatic 
form of *xrampaz. Torp-Falk 104; 
Holthausen ^££11' 172; Martinet Gém. 
190; Pokorný I 948-949 (to Gk KÚptpoq 
'dry stalk, chip'); Vries ANEW 251. 

*xram(m)janan wk.vb.: Goth hramjan 'to 
crucify', ON hremma 'to clutch', OE hrem- 
man 'to obstruct, to hinder', EFris remmen 
'to lace, to tie', MDu remmen 'to brake, to 
check (wheels)'. Denominative of *xram- 
maz ~ *xrammon (Feist 270). Cf. a similar 
formation in Slav *kromiti 'to divide, to 
break'. Zupitza Gutt. 114, 122; Torp- 
Falk 103; Holthausen AEEW 173; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 80; Vries ANEW 
251, 254; Lehmann GED 191 (to IE 
*kre-m-, from *(s)ker- 'to cuť); Trubachev 
ESSJa XIII 5; Van Windekens I 234 (to 
Toch B kramp- 'to disturb, to check'). 

*xrampaz sb.m.: Norw dial. ramp 'thin 
man', MLG ramp 'cramp, spasm', MHG 

rampf id. Probably related to Gk Kpáufk>i; 
'blight in grapes, when they shrivel before 
they are ripe'. Torp-Falk 103; Frisk II 

*xramusó(n) sb.f./m.: Norw rams 'Allium 
ursinum', OE pl. hramsan 'broad-leaved 
garlic', MLG ramese 'wild garlic'. Prob- 
ably related to Gk Kpójruov 'onion' < 
*kromuso-, Kpé|it)OV id., Mír crim 'garlic' 
and further to Lith kermúšé 'wild garlic', 
Slav *čemrbša id., *čerrrtbxa 'bird cherry'. 
The IE word was borrowed from NCauc 
*kármuéV 'kind of fruit tree, quince, 
plum'. Bugge K~ XIX 419-420; 
Schmidt KZ XXXII 346; Pedersen IF V 
33; Torp-Falk 103; Holthausen AEEW 
172; Pokorný I 580-581; Fraenkel 
243; Frisk II 23-24; Onions 738; 
Trubachev ESSJa IV 68; Starostin DV 
121 (IE and NCauc words genetically 
related); Nikolayev-Starostin NCED 
700; Kluge-Seebold 665. 

*xrap5janan wk.vb.: ON hrapa 'to fall, 
to tumble down', ME rapen 'to hurry'. 
Derived from *xrappaz. Torp-Falk 102 
(to *xratqjann); Adams TB 154 (to Toch 
AB karp- 'to descenď < *korb-). 

*xrappaz adj.: ON prop. Hrappr, MLG 
rapp 'swifť. Related to Slav *kripbkb 
'firrn'. Torp-Falk 102 (to % xrapojanan); 
Pokorný I 620; Vasmer-Trubachev II 

*xrappjanan wk.vb.: ON hreppa 'to catch, 
to obtain', OE hreppan 'to touch, to treať, 
OFris reppa 'to touch', MLG reppen 'to 
move slighdy'. Derived from *xrappaz. 
Zupitza Gutt. 207; Torp-Falk 102-103 
(to Lith krapštýti 'to scrape, to rub, to 
scratch'); Holthausen AEE] V 173; Mar- 
tinet Gém. 169; Vries ANEW 254. 

*xrat5janan wk.vb.: ON hrata 'to fall, to 
stagger, to tumble', OE hratian 'to hurry', 
MHG razzen 'to rage'. Related to Skt kur- 
dati 'to leap, to jump', Gk Kpa8áto 'to 
swing, to wave'. On the other hand, cf. 
*xrappjanan. Zupitza Gutt. 122; Torp- 
Falk 101; Holthausen AEE]V 172; 
Mayrhofer I 254-255; Vries ANEW 
252; Frisk II 1-2. 




*xrapaz sb.m.: ON hradr 'swifť, OE hned, 
hned id., MLG rat 'swift, quick', OHG 
hrad id. Structurally close to Lith adv. api- 
kratai 'quick, fasť. Further related to Mír 
crothaim 'to shake', Lith krečiú, krésti id. 
(Fick II 99; Schwentner PBB XLVni 
79-85). Karsten MB I 57-58, II 294; 
Torp-Faek 102; Holthausen AEE~W 
171; Pokorný I 620; Fraenkel 295; 
Vries AMEW 250; Onions 741; Heider- 
manns 304-305. 

*xraud6 sb.f.: ON hraud 'mail-coat, 
cuirass', OE scild-hreóSa 'shield, buckler. 
Derived from *xreudanan. Holthausen 
AEEW 173; Vries AMEW 252 (to ON 
hijóóa 'to strip, to disable'). 

*xraukaz sb.m.: ON hraukr 'small stack', 
OE hreác 'heap, stack', MDu noc id. 
Related to Mír crúach 'heap' (Kluge PBB 
X 444). Bugge KZ XLX (1870) 420- 
421 (to Lith kráuti 'to put in a heap'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 123, 215; Torp-Falk 107; 
Holthausen AEEW 172; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 98; Vries AMEW 252; Onions 

*xraumón ~ *xraumaz sb.m.: ON 
hraumi 'noisy fellow', OE hreám 'cry'. 
Probably continues *xraut-mdn ~ *xraut- 
maz derived from *xreutanan ~ *xrutanan I. 
Torp-Falk 573 (to LG schrauen 'to cry, to 

*xraustaz adj.: ON hraustr 'strong, 
valianť, G dial. rošt 'sprightly, active'. 
Probably derived from *xreusanan. 
Karsten MB II 339-340; Schwentner 
PBB XLVIII 85; Zupitza Gutt. 123; 
Torp-Falk 108; Vries AMEW 252; 
Pokorný I 623; Heidermanns 305-306. 

*xrawaz adj.: ON hrár 'raw, fresh', OE 
hreáw 'raw', OS hrao id., OHG *rao id. 
Related to Skt kraví- 'raw flesh', Gk Kpéaq 
'flesh, meať, Lat cruor 'blooď, Mír crú id., 
Lith kraújas id., Slav *kry id. Zupitza 
Gutt. 124; Torp-Falk 106; Holthausen 
AEEW 172; Walde-Hofmann I 294- 
295; Mayrhofer I 277; Pokorný I 621; 
Fraenkel 290; Vries AMEW 251; Frisk 
II 1 1-12; Onions 742; Trubachev ESSJa 
XIII 67-70; Hamp IF LXXXII 75-76; 

Bammesberger Mom. 239; Heidermanns 
306; Kluge-Seebold 690. 

*xrazn5 sb.f: ON hrqnn 'wave', OE hiern 
'waves, tide'. Identical with Gk Kpř|vr| 
'spring, fountain' (Saussure MSL 1889 
119), Alb krua ~ krue id. < PAlb *kresná 
(Camarda I 50). Petersson IF XXrV 
46 (to *xreusanan); Kuhn MB XXLX 113; 
Torp-Falk 104; Holthausen AEEW 
146; Vrtes AMEW 264 (to *xrb~zjanari); 
Frisk II 16; Orel AED 198. 

*xrefaz sb.n.: OE hrifwomh, belly', OFris 
hrif, hrefiá., OHG hřej id. Related to Skt 
kíp 'shape, beautiful appearance', Lat cor- 
pus 'body', Mír crí 'body' < *krpes. Cf an 
interesting derivative ON hriflingr 'a kind 
of shoe' < *xrefalin3az witír a semantic 
development similar to Slav *červitb 
'shoe' < *čewo 'belly' (Sobolevskii RFV 
LXXI 444). van Wijk IF XXVIII 1 23- 
1 24 (to Lith kreípti 'to turn'); Zupitza Gutt. 
53, 125 (ON to Lat carpisculus 'a kind of 
shoe', OPrus kurpe 'shoe'); Torp-Falk 
103 (ON to Gk K pr|jtíg 'high boot, half- 
booť); Holthausen AEE\ V 174; Walde- 
Hofmann I 277-278; Mayrhofer I 260; 
Pokorný I 620; Vries AMEW 255 (ON 
to Lith kiirpi 'shoe'); Onions 575. 

*xrendanan str.vb.: ON hrinda 'to kick, 
to push, to throw', OE pret. sg. rand id. 
Probably related to Lith kraňtas 'steep 
bank', krentú, kristi 'to falT, Slav *krqtb 
'steep' (Zupitza Gutt. 123). Torp-Falk 
102 (to Gk Kpóxoc; 'clapping'); Holt- 
hausen AEEW 174; Jóhannesson IEW 
272; Pokorný I 621; Vries AMEW 
256; Vasmer-Trubachev II 387 (against 
Zupitza); Seebold 273 (to *xrewwanan); 
Trubachev Etim. 1978 6-7. 

*xren3az sb.m.: Crim. Goth. rinck 'ring, 
circle', ON hringr id., OE hrin.3 id., OFris 
hring id., OS hring id., OHG hring id. 
Related to Slav *kregb 'mountain ridge' < 
*krengho-, *krqgb 'circle' < *krongho-, *krežb 
'stump, mountain ridge' < *krenghio- 
(Miklosich 142, Zeyss KZ XX 132). 
Wood IF XVIII 11; Zupitza Gutt. 
125, 178; Torp-Falk 102; Holthausen 
AEEW 174; Feist 398; Schrijnen /T~ 




XLII 103; Trier Holz 80; Pokorný I 
936; Vries ANEJV 256; Zalizniak I 
132; Onions 768; Stang LS 30-31; Leh- 
mann GEDE 285 (from *(s)ker- 'to turn, to 
benď); Trubachev ESSJa XII 142, 148- 
149, XIII 25-27; Kluge-Seebold 687. 

*xren3Janan wk.vb.: ON hringja 'to ring', 
OE hrin^an id. (secondary str. forms). 
Derived from *xren^az? Zupitza Gutt. 
124; Torp-Falk 102; Berneker I 612 (to 
Lith krankui, kraňkti 'to croak', Slav *krgkati 
'to quack'); Holthausen AEEW 174; 
Vries ANEW 256; Onions 768. 

*xren3J5n sb.f.: ON hringja 'buckle', OE 
hrinse id., OS hringa id., OHG ringa 
id. Derived from *xren$az. Holthausen 
AEEW 175; Vries ANEW 256; Kluge- 
Seebold 688. 

*xrepaz sb.n.: ON hrip 'basket (carried on 
the horse-back)', OHG ref id. Related to 
Lith krepšas 'basket'. Torp-Falk 103 (to 
Lat corbis 'basket'); Buga RFV LXVII 
241; Pokorný I 937 (to Latv kribas 
Voven fioor of the sleigh'); Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 77; Vries AMW 257; Kluge- 
Seebold 673—674. 

*xrebanan str.vb.: OHG redan 'to sieve'. 
Related to Lith krečiu, krésti 'to shake', for 
the semantic development cf. especially 
Lith kreščiuóti 'to sieve'. Pokorný I 620; 
Fraenkel 295; Seebold 274-275. 

*xreudan sb.n.: OE hreód 'reeď, OFris 
hriád id., OS hriod id., OHG hriot 'pláce 
where reed grows'. Identical with Slav 
*kr'udb 'whip' (Trubachev ESSJa XII 
178). Torp-Falk 108; Holthausen 
AEEW \1?>; Pokorný I 623; Onions 749; 
Kluge-Seebold 687 (to Toch A kru, B 
kdrwats 'reed'). 

*xreučtanan str.vb.: ON part. hrodinn 
'covered with metal', OE pret. sg. hreád 
'to cover'. Related to Lith kráuju, kráuti 'to 
put on top of each other', Slav *kryti 'to 
cover' (Wood MP V 276). Sievers PBB 
XXXVI 404; Torp-Falk 108; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 173; Jóhannesson IEW 
268-269; Pokorný I 616-617; Fraenkel 
291; Vries ANEW 258; Seebold 275. 

*xreufaz adj.: ON htjújř 'rough, scabby', 

OE hreóf 'rough, scabby, leprous', OHG 
riob 'mangy, leprous'. Related to Lith 
kraupus 'uneven, rough'. Further cf. Alb 
klipe' ~ krype 'salt', Slav *krupa 'groats' 
(Meyer Alb. St. III 4, 31, 71). Karsten 
NB I 23; Zupitza Gutt. 126; Torp-Falk 
108; Trautmann BS]V 143; Holthausen 
AEEW 173; Kluge 279, Nom. Stamm. 
60, 88; Pokorný I 623; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 74; Fraenkel 290; Stang LS 30; 
Vries ANEW 258; Heidermanns 306- 
307; Orel AED 197; Kluge-Seebold 
339, 695. 

*xreusanan str.vb.: OE hreósan 'to fall', 
OHG hriusu 'reor' (leg. ruor). Etymologi- 
cally related to Gk ícpoúcc 'to strike', Lith 
krušil, krušti 'to trample', OPrus krůt 'to 
fall', Slav *krušiti 'to destroy'. Zupitza 
Gutt. 125, 208; Torp-Falk 107; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 173; Pokorný I 622; 
Fraenkel 302-303; Vries ANEW 258 
(to Gk Kpúoí 'icy cold, frosť); Frisk II 
27-28; Seebold 276-277. 

*xreutanan ~ *xrutanan I str.vb.: ON 
hrjóta 'to snore', OE hrútan 'to make a 
noise, to snore', OFris hruta 'to wheeze', 
OS pres. hrutan 'to snore', OHG ruzan 
id. Of imitative origin. Torp-Falk 107; 
Holthausen AEEW 176; Jóhannesson 
IEW 230-236; Pokorný I 567-571; 
Vries ANEW 258; Seebold 277-278. 

*xreutanan ~ *xrutanan II str.vb.: ON 
hrjóta 'to rebound, to fall, to fly', MHG 
rúzen 'to move quickly'. Related to *xreu- 
sanan. Torp-Falk 107 (to OPrus krůt 'to 
fall'); Pokorný I 622. 

*xrewwa-líkaz adj.: ON hrygg-ligr 
'mournful, saď, OE hréow-líc 'grievous, 
miserable'. Derived from *xrewwaz. 
Heidermanns 308. 

*xrewwanan str.vb.: OE hreówan 'to make 
sorry, to grieve', OFris hriouwa, riouwa 'to 
regreť, OS hreuwan 'to hurt, to pain', 
OHG riuwan id. Cf. also ON hryggja, hryg- 
gva 'to distress, to grieve' < *xrewwjanan. 
Of unknown origin. Torp-Falk 106- 
107 (to *kreu- 'blooď); Holthausen 
AEEW 173; Pokorný I 622 (to *kreu- 'to 
strike'); Vries ANEW 263; Seebold 278- 




279 (to Gk Kpoíxo 'to strike, to smite', 
Lith krušil, krušti 'to pounď); Kluge- 
Seebold 683. 

*xrewwaz adj.: ON hryggr 'aíBicted, 
grieved, distresseď, OE hréowe 'sad, 
grieveď, OS hriuwi 'worrieď. Derived 
from *xrewwanan. Karsten MB II 444- 
445; Uhlenbeck PBB XXVI 306 (to 
*xrawa Z ); Persson SVSU X 178 (to 
Skt koruna- 'lamentable, compassionate'); 
Torp-Falk 107; Holthausen AEElf 
173; Jóhannesson IEW 267; Pokorný I 
622 (to *kreu- 'to strike'); Vries ANEW 
263; Lindeman Verschájřung 150-151; See- 
bold 278-279; Matzel Festschr. Schroder 
95, KZ CV 98; Heidermanns 308. 

*xrěkjanan wk.vb.: ON hriekja 'to spiť, 
OE hrécan 'to clear the throat, to spiť. De- 
rived from *xrekon. Holthausen AEE>\ 7 
171; Vřes ANEW 263; Onions 743. 

*xrěkón sb.m.: ON hrála 'spitde', OE hráca 
'expectoration, spittle'. Related to Gk 
Kpró^ro 'to croak', Lidi kregeti 'to speak 
loučily, to grunt'. Zupitza Gutt. 124, 162; 
Torp-Falk 101; Holthausen AEE~W 
171; Pokorný I 569; Vries ANEW 251; 
Frisk II 31; Onions 743. 

*xrětó sb.f.: OFris rátá 'honeycomb', 
MLG ráte id., OHG ráza id. An ablaut 
variant of *xrotan. van Wijk IF XXVIII 
121-123 (to Slav *krada 'pile, stack'); 
Pokorný I 617. 

*xrisjanan ~ *xrissojanan wk.vb.: 
Goth af-hrisjan 'to shake off', OE hrissian 
id., OS hrisian 'to shake oneself, to trem- 
ble'. Related to *xristjanan. Torp-Falk 
105; Holthausen AEE1\ t 175; Feist 7; 
Pokorný I 19; Lehmann GED 5. 

*xrispón sb.f.: Burg *hrispa 'thickeť, 
MHG rispe 'bush'. Close to Lat crispus 
'curly, twisteď, W crych 'vibrant, curly' 
(Lehmann GED 5). Walde-Hofmann I 
293; Pokorný I 938; Kobler 711. 

*xristjanan wk.vb.: ON hrista 'to shake', 
MLG risten 'to braiď. Related to *xrlsan 
and *xrisjanan ~ *xrissojanan. Etymologi- 
cally close to Mír cressaim id. (Mar- 
strander ZJcdtPh VII 412). Torp-Falk 
105; Pokorný I 937; Vries ANEW 257. 

*xribanan str.vb.: ON hrifa 'to catch, to 
grapple', EFris rifen 'to rake', MDu riven 
id. Of unknown origin. A modification 
of *3ripanan or *xrínanan? Zupitza Gutt. 
126; Torp-Falk 105 (to Latv skřípat 'to 
scratch'); Schrijnen K£ XLII 101; Vries 
ANEW 255 (to ON hraji 'wrisť). 

*xribon sb.f: ON hrífa 'rake', OFris hríve 
id., MDu rive id. Related to *xrtianan. 
Torp-Falk 105; Vries ANEW 2b5. 

*xridran ~ *xrídr5n sb.n./f: OE hridder 
'sieve', OS hridra 'sieve', OHG ritem id. 
Continues *krei-dhro- (as in Lat crlbrum 
'sieve') or *krei-tro- (as in Olr criathar id.). 
Zupitza Gutt. 125 (to *xrisjanan ~ *xrisso- 
janari); Torp-Falk 104; Holthausen 
AEE]V 174; Pokorný I 946; Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 88; Onions 767; Leh- 
mann GED 190; Fvluge-Seebold 678. 

*xrlma-kaldaz adj.: ON hrím-kaldr 'icy 
colď, OE hrím-ceald id. Compound of 
*xrlman ~ *xrlmaz and *kaldaz. Carr 
Nom. comp. 61. 

*xriman ~ *xrímaz sb.n./m.: ON 
hrím 'hoar frosť, OE hrim id., Du rijm 
id. Probably from *xňp-m- in view of 
WGmc mase. *xripon id.: OS hripo, OHG 
hrífo. Unclear. Zupitza Gutt. 126; Torp- 
Falk 104 (to Lith kréná 'foam on dre 
cooking dish'); Holthausen AEEW 174 
(to Latv krěims 'cream'); Pokorný I 618 
(to *xrlnanan); Vries ANE)V 256; Onions 
768; Fvluge-Seebold 676. 

*xrinanan str.vb.: ON hrína 'to cleave, to 
stick', OE hrínan 'to touch', OS hrlnan id., 
OHG hňnan id. Of unknown etymolo- 
gy. Zupitza Gutt. 124, 187; Torp-Falk 
104 (to Latv krit 'to skim'); Holthausen 
AEEW 174; Jóhannesson IEW 266; 
Pokorný I 618; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
75 (to Latv krina 'pig'); Vries ANE]V 
256 (to *krei- 'to touch'); Seebold 271; 
Bammesberger Nom. 56. 

*xris(a)15n ~ *xrís(a)laz sb.f./m.: ON 
hrísla 'twig', OE hrisel 'weaving shuttle' 
(mase.?). Derived from *xnsan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 175; Vries ANEW 257 . 

*xrisan sb.n.: ON hrís 'shrubs, brush- 
wooď, OE hrís 'twig, branch', OFris hrís 



'switch, roď, MLG rís 'twig, branch', 
OHG hrís, rís id. Etymologically con- 
nected with OPrus craysi, crays 'straw', Lat 
crínis 'hair' (< *crisnis) and related to 
*xristjanan (Lehmann GED 5). Zupitza 
Gutt. 126; Holthausen AEEW 175; 
Walde-Hofmann I 292-293; Trier Holz 
58-62; Pokorný I 937; Vries ANEW 
257; Zalizniak I 141; Fíluge- Seebold 

*xríbo sb.f.: ON hríó 'tempest, storm', OE 
hríd id. Related to Olr crith 'trembling, 
fever', W cryd 'fever. Lidén PBB XV 
511 (to Gk Kpícni; 'separation, decision, 
judgemenť); Torp-Falk 105; Holthau- 
sen AEEW 175; Falk ANF XLI 119; 
Pokorný I 937; Vries ANEW 255. 

*xrófan ~ *xrófaz sb.n./m.: ON hróf 
'boat-shed', OE hróf 'roof, top, summit', 
OFris hrqfTooť, MLG roj id. Continues 
*kró-po-, cf. *xrótan < *krb~-do-. On the 
other hand cf. Olr cró 'enslosure, barn' 
< *krdpo-. Zupitza Gutt. 11, 208, IF 
XIII 51 (to Slav *strop-b 'roof < IE 
*krapo-)\ Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 92; Torp- 
Falk 106; Holthausen AEEW 176; 
Pokorný I 616; Vries ANEW 259; 
Zalizniak II 168; Onions 772. 

*xrókaz sb.m.: ON hrókr 'rook', OE hróc 
id., MLG rok id., OHG hruoh id. Related 
to *xrekon. Zupitza Gutt. 23, 124; 
Holthausen AEE]V 175; Suolahti ANT 
183; Torp-Falk 105; Pokorný I 569; 
Vries ANEh r 259; Frisk II 31; Onions 
772; Lehmann GED 192. 

*xr5pan ~ *xr5paz sb.n./m.: ON hróp 
'crying, screaming', OE hróp 'crying, 
clamor'. Derived from *xrópanan 'to 
shout, to call'. Torp-Falk 106; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 176; Jóhannesson IEW 
192; Vries ANE]V 260; Seebold 279; 
Kluge-Seebold 695. 

*xrópanan str.vb.: OE hrópan 'to cry 
out, to clamor', OFris hropa 'to shout, to 
call', OS hrópan id., OHG ruofan id. Of 
unknown origin. Cf. *xrópaz. Noreen 
Abrifi 206 (to Lith skrebú, skrebeti 'to rus- 
tle'); Bloomfield PBB XXXVII 251 
(rhyming word with *wopjanan); Torp- 

Falk 106; Feist 270; Holthausen AEE\ V 
176; Trter Holz 70 (from IE *ker- 'to 
cuť); Pokorný I 531; Seebold 279-280; 
Lehmann GED 191 (to IE *kar- 'praise'); 
Kluge-Seebold 695. 

*xr5piz sb.m.: Goth hrops 'clamor, outcry', 
OHG ruof 'shout, rumor'. Derived from 
*xrópanan. Feist 270; Vries ANEW 260; 
Seebold 279; Lehmann GED 191; Bam- 
mesberger Nom. 136; Kluge-Seebold 

*xropjanan wk.vb.: Goth hropjan 'to 
shouť, ON hrojpa 'to libel, to defame', 
OHG ruofen 'to shout, to call'. Derived 
from *xrópan ~ *xrópaz. Zupitza Gutt. 
23; Torp-Falk 106; Vries ANEW 260; 
Seebold 279; Lehmann GED 191. 

*xr5tan sb.n.: Goth hrot 'roof, house', ON 
hrát 'roof. Related to *xrěto. Close to Slav 
*krada 'pile of logs' (Bezzenberger BB 

XXVII 1 70; Uhlenbeok PBB XXX 302) 
and Alb krodhe 'beehive' < PAlb *krada. 
As it follows from the comparison with 
*xrófan ~ *xrqfaz, the originál structure of 
this word is *kró-do-, a derivational vari- 
ant of *kró-po-. Lidén Festschr. Noreen 432 
(to Pers sara(y) 'paláce' < Irán *srada-); 
Zupitza Gutt. 127; Grienberger Got. 
1 19-120 (to Gk Kpá8r| 'tree-top'); Wiede- 
mann IF I 194 (to Slav *kryti 'to cover'); 
Uhlenbeok PBB XXX 292 (samé as 
Lidén); Torp-Falk 106; Hirt Ablaut 11 
(to Gk Kápa? 'head'); Berneker 605 
(against Bezzenberger); Van Wijk IF 

XXVIII 121 (compares Slav *krada 
with Gmc *xrětó); Trautmann BS]V 140 
(to Lith kraúté 'attic'); Heinertz ESt. 
432-435 (against Bezzenberger; recon- 
structs *krou-d-, eventually, to IE *ker- 'to 
weave'); Feist 270-271; Trier Holz 70 
(to IE *(s)ker- 'to cuť); Pokorný I 617; 
Vries ANEW 261; Zalizniak I 141; 
Lehmann GED 191-192; Trubaghev 
ESSJa XI 58-60 (Slav *korda rauher than 
*krada); Orel AED 197-198. 

*xr5baz sb.m.: Burg *hroi>s 'glory, victory', 
ON hróbr 'praise', OE hréb 'fame, glory', 
hródor joy', OS hrob 'glory', OHG prn. 
Ruod-beraht. Any connection with *xratt- 





Hirt PBB XXIII 292 (to *kar- 'to 

praise': Gk KT|pui; 'herold', Skt carkarti 'to 
make mention of, to praise'); Torp-Falk 
105; Holthausen AEE1 V 175; Feist 271; 
Pokorný I 530-531; Vries ANEW 259; 
Lehmann GED 192 (to IE *kar- ~ *krá- 
'to praise'); Kóbler 711. 

*xrópÍ3az ~ *xróbu3az adj.: Goth 
hropeigs 'victorious, triumphanť, ON 
hródugr id., OE hrédis id. Derived from 
*xropaz. Feist 271; Lehmann GED 192. 

*xr5zaz adj.: Run prop. hroRaR, OE hrór 
'stirring, active', OS hrór 'lively'. Identical 
with Slav *krasb 'beautiful, coloreď, 
*krasa 'beauty'. Torp-Falk 106; Holt- 
hausen AEE1\ T 176; Pokorný I 572 
Vries ANEW 264; Matzel KZ CV 123 
Trubachev ESSJa XII 95-97, 105 
Heidermanns 309. 

*xrózjanan wk.vb.: ON hrcera 'to move, to 
stir', OE hréran 'to shake, to move', OFris 
hrěra 'to move', OS hrorian id., OHG 
hruoren 'to push, to move'. Derived from 
*xrozaz. Structurally close to Slav *krasiti 
'to ornáte'. ZuprrzA Gutt. 187; Torp- 
Falk 106; Holthausen AEE1\' 175; 
Vries AMW 264; Trubachev ESSJa XII 
99-100; Heidermanns 309; Kluge- 
Seebold 696. 

*xrufo(n) sb.f.: ON hrufa 'crnst, rough 
surface (of a stone)', OFris roje, ráje 'crust 
(on a wound)', MLG rove id., OHG ruj 
'scab'. Cf. also Gep *hrujs 'scurf. Related 
to *xreujaz. Vries ANEW 261; Kobler 

*xru3Jaz sb.m.: ON foyggr 'back, spině' 
(traces of z-stem), OE hrycg id., OFris hreg 
id., OS hruggi id., OHG hruggi id. 
Connected with Lat crux 'cross, tree or 
wooden frame for execution', Ir crúach 
'heap'. Zupitza Gutt. 127, 187; Traut- 
mann KZ XLII 374 (to Slav *kbréiti 'to 
bend, to ply'); Torp-Falk 107; Holt- 
hausen AEE]\ 7 177; Walde-Hofmann I 
296-297; Pokorný I 938; Vries ANEW 
262; Zalizniak II 213; Onions 767; 
Lindeman Verschárjung 15.17; Kluge- 
Seebold 694. 

*xru3nan sb.n.: ON hrogn 'fish roe', ME 

rowne id., MLG rogen id., OHG mase. 
rogan id. Derived from *xru3Ďn. Zupitza 
Gutt. 11, 126; Torp-Falk 107; Pokorný 
I 619; Vries /UVEII 7 259; Kluge-Seebold 

*xru3Ón sb.m.: ME rowe 'fish roe', MDu 
roge id., OHG hrogo id. Related to 
*xrawaz. Bezzenberger i?i?XXI 315 (to 
Lith kurkulaí 'frog-spawn'); Zupitza Gutt. 
126; Torp-Falk 107; Pokorný I 619; 
Vries ANEW 259; Kluge-Seebold 690. 

*xruk(j)5n sb.m./f: ON hroki 'heap above 
the brim of a full vessel', OE corn-hrycee 
'corn-rick'. Related to *xraukaz. Vries 
ANEW 259. 

*xrumpaz sb.m.: Norw dial. rump 'fiat hill 
top, buttoeks', ME rumpe 'podex' (fem.), 
MLG rump 'trunk'. Of unknown origin. 
Torp-Falk 103 (to *xrampaz). 

*xrun3Ó(n) sb.f.: Goth hrugga 'staff', OE 
hrun3 'rung, staff, roď, MLG runge 'pole, 
stake', OHG runga id. Related to *xren3az 
(Torp-Falk 108). Charpentier BB 
XXX 159; Sohroder PBB XXLX 499 
(reconstructs the originál meaning as 
*'round pole': to Skt krúňcati 'to curve, 
to move crookedly'); Uhlenbeck TJVTL 
XXV 279-280 (against Schroder); 
Holthausen AEE]V 176; Feist 271 
272; Pokorný I 936; Zalizniak I 147; 
Onions 777; Lehmann GED 192; Kluge- 
Seebold 696. 

*xrusón sb.f: OE hruse 'earth, ground', 
OHG (h)rosa 'crust, ice'. Derived from 
*xreusanan. Identical with Lith krušá 'hail, 
floe', Slav *krt>xa 'bit'. Torp-Falk 108; 
Walde-Hofmann I 295 (to Gk Kpt>o<; 
'frost, cold', Lat crusta 'crust'); Fraenkel 
302; Vasmer-Trubachev II 384. 

*xrussan sb.n.: ON hross 'horše', OE hors 
id., OFris hors, hars id., OS hros id., OHG 
hros, ros id. Borrowed from East Iranian, 
cf. Osset (v)urs 'stallion' (Brondal APS III 
1-3; Benveniste BSL LVIII 41-43). 
Derivation from *xreusanan is less proba- 
ble. Cf. also *xruzan. Kogel PBB VII 
176 (to Gk KpaSáto 'to shake'); Froehde 
BB XIV 105 (to Lat curro 'to run', Olr 
carr 'vehicle'); Zupitza Gutt. 123; Torp- 




Falk 79; Holthausen AEEW 170 (to Skt 
kúrdati 'to leap, to jump'); Jóhannesson 
IEW 239 (to *xurska Z ); Brondal APS III 
1—31 (from East Iranian); Pokorný I 583; 
Vries ANEIV 260; Zalizniak I 141; 
Onions 448; Kluge-Seebold 692; Adams 
TB 234 (to Toch A kursár, B kwarsár 
'league, course'). 

*xruzan sb.n.: ON hrQr 'corpse', OE 
3e-hror 'fall, ruin, deauY. Derived from 
*xreusanan. Holthausen AEE1V 176; 
Jóhannesson IEW 268; Vries ANEW 
264; Seebold 276. 

*xrumaz sb.m.: OE hrúm 'sooť. Identi- 
cal with Av xrůma- 'terrible, horrible', 
Gk KpiJuÓQ 'icy cold, frosť. Further cf. 
*xruf>az ~ *xrupón. Torp-Falk 106; 
Frisk II 28. 

*xrubaz ~ *xrúbón sb.m.: ON hrúór 
'crust, scab', OE fem. hrúde 'mange, 
scabies', OS hrutho 'scab', OHG rudo 
id. Related to *xrawaz (Torp NNEO 550). 
Cf. Lat crusta 'crusť < *kreu- 'blooď 
(Bucheler Kl. Schr. II 270). Torp-Falk 
106; Walde-Hofmann I 295 (against 
Bucheler); Holthausen AEE]\ 7 177; 
Pokorný I 621; Vrtes ANEW 261 (re- 
lated to Lat kreve 'scab'); Kluge-Seebold 

*xufan ~ *xufaz sb.n./m.: ON hoj 
'pagan temple', OE hoj 'dwelling, house, 
halí', OFris haf 'yarď, OS hof id., OHG 
hoj id. Related to *xaupaz (witír irregu- 
lar -p-). Torp-Falk 94; Holthausen 
AEEW 168; Pokorný I 591; Vries 
ANEW 246; Zalizniak II 168; Kluge- 
Seebold 379. 

*xufa-stačtiz sb.m.: ON hof-stadr 'sanctu- 
ary', OS hqf-stedi 'courť. Compound of 
*xufan ~ *xufaz and *stadiz. Carr Nom. 
comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*xufraz sb.m.: OE hqfer 'hump, swelling', 
MLG hover id., MHG hover id. Close to 
Lith kupra id. Cf. also *xufan ~ *xufaz. 
Torp-Falk 94; Holthausen AEEW 168; 
Pokorný I 591; Chemodanov SGGJa I 
73; Fraenkel 314; Vries ANEW 274; 
Stang LS 31. 

*xu3diz sb.f: Goth ga-hugds 'perception, 

minď, ON -úd (in cmpn.), OE se-hy^d 
'thought, cogitation', OS gi-hugd id., 
OHG gi-hugt 'memory'. Derivative in IE 
*-ti- from *xuyjanan. KVluge PBB LX 
152-153; Collitz Prát. 13-14, 74-77 (on 
*-ti- > *-di- assimilated to root finál 
*-3-); Feist 184; Lehmann GED 139. 

*xu3Í-runó sb.f: ON pl. hug-rúnar 'magical 
runes', OE hy^e-rún 'secret of dre minď. 
Compound of *xu^iz ~ *xu^uz and *runo. 
Carr Nom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xu3Í-bankaz ~ *xu3Í-bankon sb.m.: 
ON hug-p>okki 'mind, disposition, judg- 
menť, OE hy^e-danc 'thoughť. Com- 
pound of *xu$iz ~ *xu3uz and *pankaz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*xu3Íz ~ *xu3uz sb.m.: Goth hugs 'under- 
standing, minď, ON hugr 'mind, mooď, 
OE hj>3e 'mind, heart, soul', OFris hei 
'minď, OS hugi id., OHG hugu 'mind, 
sense, spirit'. See *xu3Janan. Bopp Glos- 
sarium 380 (to Skt šaňkate 'to sway'); Fick 
BB XVII 320 (to Lat cupio 'to desire'); 
Uhlenbeck PBB XXII 541 (to Gk kukÚk) 
'to mix, to stir up'), XXX 293 (to *kugh- 
'to hide'); Charpentier BB XXX 153 
154; Torp-Falk 91; Mikkola BB XXII 
239 (to Lith kaukas 'pixie, goblin'); Hirt 
Ablaut 110 (from *kukí-, cf, Skt šúci- 
'bright, pure', further to Skt šócati 'to 
shine, to glow, to burn', Av part. saočint- 
'burning'); Wood MP XVII 572 (to 
Czech číhati 'to lie in waiť); Johansson 
PBB XVIII 37 (follows Hirt); Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 183; Feist 273; Pokorný 
I 596; Vries ANEW 265; Zalizniak II 
201; Lehmann GED 192-193 (to Skt kaví- 
'seer, sage, poet'); Bammesberger Nom. 

*xu3Janan wk.vb.: Goth hugjan 'to think', 
ON hyggja 'to think, to mean, to believe', 
OE hyc^an 'to think, to be midful', OFris 
'to think', OS huggian id., OHG 
'to remember, to hope'. Related to 
Hitt kunk- 'to weigh (?)', Lith ki{štú, kúšti 
'to start to move' (Woodhouse IF CTV 
211—213). For the semantic develop- 
ment cf. Lat pendo 'to weigh, to consi- 
der', G wágen 'to determine the weigh, to 




consider'. Fick BB XVII 320 (to Lat 
cupio 'to long, to desire'); Torp-Falk 91; 
Holthausen AEE]V 183; Feist 272-273; 
Fraenkel 321-322; Vries AMEW 274; 
Lehmann GED 192-193; Makovskii VJa 
XXXV/5 143 (to *xawwanan); Kluge- 
Seebold 379. 

*xu3Ójanan wk.vb.: ON huga 'to consider, 
to think', OE ho^ian 'to mind, to think', 
OFris hugia 'to diink', OS huggean id., 
OHG huggen id. See *xujjanan. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 168; Vries AMEW 265. 

*xu35n sb.m.: ON hugi 'mind, mooď, OE 
/103a 'care', hoju 'care, worry'. Related to 
*xu3iz. Holthausen AEEW 168; Vries 

*xulan sb.n.: ON hol 'cavity, hollow', OE 
hol 'covering', OFris hol 'den', OHG hol 
id. Substantivized *xulaz. Zupitza Gutt. 
185; Holthausen AEEh r 168; Feist 
274-275; Vries AME1V 247; Onions 444; 
Lehmann GED 194, 383. 

*xulaz adj.: ON holr 'hollow', OE hol id., 
OFris hol id., OS hol id., OHG hol id. 
Derived from *xelanan (Brugmann IF 
XXXIII 305-307). Karsten MB I 2; 
Zupitza Gutt. 185; Meyer MG]VG 1906 
187 (against Brugmann; to Skt kuly a 
'brook, ditch, channel', Gk kohAó^ 'stem, 
shafť, Lat caulis 'stem, penis'); Torp- 
Falk 81, 563; Holthausen AEEW 168; 
Porzig Gliederung 177; Pokorný I 537; 
Vries AMEW 248; Onions 444; Lehmann 
GED 383; Heidermanns 310-311; Kluge- 
Seebold 379-380. 

*xuldan sb.n.: ON hold 'flesh, meať, OE 
hold 'carcass, body'. Continues a partici- 
ple *(s)klto- of *(sjkel- 'to cuť. On the 
other hand, probably related to Mír 
colinn 'meať. Zupitza Gutt. 107; Torp- 
Falk 96 (to *kel- 'to strike'); Holthausen 
AEEW 169; Pokorný I 925; Dybo VSJa 
33 (to Lidi Šfaelt 'to spliť); Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 99; Vries AMEW 247. 

*xuldjanan wk.vb.: ON hylda 'to slash', 
OE hyldan 'to flay, to skin', holdian 'to cut 
open'. Derived from *xulian. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 183; Vries AMEW 274. 

*xuláón sb.f.: ON hulda 'hiding, secrecy', 

E hulí, OHG hulla 'cover, veil'. Cf. also 
ON prop. Huld < *xulió. Derived from 
*xelanan, cf. *xuljanan. Zupitza Gutt. 185; 
Torp-Falk 81; Holthausen AEE]V 177; 
Onions 451; Vries AMEW 266; Lehmann 
GED 193. 

*xulistran sb.n.: Goth hulistr 'cover, veil', 
OE heolstor 'darkness, veil, covering', Du 
holster 'holster'. Derivative in *-str-o- of 
*xuljanan (FvLUGE Mom. Stamm. 49-50). Cf. 
also *xuliso 'husk, pod': MLG hulse, OHG 
huba. Torp-Falk 81; Feist 274; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 156; Lehmann GED 193. 

*xuljanan wk.vb.: Goth huljan 'to cover', 
ON hylja 'to hide, to cover', OFris bi-hetta 
'to cover', OS bi-hullean id., OHG hullen 
id. Derived from an unattested aorist 
present based on *xelanan (Meillet BSL 
XX 25). Torp-Falk 81; Feist 274; 
Pokorný I 553; Vries ANEW 274; 
Seebold 252; Lehmann GED 193. 

*xulón ~ *xulín sb.f: ON holá 'hole', 
OHG holí id. Derived from *xulaz. 
Holthausen AEEW 184; Vries AMEW 
247 (to Gk KO^-iá 'hut, barn'). 

*xulkaz ~ *xulkan sb.m./n.: ON hólkr 
'metal tube', OE hole 'hollow, cavity'. Of 
unknown origin. To be separated from 
OE hule 'light ship', MLG hulk, holke 'ship 
of burden', OHG holco id. (despite 
Hetnertz PBB XLI 194) borrowed from 
Lat holcas id. < Gk oXxag id. Falk WuS 
IV 88; Holthausen AEEW 169, 177; 
Vries AMEW 247 (to *xulaz)\ Onions 451. 

*xulmaz sb.m.: ON hólmr 'isleť, OE 
holm 'mound, hill', OS holin 'hill'. Related 
to *xalluz ~ *xallaz. Reflects *klmo-, cf. 
Lat columen 'point, top, pillar' < *kelomn 
(Curtius Gr. Et. 153). Zupitza Gutt. 
106; Torp-Falk 82; Holthausen AEE]V 
169; Walde-Hofmann I 249-250; 
Pokorný I 544; Vries AMEW 248; Ler- 
chner 112, 117; Kluge-Seebold 381. 

*xulmjanan wk.vb.: ON hybná 'to hide, 
to conceal', OE for-hylman 'to cover over, 
to conceal'. Related to *xelmaz, *xelanan. 
Holthausen AEEW 184; Vries AMEW 

*xulniz sb.m.: OE hyll 'hill', Fris hel id., 




MDu hille id. Close to Lat collis 'hUT if the 
latter continues *klnis rather than *kolnis. 
See *xalluz ~ *xallaz. Zupitza Gutt. 106; 
Torp-Falk 82; Holthausen AEEW 183; 
Walde-Hofmann I 245; Pokorný I 544; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 55; Onions 441. 

*xulojanan wk.vb.: Goth us-hulon 'to 
hollow ouť, ON holá 'to make hollow', 
OHG holon id. Derived from *xulaz. 
Feist 533; Vries ANEW 247; Lehmann 
GED 383; Heidermanns 310. 

*xultan sb.n.: ON holt 'wood, grove', OE 
holt id., OFris holt id., OS holt id., OHG 
holz 'wooď. Related to Gk kX«8o<; 
'branch', Mír caill 'foresť, W celli id., 
Corn celli 'nemus' < Celt *kaldi and Slav 
*kolda 'log' (Bezzenberger BB XVI 240). 
Zupitza Gutt. 121; Torp-Falk 84; 
Holthausen AEE]V 169; Trier Holz 
43-51; Borck Festschr. Trier 456- 
476; Pokorný I 546-547; Vries ANEW 
248; Zalizniak I 141; Onions 445; 
Trubachev ESSJa X 122-123; Kluge- 
Seebold 381. 

*xulbaz adj.: Goth hulps 'kind, element', 
ON hollr 'gracious, faithful', OE hold 
'kind, friendly, pleasanť, OFris hold 'fair, 
faithful', OS hold 'kind, dear, devoteď, 
OHG hold 'true, devoteď. Probably 
derived from *xalianan (Mezger K£ 
LXXXIII 150-152). Karsten VB II 
314-315; Wood AJPh XXIII 195-1956 
(to Skt šramyati 'to become weary'); 
Fortunatov BB VI 219 (to Skt káta- 
'twisť); Zupitza Gutt. 107; Torp-Falk 83; 
Feist 274; Gúntert Kalypso 91 (to *xul- 
janan); Royen Festschr. Schrijnen 713—716; 
Holthausen AEEW 169; Trier Lehm 
55-56; Pokorný I 552; Vries ANEW 
247-248; Scardigli Goten 70-71, 105 
106; Mezger K~ LXXXIII 150-152 
(to *xalpaz)\ Lehmann GED 193-194; 
Heidermanns 311-312; Kluge-Seebold 

*xulbln sb.f.: Burg *hulpi 'favor', ON hylli 
'grace, favor', OE hyldu 'kindness, favor', 
OFris helde 'goodwill, benevolence, favor', 
OS huldi id., OHG huldi id. Derived from 
*xulpaz. Torp-Falk 83; Holthausen 

AEEW 183; Vries ANEW 274-275; 
Lehmann GED 193; Kobler 711; Hei- 
dermanns 311; Kluge-Seebold 386-387. 

*xulbjanan wk.vb.: ON hylla 'to court 
one's friendship', OHG hulden 'to calm, to 
comforť. Derived from *xulpaz. Torp- 
Falk 83; Heidermanns 312. 

*xulbón I sb.m.: Goth un-hulpa 'devil', OE 
un-holda 'íienď, OFris holda 'friend', OS 
un-holdo 'devil', OHG holdo 'friend'. 
Derived from *xidpaz. Feist 520-521; 
Lehmann GED 193; Bammesberger Nom. 
179; Kluge-Seebold 848; Heidermanns 

*xulbón II sb.f: Goth un-hulpo 'fiend, 
she-devil', OHG un-holda 'monster'. 
See *xulpón I. Feist 520-521; Lehmann 
GED 193; Kluge-Seebold 848; Heider- 
manns 311. 

*xumaraz sb.m.: ON humarr 'lobster', 
LG hummer id. Structurally close to 
Gk KÓnapoc; 'lobster, aconite'. Zupitza 
Gutt. 208; Torp-Falk 95; Pokorný I 558; 
Vries ANEW 266; Frisk I 773. 

*xumalaz ~ *xumalon sb.m./f.: ON 
humall 'hop-planť, OE hymele id., MLG 
homele id. Together or via Slav *x~bmelb id. 
borrowed from the East (Kuhn KZ 
XXXV 313-314), cf. Chův pm/a id. < 
*qumlay. The latter goes back to Iranian: 
Osset xumiclltcg id. < *xaum-ala-ka- derived 
from *xauma- 'sacred drink, sóma' 
(Trubachev ESSJa VIII 143-144). Latě 
Lat humulus id. is probably from Gmc. 
Hirt PBB XXIII 338; Uhlenbeck AfslPh 
XV 485 (Slav < Gmc); Holthausen 
AEEW 184; Vries ANEl\ r 266; Onions 
447 (from Slav *xbmelb id.); Vasmer- 
Trubachev IV 249-250. 

*xumló(n) sb.f: Norw dial. humla 'bum- 
ble-bee', MLG hummel id., OHG humbala 
id. Cannot be separated from Slav 
*čbmelb id. but the phonetic details 
are not clear. Further cf. Lith hamané' 
id., OPrus camus id. Zupitza Gutt. 127; 
Meillet MSL XIV 367; Torp-Falk 
95; Lewy IF XXXII 162 (on OHG 
-b-)\ Vries ANEW 266; Fraenkel 212; 
Vasmer-Trubachev IV 459; Trubachev 




ESSJa IV 145-146; Toporov PJa III 
200-202; Kluge-Seebold 387. 

*xumpaz sb.m.: ON huppr 'hip', E hump, 
LG fem. humpe 'limp'. Related to Skt 
klimbá- 'thick end of a bone', Gk íeónpri 
'hollow of a vessď, Kunpóc; id., Mír comm 
'vessel'. Torp-Falk 94; Pokorný I 592; 
Vries ANE1\ T 267; Frisk II 48. 

*xuna3an sb.n.: ON hunang 'honey' (sec- 
ondary -n-), OE hunij id., OFris hunig id., 
OS honig, OHG honag id. A taboo-moti- 
vated innovation based on a color adjec- 
tive 'yellow', cf. Skt neut. kaňcaná- 'gold, 
money, wealth', Gk kvt|kÓ<; 'pale yellow', 
OPrus cucán 'brown'. Torp-Falk 93; 
Holthausen AEEW 178; Mayrhofer I 
195; Pokorný I 564-565; Vries ANEW 
266; Frisk II 882-883; Zalizniak I 141; 
Onions 446; Rluge-Seebold 382; Hil- 
marsson Mat. 181-182 (adds Toch B 
krofnjkše 'bee'). 

*xuna3a-sw5tuz adj.: ON hunang-scetr 
'sweet as honey', OE huni^-swéte id., MDu 
honich-soet id., MHG honec-súeze id. Com- 
pound of *xuna^an and *swotuz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 89 (parallel formations). 

*xunda-fadiz sb.m.: Goth hunda-faps 'cen- 
turion'. Identical with Skt šatá-pati- 'cap- 
tain'. Compound of *xunian and *faiiz. 
Feist 276; Benveniste BSL LVIII 45 
(independent latě formation); Chemo- 
danov SGGJa I 107; Lehmann GED 195. 

*xundan sb.n.: Goth pl. hunda 'hundreď, 
OE hund id., OFris hund id., OS hund id., 
OHG hunt id. Identical with Lyc sňta, 
Toch A kdnt, B kaňte, Skt neut. šata- id., 
Av sahm id., Gk ékcxtÓv id., Lat centům 
id., Olr cit, Lith šiiňtas id., Slav *sr>to 
id. Zupitza Gutt. 187; Bartholomae 
1555; Torp-Falk 93; Trautmann BS1 V 
305; Holthausen AEEU 7 178; Walde- 
Hofmann I 200-201; Feist 275-276; 
Mayrhofer III 293; Pokorný I 192; 
Fraenkel 984; Frisk I 475; Onions 452- 
453; Vasmer-Trubachev III 761-762; 
Lehmann GED 194-195; Melchert St. 
Cowgill 202—203; Ross-Berns Mumerals 
620; Kluge-Seebold 388; Adams TB 139. 

*xunda-radan sb.n.: ON hundrao 'hun- 

dreď, OE hundred id., OFris hundred id., 
OS hundrod, hunderod id., MHG hundert id. 
Compound of *xundan and otherwise 
unattested *radan identical with Lat ratum, 
part. of reor 'to reckon, to believe'. See 
*rapjanan ~ *rap>ojanan. Torp-Falk 93, 
336; Walde-Hofmann II 429; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 178; Pokorný I 59, 192; 
Risch IF LXVII 129-141; Vries AMEW 
267; Onions 452-453; Peeters KZ XCII 
27-28; Bengston Diachronica IV 257-262; 
Ross-Berns Numerals 620 (difBcult -o- in 
OS); Kluge-Seebold 388. 

*xunčtarjan sb.n.: OSwed hundari 'com- 
pany (of one hundred)', OHG huntari id. 
Derived from *xunian. Derivationally cf. 
Lat centuria 'division of troops, company'. 
Torp-Falk 93; Walde-Hofmann I 201; 
Lehmann GED 195. 

*xundaz sb.m.: Goth hunds 'dog', ON 
hundr id., OE hund id., OFris hund id., OS 
hund id., OHG hunt id. Continues *kun-to- 
and is derivationally close to Latv deprec. 
súnt-ene 'big dog' (Osthoff Etym. I 
240-241; Persson Beitráge 585). Further 
related to the Indo-European word for 
'dog': Toch AB ku, Skt sván-, Av spa, Gk 
ícúcov, Lat canis, Olr cú, Lith šuo (Kuhn 
KZ I 380; Forstermann KZ I 493). 
Hirt FBB XXII 231-232; Osthoff Etym. 
240-241; Bugge KZ XXXII 54 (to Arm 
skund 'little dog' < *kuon-tá); Zupitza Gutt. 
187; Bartholomae 1610-1612; Torp- 
Falk 93; Holthausen AEEW 178; 
Walde-Hofmann I 152-153; Feist 276- 
277; Specht 422; Mayrhofer III 402; 
Pokorný I 632-633; Fraenkel 1033- 
1035; Vries .iVETI 7 267; Frisk II 58-59; 
Zalizniak I 1 33; Onions 449; Hamp FLH 
IV 137-138; Lehmann GED 195; Mel- 
chert MSS L 97-101; Kluge-Seebold 
388; Adams TB 1 79. 

*xun3rjanan ~ *xun3rójanan wk.vb.: 
Goth huggrjan 'to make to hunger', ON 
id., OE hyn^ran, hyn^rian id., OFris 
•era id., OS gi-hungrian id., OHG hun- 
garen id. Derived from *xun^ruz ~ *xun- 
xruz. Holthausen AEE]\ t 184; Feist 
272; Onions 453; Lehmann GED 193. 




*xun3ruz ~ *xunxruz sb.m.: Goth 
huhrus 'hunger', ON hungr id., OE hun^or 
id. (ff-stem), OFris hunger id., OS hungar 
id. (a-stem), OHG hungar id. (n-stem). 
Derivationally close to Hitt tangaranť 'not 
having eaten' (with assimilation) and Lith 
keňkras 'lean, emaciateď. Further to Skt 
káňksati 'to wish, to desire', Gk KÉyKEi' 
jtewá, Hom jtoA.t>KayKŤ|i; 'parching, very 
dry', KÓyKavoi; 'dry', Lith kaňká 'pain, 
torture' (Bezzenberger BB IV 357). 
Zupitza Gutt. 111, 132; Torp-Falk 70; 
Holthausen AEEW 178; Feist 273; 
Sohulze Kl. Schr. 329; Mayrhofer 
I 194; Pokorný I 565; Fraenkel 240; 
Vries ANEW 267; Frisk I 750-751; 
Zalizniak II 201; Onions 453; Lehmann 
GED 193; Bammesberger Nom. 161-162; 
Puhvel rV 48; Kluge-Seebold 388. 

*xunslan sb.n.: Goth hunsl 'sacrifice', ON 
húsl 'housel, eucharisť (from OE?), OE 
húsel id. Probably continues *kuns-lo-, a 
noun in *-lo- derivationally close to Av 
spanah- 'holiness' < *kuenes-. Further con- 
nected with Av spdnta- 'holý, sainť, Lith 
šveňtas id., Slav *sv(tt> id. (Fick I 767). 
Detter ^DADL XLII 55 (to *xunian, 
cf. Gk £KOiTÓ|ifir|); Zupitza Gutt. 187; 
Grienberger Got. 122 (to Lat canó 
'to sing'); Bartholomae 1612, 161 9 — 
1 621 ; Torp-Falk 93; Bezzenberger BB 
XXVII 151 (to Lith šusti 'to stew'); 
Osthoff Festschr. Fick 252-253 (to *xen- 
panan); Mekler Festschr. Fick 263 (to Gk 
Kaívto 'to kal'); Kook ANF XV 326; 
Braune PBB XLIII 417; Rooth PBB 
XLIX 114-118 (foUows Osthoff), Wortst. 
108; ZuprrzA Gutt. 50, 187; Torp-Falk 
93; Trautmann BSW 311; Holthausen 
AEEW 179; Feist 277; Trier PBB LXVI 
234 (to *xansS); Porzig Gliederung 167; 
Pokorný I 630; Fraenkel 1041-1042; 
Vries ANEW 268 (ON not from OE; fol- 
io ws Trter); Zalizniak I 141; Vasmer- 
Trubachev III 585 (against Fick); 
Lehmann GED 195-196. 

*xunpiz ~ *xun|5o sb.f: Goth hunps 'cap- 
tivity, capture', OE húde 'prey, booty', 
OHG heri-hunda id. Derived from *xen- 

panan. Torp-Falk 70; Holthausen 
AEEW 179; Feist 277; Lehmann GED 
196; Bammesberger Nom. 58. 

*xupiz sb.m.: Goth hups 'hip', OE hype id., 
MLG hup id., OHG fem. hufiá. Glose to 
Gk ícúfSoc; 'hollow above the hips on cat- 
tle', W gogqf 'hollow, den' (< *upo-kubá). 
Zupitza Gutt, 208; Torp-Falk 93-94: 
Holthausen AEEW 184; Feist 277-278 
Pokorný I 589-590; Frisk II 39-40 
Zalizniak II 176; Onions 441; Lehmann 
GED 196; Bammesberger Nom. 130 (to 
Lat cuhare 'to lie'); Kluge-Seebold 386. 

*xupp5janan wk.vb.: ON hoppa 'to hop, 
to skip', OE hoppian 'to hop, to leap', 
MLG huppen id., MHG hupfen, hopfen id. 
Derived from *xupiz. Pedersen IF II 
304; Zupitza Gutt. 121; Torp-Falk 94 (to 
Gk KuPiatáco 'to tumble head foremosť); 
Holthausen AEEW 170; Vries ANEW 
248-249; Onions 447; Sanders Festschr. 
de Smet 411-417 (*xupd(n) > OE hopa 
'hope', OFris hope id., MLG hope id. is 
from *xuppojanan); Kluge-Seebold 389. 

*xurďiz ~ *xurbiz sb.f: Goth haurds 
'dooř', ON hurd id., OE hyrd id., OS hurth 
'netting', OHG hurd, hurt 'lattice, fence'. 
Etymologically identical with Lat cratis 
'wicker-work' and related to Skt krnátti 'to 
twist, to spin', OPrus corto 'fence' and the 
like. Zupitza Gutt. 111; Torp-Falk 77; 
Schrader-Nehring II 557; Holthausen 
AEE]V 184; Feist 250; Walde-Hofmann 
I 285-286; Mayrhofer I 257; Pokorný 
I 584; Vries ANE]V 267-268; Zalizniak 
1151; Onions 453; Lehmann GED 179- 
180; Kluge-Seebold 389. 

*xurxwaz ~ *xurxwan sb.m./n.: ON 
hon 'mucus', OE horh, hor$ 'phlegm, 
rheum', OS horu 'excrements, dirť, OHG 
horo id. Of imitative origin. Much 
ZDADL XLII 169 (to Olr corcach 
'swamp'); Lidén SVSU VI/1 50 (to Skt 
kalká- 'paste, dirt, sin'); Zupitza Gutt. 72, 
109; Torp-Falk 95; Holthausen AEEh' 
170; Schulze Kl. Schr. 113 (to Lith šiřvas 
'grey'); Krogmann K£ LXIV 130—136 
(to Gk KÉp^voc; 'rough excrescence' 
and its cognates); Specht K^ LXIV 136— 




137; Porzig Gliederung 111; Pokorný 
I 573; Vries ANEW 249; Zalizniak II 

*xurxaz sb.m.: ON hon 'starvation'. 
Identical with Skt krsa- 'emaciated, lean, 
weak', Av hrssa- 'lean, meager' (in 
cmpn.) (Uhlenbeok PBB XXXV 172). 
Further to Lidi kárštu, káršti 'to reach old 
age, to grow decrepiť. Zupitza Gutt. 
109; Bartholomae 469; Mayrhofer I 
262; Pokorný I 581; Fraenkel 223-224, 
BS 60; Vries ANEW 249. 

*xurjan ~ *xurjaz sb.n./m.: Goth hauri 
'coal, ember', ON hyn 'embers of fire' 
(partly *xuriz). Related to Lith kurií, kúrti 
'to heať, Slav *kuriti 'to smoke' (Schef- 
telwoitz BB XXVIII 305; Petersson 
Au/s. 40-41). Bugge KZ XXXII 51 (to 
Arm krak 'fire'); Uhlenbeck Altind. \Vh. 
62 (to Gk Kaíto 'to burn'); Zupitza Gutt. 
114; Torp-Falk 75; Feist 250; Pokorný 
I 571-572; Fraenkel 319; Vries ANEW 
275-276; Zalizniak II 213; Fraenkel 
319; Lehmann GED 180; Trubachev 
ESSJa XIII 123-125; Dybo BSA 16. 

*xurna-bu3on sb.m.: ON horn-bogi 'horn- 
bow', OE horn-boja id., MHG hom-boge 
id. Compound of *xurnan and *bu^on. 
Carr Nom. comp. 73 (parallel formations). 

*xurna-fiskaz sb.m.: ON horn-Jiskr 
'garfish', OE horn-fsc id. Compound of 
*xuman and *fiskaz. Carr Nom. comp. 74 
(parallel formations). 

*xurnan sb.n.: Goth haurn 'horn', ON hom 
id., OE hom id. (mase.), OFris horn id., 
OS horn id., OHG horn id. Closely re- 
lated to Lat cornu id., Skt neut. šfňga- id., 
probably built on the unattested nomina- 
tive in -g of the originál *krn-. Belongs to 
IE *ker- 'head, horn'. Petersson SVSL I 
5-7; Zupitza Gutt. 186; Torp-Falk 
75-76; Holthausen AEEW 170; Walde- 
Hofmann I 276; Feist 251; Pokorný I 
576; Mayrhofer III 369-370; Vries 
ANEW 249; Zalizniak I 141; Onions 
448; Lehmann GED 180; Bammesberger 
Nom. 73; Nussbaum Head passim; Kluge- 
Seebold 383. 

*xurnin3az ~ *xurnun3az sb.m.: ON 

hornungr 'bastard', OE hornun^-sunu id., 
OFris horning id., MLG horninc id., OHG 
hornung 'February'. Derived from *xurnan 
(Uhlenbeok A^XL 555). Zupitza Gutt. 
207 (to Gk KÚpvoq 'bastard', secondarily 
associated widr *xuman); Holthausen 
AEEW 170; Vries ANEW 249. 

*xurnjanan wk.vb.: Godr haurnjan 'to 
blow a horn', OHG humen 'to equip with 
horns'. Derived from *xurnjan. Feist 
251; Lehmann GED 180. 

*xurnjón sb.f: ON hyrna 'one of the horns 
of an axe-heaď, OE hyrne 'angle', OFris 
herně id. Derived from *xurnan. For the 
semantic development cf. Slav *rogb 
'horn, corner'. Torp-Falk 76; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 184; Vries ANEW 275. 

*xurska-líkaz adj.: ON horsk-ligr 'brave, 
wise, noble', OHG adv. horsc-lihho 'lively, 
resolutely, quickly'. Derived from *xur- 
skaz. Heidermanns 313. 

*xurskaz adj.: ON horskr 'wise', OE horsc 
'quick, ready, active', OS horsk 'rapid, 
eager', OHG horsc 'swift, fast, lively'. Of 
unknown origin. Froehde BB XIV 1 05 
(to Lat curro 'to run'); FvArsten NB II 
294-295; Zupitza Gutt. 125 (to Lat 
serútari 'to investigate'); Torp-Falk 79; 
Schwentner PBB XLVIII 80-81; Feist 
49; Holthausen AEEW 170; Pokorný I 
579 (to Gk KÉpSoc; 'gain, advantage', W 
cerdd 'arť); Jóhannesson Suff. 29 (from 
*xurp-skaz); Vries ANEW 249-250; Leh- 
mann GED 37; Heidermanns 313. 

*xurstiz sb.m.: Norw dial. růst 'grove, 
wooď, OE hyrst 'copse, wooď, MLG 
horst, hurst 'bush', OHG hurst id. Related 
to W prys 'grove' < *k'-'rsto-, Slav *xvorstt> 
'bush, oak, firewooď (with an unclear 
*x-). Torp-Falk 78; Pokorný I 633. 

*xusón sb.f: ON hosa 'hoše, gaiter', 
OE hoše id., OS hosa 'trousers', OHG 
hosa 'hoše, gaiter'. Of unknown origin. 
Zupitza Gutt. 128; Torp-Falk 96; 
Holthausen AEEW 171; Pokorný I 953 
(to Gk ručme; 'bladder'); Vries ANEW 
250 (to Skt kosa- 'cupboarď); Zalizniak 
II 177; Onions 448; Iíluge-Seebold 




*xuzdan sb.n.: Goth huzd 'treasure', ON 
fem. hodd id., OE hord id., OS hord, horth 
id., OHG hort id. Of uncertain origin. 
Brugmann IF VI 103-104 (together 
with Gk kÚoSoc; 'female genitals', from 
*kudh-to-); Johansson IF XIX 129-130; 
Schmidt KZ XXV 166-167; Zupitza 
Gutt. 96, 128; Torp-Falk 96; Debrunner 
IF Lil 228; Holthausen AEEW 170; 
Feist 278-279; Pokorný I 953 (to 
*xudjanaii); Vries ANE]V 246; Zalizniak 
II 174; Onions 443; Lehmann GED 196; 
Kluge-Seebold 384 (to Gk keOOoq 
'depth, inside'). 

*xuzďjanan ~ *xuzdójanan wk.vb.: 
Goth huzdjan 'to treasure up, to store up, 
to gather', OE hordian 'to hoard, to store', 
MHG gi-hurten id. Derived from *xuzdan. 
Feist 278; Lehmann GED 196. 

*xúb5n sb.f.: ON húfa 'cap, hooď, OE húfe 
'covering for the heaď, OFris húve, houwe 
'cap, hooď, OS huna id., OHG huba id. 
Related to Skt kakúbh- 'peak, summit', Gk 
Ktjcpót; 'bent, crookeď, Slav *kubt> 'vessel, 
poť or to Skt kupa- 'hole, cave, well', Gk 
KÚ7IT1- xpróyA.r| (Hes.), Lat cúpa 'barrel'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 104, 128; Torp-Falk 94; 
Holthausen AEEW 177, 183; Walde- 
Hofmann I 310-311; Mayrhofer I 135, 
253; Pokorný I 590-591; Vrtes ANEW 
264-265; Onions 442; Frisk II 52-53; 
Zalizniak II 180; Trubachev ESSJa 
XIII 77-78; Kxuge-Seebold 360. 

*xúďiz sb.f: ON húi 'hide, skin', OE hýd 
id., OFris hěde, hud id., OS hud id., OHG 
hut id. Related to Gk kÚtoc; 'cover, hide', 
Lat cutis 'hide', W cwd 'bag, testicle', Lith 
kutys 'bag' (Siebs KZ XXXVII 282). Cf 
also WGmc *xu\>an 'testicle': OFris hotha, 
MDu hode, OHG hodo. Torp-Falk 
92; Holthausen AEE]V 183; Walde- 
Hofmann I 320; Pokorný I 952; 
Fraenkel 323; Vries ANEW 264; Frisk 
II 57; Zalizniak I 151; Onions 440; 
Lehmann GED 196; Fvluge-Seebold 361; 
Dybo VSJa 12, BSA 35-36 (with shorten- 
ing in the oxytonic stem). 

*xúďjanan wk.vb.: OE hýdan 'to hide', 
OFris hěda id., MLG húden id. Related to 

Gk keÚSco 'to cover, to hide', kekÚBco 
'to conceal' (Nowigki KZ XCII 187). 
Torp-Falk 92; Holthausen AEEW 183; 
Pokorný I 952; Frisk I 834; Onions 440; 
Lehmann GED 310. 

*xukěnan wk.vb.: ON húka 'to sit on one's 
hams' (but part. hokinn indicates a str.vb.), 
MLG húken id., MHG húchen id. Probably 
based on *xawwanan. Torp-Falk 91; 
Kluge-Seebold 378; Adams TB 180 (to 
Toch B kuk- 'to bow down'). 

*xúnaz sb.m.: ON pl. Húnar, Hýnir 'Huns', 
OE pl. Húnas id., OHG pl. Huni id. 
Attested in Lat Hunní, Chunní, Gk Oúvvoi. 
Adaptation of Chinese Hiung-nu. Much 
]VuS I 45 (secondarily influenced by 
*xúnaz ~ *xúno); Sghrader-Nehring I 
517; Vries ANEW 266. 

*xúnaz ~ *xúno sb.m.: ON húnn 'knob, 
bear-cub', MDu hune 'crow's nesť. 
Identical with Lith kunas 'body, meať, 
Latv kunis 'body, chrysalis'. Zupitza 
Gutt. 208; Torp-Falk 92-93 (to Skt íuná- 
'swollen'); Pokorný I 592; Fraenkel 310; 
Vries ANE1\ t 267. 

*xúsa-laukaz sb.m.: Icel hús-laukr 'house- 
leek', latě ME house-leek id., MLG hús-lok 
id., OHG hůs-louh id. Compound of 
*xúsan and Haukaz. Carr Mom. comp. 74 
(Icel < OHG). 

*xúsa-lausaz adj.: ON hús-lauss 'without 
a house', OFris hus-lás id., MHG hús-los 
id. Compound of *xúsan and Hausaz. 
Carr Mom. comp. 89 (parallel formations). 

*xúsan sb.n.: Goth gud-hus 'temple', Crim. 
Goth hus 'house', ON hús id., OE hús id., 
OFris hus id., OS hus id., OHG hús id. 
Borrowed from a phonetically advanced 
East Iranian *xuz ~ *xud < Irán *kata-, cf. 
Av kata- 'room, cellar' (also borrowed 
to ESlav *xata 'house', probably via 
OHung). Notě a similarity of *xúsan and 
Yns *xús 'tent of skin and bark', probably 
explained by the Iranian origin of the lat- 
ter. Irán *kata- may be also in some 
obscure relation with Gmc *xě]jjón > 
Goth hepjo 'chamber' (Bartholomae 
ZdWfVl 355). Grimm DM I 922 (from 
*kúdh-s-o, cf. Gk KeíSo^ 'hiding-place'); 




Schmidt K£ XXV 1 66 (samé as Grimm); 
Bezzenberger BB XXVGII 146 (to Lith 
kútis 'stable'); Patrubány IF XIII 163; 
Zupitza Gutt. 128; Grienberger Got. 112 
(reconstructs Goth hepjo < *heipjo); 
Bartholomae 432; Torp-Falk 92 (to 
*xúajanan); Holthausen AEE\V 178 (to 
Skt kosa- 'cupboarď); Feist 223-224 
(to Hitt kuttaš Valí'), 254-255 (Goth hepjo 
to OFris hode 'supervision, protection', 
MLG hode id., OHG huot id.); Pokorný I 
586-587, 953 (related to *xuson); Vries 
ANEW 268; Zalizniak I 141; Onions 
450; Lehmann GED 161 (to *keuH- 'to 
cover, to surrounď), 182; Starostin KS 
155; Trubachev ESSJa VIII 21-22; 
Kluge-Seebold 360; Adams TB 234 (to 
Toch B kwaso 'village'). 

*xúsjanan wk.vb.: ON hýsa 'to house, to 
harbor', OFris húsia id., MLG husen id. 
Derived from *xůsan. Vries A/VET I 7 276. 

*xúsójanan wk.vb.: ON husa 'to build 
houses', OE húsian 'to house', MDu husen, 
huysen id., MHG husen 'to build a house'. 
Derived from *xusan. Vries ANE1 1 ' 268. 

*xwadrět adv.: Goth kvádre 'whereto, 
whither', OE hwteder 'whither'. Derived 
from the pronominal stem *xwa- (see 
*xwat). Holthausen AEElť 179; Feist 
279; Lehmann GED 197. 

*xwainó sb.f: Swed dial. hven 'low and 
swampy fielď. Glose to Lat caenum, coenum 
'dirť < *k"oino- (Zupitza Gutt. 53). 
Torp-Falk 118; Walde-Hofmann 1131— 
132; Pokorný I 628; Chemodanov SSGJa 
I 55; Vries ANEW 270. 

*xwaitja-kurnan sb.n.: ON hveiti-kom 
'grain of wheať, OE hwdte-corn id. Com- 
pound of *xwaitjaz and *kuman. Carr 
Nom. comp. 74 (parallel formations). 

*xwaitja-melwan sb.n.: ON hveiti-mjql 
'flour', OE hwdte-melu id. Compound of 
*xwaitjaz and *melwan. Carr Mom. comp. 
74 (parallel formations). 

*xwaitjaz sb.m.: Goth hiaiteis 'wheať, ON 
neut. hveiti id., OE hwéte id., OFris hwete 
id., OS hwěti id., OHG (h)weizi id. 
Connected wiťh *xwttaz, cf. Bret gwiniz 
'wheať ~ gwenn 'white' (Hoops IVald- 

bdume 356). Wiedemann BB XXVII 2 1 3 
(to Slav *cvbtq 'to blossom'); Meyer Alb. 
St. III 51 (to Gk cítoi; 'grain' borrowed 
from a satam-language); Zupitza Gutt. 54; 
Torp-Falk 118; Holthausen AEEW 
179; Feist 280-281; Pokorný I 629; 
Vries ANEW 270; Zalizniak II 168; 
Onions 1001; Lehmann GED 197; Ramat 
Gedenkschr. Gúntert 7 1 ; Bammesberger 
Nom. 67; Kluge-Seebold 884. 

*xwajan sb.n.: OE hwés 'whey', WFris 
waei id., MDu wey id. Identical wiťh Skt 
káya- 'body' further connected with cinóti 
'to put in layers, to thread, to string', Gk 
Ttoiero 'to make, to produce'. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 179 (to Arm šičuk id.); 
Pokorný I 637-638; Onions 1002. 

*xwala-fiskaz sb.m.: ON koal-fiskr 
'whale', MLG wal-visch id., OHG wal-jisc 
id. Compound of *xwalaz and *fiskaz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 84 (parallel formations). 

*xwalaz sb.m.: ON hvalr 'whale' (pardy 
*xwatiz), OE hwiel id., OS hwal id., OHG 
hwal, wal id. Of unknown origin. Ltdén 
Festschr. Bugge 91 (to Lat squalus 'big sea 
íish'), GHA XXVI/2 91 (to OPrus kalu 
'sheat-fish'); Petersson SVSL I 80 (from 
*kuob-lo-); Zupitza Gutt. 55; Torp-Falk 
1 1 7; Holthausen AEE]\' 1 79; Pokorný I 
958; Vries ANEW 268-269; Zalizniak 
II 187; Onions 1000-1001 (to OPrus 
kališ); Stang LS 26; Sevilla Rodriguez 
JIES XVII 177-180 (to Av kára-, Gk 
aoTiakoc,); Kluge-Seebold 872. 

*xwalfoan ~ *xwalfoon sb.n./m.: ON 
hválf 'concavity', OE fem. hwealf 'arched 
covering', OS hwolvo 'hollow brick', OHG 
walbo id. Related to Gk kÓA.jto<; 'bosom, 
hollow'. Derived from *xwelbanan, *xwal- 
baz. Zupitza Gutt. 54; Torp-Falk 1 1 7 
Holthausen AEEW 180; Pokorný I 630 
Vries ANEW 268; Frisk I 904-905 
Onions 1001; Seebold 281; Lehmann 
GED 200; Kluge-Seebold 873. 

*xwalfoaz adj.: Icel í-hvolfi 'something 
vaulteď, OE hwealf 'arched, vaulteď. 
Derived from *xwelíanan. Karsten NB I 
41-42; Wissmann NF 25; Holthausen 
AEEW 180; Heidermanns 314. 




*xwalbjanan wk.vb.: ON hvelfa 'to arch, 
to vaulť (strong part. holfinn), OE be-hwyl- 
fan 'to cover', OS bi-hwelbian 'to hide', 
OHG bi-welben 'to surround, to enclose'. 
Derived from *xwelbanan. Torp-Falk 
117; Holthausen AEE]V 182; Vries 
ANEW 211; Onions 1001; Seebold 281; 
Lehmann GED 200; Kluge-Seebold 896. 

*xwalb5janan wk.vb.: ON hválfa 'to turn 
upside down', OHG zisamane-gi-walbon 'to 
come together, to gather'. Derived from 
*xwelbanan, *xwalbaz. Seebold 281. 

*xwan(n)ai adv.: Goth han 'when', OE 
hwďnne, hwanne id., OFris hwenne id., OS 
hwan id., OHG hwanne, wanne, wenne id. 
Derived from *xwa- (see *xwat). Gf. Olr 
can, W pan id. and probably OPrus kan 
'when'. Schmidt R'Z XXXII 402 (instr. 
in *-n- ~ Av -na); Paul PBB IV 385-388 
(to Av kam 'how', OLat quom 'when'); Dal 
Pr. 39-40 (WGmc loc. in *-%-); Torp- 
Falk 1 14; Holthausen AEE]V 180; Feist 
281; Pokorný I 644-645; Onions 1001; 
Lehmann GED 198; Kluge-Seebold 874. 

*xwapan sb.n.: ON kvap 'dropsical flesh'. 
Originally, *'steam, vapor'. Despite the 
irregular dvelopment of *-p-, related 
to Gk Kánoe;' yvxh, 7tveí>|ja (Hes.), Lith 
kvapas 'breath' further connected wiťh 
IE *kuep- 'to breathe'. Curtius Gr. Et. 
142 (to Lat uappa 'fiat wine'); Feist 7; 
Pokorný I 596; Fraenkel 325-326; 
Frisk I 781-782; Lehmann GED 5. 

*xwapjanan wk.vb.: Goth af-tvapjaii 'to 
choke, to extinguish', MHG ver-wepfen 'to 
become fusty (of wine)'. Derived from 
*xwapan. Torp-Falk 115; Feist 7; Leh- 
mann GED 5. 

*xwar ~ *xwěr adv.: Goth Ivar 'where', 
ON hvar id., OE hw/ér id., OFris hwer id., 
OS hwar id., OHG hwar, war id. Derived 
from the pronominal stem *xwa- (see 
*xwat). The suffix *-r- appears in Arm ur 
'where', Lat cúr, OLat quor 'why', Lith kuř 
'where', Alb kur 'when'. Goth tvarjis 
'which', ON hverr 'who' continue *xwar 
jaz wiťh the second component from *jaz 
< *ios 'who, which': Sktjáh, Avjio, Gk oc, 
(Schmidt K£ XXXII 401, Plut: 43). A 

similar structure is reconstructed for Alb 
kush 'who' < *k"u-so- (Meillet Idg. Jb. I 
13; Orel LB XXX/1 57-58). Bar- 
tholomae 1199-1227; Torp-Falk 114; 
Holthausen AEEW 179; Walde- 
Hofmann I 313; Feist 281-282; Mayr- 
hoeer III 14; Pokorný I 644-645 
Fraenkel 314; Vries ANEW 269, 272 
Onions 1002; Lehmann GED 198 
Kluge-Seebold 895; Orel AKT) 206- 

*xwarban ~ *xwarbaz sb.n./m.: ON 
hvarf 'disappearance, circle', OE hwearf 
'turn, space, change, corwď, OFris hwarj 
'time', OS hwarj 'crowď, OHG fem. 
warba 'turn'. Derived from *xwerbanan. 
Torp-Falk 116; Holthausen AEEW 
180; Pokorný I 631; Vries ANEW 269; 
Zalizniak II 169. 

*xwarbjanan wk.vb.: ON hverfa 'to make 
to turn', OE hwirfan 'to turn, to revolve', 
OS gi-hwervian id., OHG werben id. De- 
rived from *xwerbanan. Torp-Falk 116; 
Holthausen AEEW 182; Vries ANEW 
271; Seebold 283; Lehmann GED 197. 

*xwarbójanan wk.vb.: Goth tvarbon 'to 
walk about, to wander', ON hvarf a 'to 
turn round, to wander', OE hwearfian 
'to turn, to change', OS hwarbon 'to walk 
abouť, OHG warbon id. Derived from 
*xwarban ~ *xwarbaz. Torp-Falk 1 1 6; 
Holthausen AEEW 180; Feist 282; 
Vries ANEW 269; Seebold 283; Leh- 
mann GED 197. 

*xwassaz adj.: Goth adv. tvassaba 
'sharply', ON hvass 'pointed, sharp', 
OE hwies 'sharp, keen', OHG hwas 
'sharp'. Derived from *xwataz, *xwetanan. 
Aufrecht KZ I 472-474 (to Lat catus 
'sharp'); Karsten NB II 344; Zupitza 
Gutt. 56; Torp-Falk 115; Feist 282; 
Holthausen AEE1\' 179; Pokorný I 
636; Vries ANEW 269; Seebold 284; 
Bammesberger Nom. 251-252; Heider- 
manns 315-316; Kluge-Seebold 888. 

*xwassin sb.f: Goth tvassei 'sharpness', 
OS hwessi id., OHG wassT id. Derived 
from *xwassaz. Feist 282; Heidermanns 




*xwat pron.: Goth tva 'whať (loss of -t in 
an unaccented position?), ON hvat id., 
OE hwiet id., OFris kmet id., OS hmat id., 
OHG hwaz id. Identical with IE *k'od 
id.: Skt kad, Lat quod. The loc. of the 
samé stem (identical with Lith kaí 'how') 
appears in *xwai we > Goth tvaiwa 'how', 
OHG hwio id. where *wě goes back to IE 
*uě 'or': Skt vS, Av va, cf. also a variant 
with short *e in Gk T)-pé, Lat -ne, 
Moller Idg. An Z . XXXIII 58 (derives 
Goth řva from *k'om); 79; Schulze Lat. 5 
(Goth tv-aiwa to Skt éva- 'walk'); Torp- 
Falk 114; Bartholomae 1306-1310; 
Hujer IF XXIV 7 1 (*xwai we < *k"o-oiuos, 
to Gk noioi; 'of what kinď); Walde- 
Hofmann II 411, 740; Feist 279, 281; 
Mezger JEGP XLI 508-509 (recon- 
structs *xwlxwe); Mayrhofer I 192, III 
180; Pokorný I 75, 644-646; Vries 
ANEW 269; Onions 1001; Hollifield 
Sprache XXV 55 (reconstructs *xwai wo); 
Lehmann GED 197-199; Kluge-Seebold 
876, 885, 889. 

*xwataz adj.: ON hvatr 'bold, active, vig- 
orous', OE hwtet 'quick, active, vigorous', 
OS mén-hwat 'nefarious'. Derived from 
*xwetanan. Karsten MB I 56; Jurmann 
KZ XI 399 (to Lat tňquětrus 'three- 
cornereď); Zupitza Gutt. 56; Torp-Faek 
115; Holthausen AEEW 179; Endzelen 
KZ LI 290 (to Latv skadrs 'sharp'); Feist 
184-185; Pokorný I 636; Vries ANEW 
270; Onions 1002; Seebold 284; Leh- 
mann GED 139; Heidermanns 316; Kluge- 
Seebold 887-888. 

*xwatjanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-tvotjan 'to 
whet, to sharpen' (leg. ga-tvatjan), ON 
hvetja 'to whet, to sharpen, to encourage', 
OE hwettan id., MLG wetten 'to sharpen', 
OHG hwezzen, wezzen id. Derived from 
*xwataz. Torp-Faek 115; Feist 184; 
Vries ANEW 272; Onions 1002; See- 
bold 284; Lehmann GED 139; Heider- 
manns 316; Kluge-Seebold 887-888. 

*xwabaraz ~ *xwebaraz adj., pron.: 
Goth tvapar 'which of two', ON hvadarr 
id., OE hwieber, hweier id., OFris hweder, 
' id., OS hwethar id., OHG wedar id. 

Comparative in *-ter- based on *xwa- (see 
*xwat). Identical with Skt katará- id., Av 
kataro id., Gk jtóxepoi; id., Ose pútúrúspíd 
'utrique', Lith katrás 'which of two', Slav 
*kotort> 'which'. Bartholomae 433- 
434; Torp-Falk 114; Trautmann BSW 
120-121; Holthausen AEEW 179-180; 
Feist 283; Mayrhofer I 148; Pokorný I 
645-646; Fraenkel 229; Vries ANEW 
268; Frisk II 586; Onions 1002; 
Lehmann GED 199; Kluge-Seebold 

*xwabe adv.: Goth tvap 'where to, 
whither'. From IE *k"o-te similar to Hitt 
kuwatta(n) 'where' and, probably, Gk jtóae 
'where to' (Sturtevant AJPh L 364). See 
*xwat. Meillet MSL XLX 93 (on dre 
suffix *-te); Feist 282-283; Chantraine 
921-922; Tischler HEG 698-700; 
Lehmann GED 199. 

*xwabón sb.f: Goth tvapo 'foam', Swed 
dial. hwS id. Connected with Skt kváthati 
'to boil'. Zupitza Gutt. 56 (to Lat quatio 
'to shake'); Feist 283; Mayrhofer I 283; 
Pokorný I 627-628; Lehmann GED 199. 

*xwaz ~ *xwez pron.: Goth hlas 'who', 
ON hverr id., OSwed hva, hvar id., OE 
hwá id., OFris hwa id., OS hwě id., OHG 
hwer id. Continues IE *k*os id.: Skt káh, Av 
kS, Lidr kas. See *xwat. Bartholomae 
422-427; Torp-Falk 114; Holthausen 
AEEW 179; Feist 282; Porzig Gliederung 
198; Mayrhofer I 192; Pokorný I 644- 
645; Fraenkel 199; Vries ANEW 271; 
Onions 1004; Lehmann GED 198-199; 
Kluge-Seebold 885. 

*xwe3wlan ~ *xwexwlan sb.n.: ON 
hjól, hvel 'wheel', OE hweól, hweo^ul, hwe- 
owol id., OFris fial id., MLG wěl id. 
Continues IE *k"ek"lo- id.: Toch A kukal, 
B kokale 'cart, wagon', Skt cakrá- 'wheel', 
Av čaxro id., Gk kÚkXoc; 'circle' (Reichelt 
ZFXL 58), Phryg kik^tiv ttiv apKxov xo 
aoxpov. Opúyet;, Hes. (Fick BB XXLX 
239). Olson ANF XXXI 14; Zupitza 
Gutt. 65; Bartholomae 576; Torp-Falk 
116-117; Holthausen AEEW 181; 
Mayrhofer I 366; Pokorný I 639-640; 
Vries ANEW 232, 270; Frisk II 44-45; 




Onions 1001; Adams TB 200; Burlak 
IFTJa 241-242. 

*xwek5janan wk.vb.: ON hvika 'to quail, 
to shrink, to waver', MDu wicken 'to 
move back and forth'. Of descriptive 
origin. Hirt BB XXIV 253 (to Slav 
*čeznqti 'to disappear'); Zupitza Gutt. 58 
(to Lat conquimsco 'to bend, to squať), 
197; Torp-Falk 114-115; Vries AKEW 

*xwelfoanan str.vb.: ON part. holjinn 'to 
curve', OFris bi-wolven 'obrutus' (hap. 
leg.), MHG pret. sg. walb 'to expanď. See 
*xwalban ~ *xwalbon. Torp-Falk 1 1 7; 
Jóhannesson IEW 263; Pokorný I 630; 
Vries /L/VETT 247; Seebold 281. 

*xwellanan str.vb.: Icel hvella 'to ring 
ouť, OE hwelan 'to roar, to bellow'. Prob- 
ably related to Toch B kul 'bell' (Adams 
TB 185). Torp-Falk 116; Holthausen 
AEEW 180; Vries AME]\ 7 271 (to *xwel- 
paz); Heidermanns 318. 

*xwellaz adj.: ON hvellr 'shrilling, thrill- 
ing', OHG hwel 'importunate'. Derived 
from *xwellanan. Karsten JVB II 219; 
Zupitza Gutt. 49, 57; Torp-Falk 116; 
Heidermanns 318. 

*xwelpaz sb.m.: ON hvelpr 'whelp', OE 
hwelp id., OS hwelp id., OHG neut. welf 
id. A phonetically irregular development 
of IE *g"elbh-: Skt gárbha- 'womb', Av 
garsna- id., Gk SeXqróc; id. The Germanic 
form appears to reflect a consonantally 
shifted *k"elb-. Suolahti AKT 17-18; 
Zupitza Gutt. 57; Schroder ^dPh 
XXXVII 393-394; Torp-Falk 117 (to 
Gk aKtAai; 'cub, puppy'); Schrader- 
Nehrtng II 336 (to Lat uolpés 'fox' < 
*g"olpi-)\ Holthausen AEEW 181; May- 
rhofer I 329; Pokorný I 473; Vries 
ANEW 11\ (to *xwellanan); Frisk I 363; 
Zalizniak I 133; Onions 1001; Kluge- 
Seebold 884. 

*xweraz sb.m.: ON hverr 'cauldron', OE 
hwer 'kettle, poť, OHG hwer, wer 'caul- 
dron'. Related to Toch B keru 'drum', Skt 
carů- 'vessel, poť, Olr coire 'kettle', W pair 
id., Corn pér id. Zupitza Gutt. 57; 
Torp-Falk 116; Holthausen AEElf 

181; Mayrhofer I 377; Pokorný I 642; 
Vries AMW 111; Zalizniak I 133; 
Lehmann GED 197; Van Wtndekens I 
216; Adams TB 195. 

*xwerbalaz ~ *xwerbulaz adj.: ON 
hverfull 'shifty, changeable', OE hwurful 
'changeable, fickle', OHG sina-werbal 
'ronndeď. Derived from *xwerbanan. 
Karsten MB II 286; Holthausen AEEW 
183; Bammesberger Festschr. Derolez 26— 
29; Heidermanns 319-320. 

*xwerbanan str.vb.: Goth tvairban 'to go 
around, to walk, to live, jtepiJtaxeív', ON 
hverfa 'to turn rounď, OE hweorfan 'to 
turn, to change', OFris hwerva 'to turn', 
OS hwerban 'to go back and forth', OHG 
werban 'to turn'. Related to Toch B kurp- 
'to be concerned wiťh' (Adams TB 184- 
185). Kirchhoff K^ I 39; Sohrader 
£7X 473 (to Gk Kapjtó^ 'wrisť); Zupitza 
Gutt. 57 (to Skt neut. šurpa- 'winnowing 
basket'); Hirt BB XXIV 253 (to Slav 
*svbrdlo 'drill' < *s~obrb-dló); Fick BB 
XXLX 239 (to Phryg Kopúpavxs.;); Torp- 
Falk 116; Feist 279-280; Holthausen 
AEEW 181; Jóhannesson IEW 261-262 
Pokorný I 631; Vries AMEW 111 
Seebold 282-284; Lehmann GED 197 
Kluge-Seebold 885. 

*xwerbaz adj.: Goth toeila-tvairbs 'tempo- 
rary, transienť, ON koerfi 'shifty', OE 
hweorf 'turning about, shifting', OHG 
sina-werf 'smooth, polisheď. Derived 
from *xwerbanan. Karsten JVB I 24—25; 
Holthausen AEE\ V 181; Feist 284; See- 
bold 282; Bammesberger Mom. 241; 
Heidermanns 318-319. 

*xwerbilaz sb.m.: ON hvhfill 'circle, ring, 
crown of the heaď, OHG wirbil 'plec- 
trum'. Derived from *xwerbanan. Torp- 
Falk 116; Vries AMEW 273; Onions 
1003; Seebold 282; Lehmann GED 197; 
Kluge-Seebold 893. 

*xwertail5janan wk.vb.: ON hvirfia 'to 
whirl', MDu wervelen, worvelen id. Derived 
from *xwerbilaz. Vries ANE1\' 273. 

*xwernin ~ xwernon sb.f: Goth tvairnei 
'skuli', ON hverna 'pan, basin'. Close to 
Mír cern 'bowl' < IE *k"erna and further 




connected with *xweraz. Hirt IF XVII 
390 (to Gk KÉpvoi; 'bowl for offerings'); 
Zupitza Gutt. 58; Torp-Falk 116; Feist 
280; Pokorný I 642; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 98; Vries ANEW 271; Lehmann 
GED 197. 

*xwě adv.: Goth tve 'to whom, wherewith', 
ON hvé 'how'. Old instrumental *k"e, 
cf. Gk 7tr|jtOKa 'ever yeť (Schmidt K£ 
XXVII 292, XXXII 403). Feist 284; 
PrpprNG GHA XI/3 33 (to *xwai wě, see 
*xwat); Lindouist Festschr. A. Koch 359- 
367 (ON hvé < *xwena); Pokorný I 644- 
645; Vřes ANEW 270; Lehmann GED 

*xwěs(j)anan str./wk.vb.: ON hviesa 'to 
hiss' (wk.), OE hwésan 'to wheeze'. Rela- 
ted to Skt hasiti 'to breathe', Lat queror 'to 
complain, to lamenť. Torp-Falk 117; 
Walde-Hofmann II 403-404; Pokorný I 

*xwětanan str.vb.: ON hváta 'to hasten', 
OE pret. sg. á-hwét 'to drive ouť, OS 
pres. far-hwatan 'to punch, to kick', OHG 
wazan 'to drive away'. Related to Latv 
kůdit 'to drive', Slav *kydati 'to throw'. Cf. 
*xwataz, *xwatjaiian. Zupitza Gutt. 56; 
Feist 286; Holthausen AEEW 179; 
Jóhannesson IEW 281-282; Pokorný I 
636; Vries ANEh r 270; Seebold 284- 

*xwi<Í5n sb.f: ON hvida 'řiť, OE hweoíu 
'air, breeze'. Close to Av šyata- 'glad, 
merry', Lat quies 'rest, lying stilF. Bar- 
tholomae 1716; Torp-Falk 1 1 8; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 172; Walde-Hofmann II 
406; Pokorný I 638; Vries ANEW 272 
(to *xwataz). 

*xwi-llkaz adj., pron.: Goth tvi-leiks 'what 
sort of, which', ON hví-líkr id., OE hwelc, 
hwilc id., OFris hwe-lik, hwelk id., OS hwi- 
llk id., OHG hwellh id. Derived from 
*xwi- < IE pron. *k"i-\ Gk tíq 'who', 
Lat quis id. Ákerlund Festschr. Rock 
414-428 (originál short vowel in ON); 
Torp-Falk 114; Holthausen AEEW 
180-181; Walde-Hofmann II 410; Feist 
285; Pokorný I 644-648; Vries ANEW 
272 (secondary length in ON hví); 

Onions 1002; Frisk II 903-904; Leh- 
mann GED 200; Kluge-Seebold 884 
(< *xwe-llkaz). 

*xwistl5janan wk.vb.: ON hvísla 'to whis- 
per', OE hwistlian 'to hiss, to whistie'. Of 
imitative nature. Holthausen AEE]ť 
182; Onions 1004. 

*xwl pron.: ON hví 'why', OE hwý id., 
OS hwi id. From *k"ei, loc. of *k"o-, see 
*xwat. Cf. Lat qul 'who, which', Slav *či 
'how, whether'. Holthausen AEE]f 
181; Walde-Hofmann II 405; Vries 
ANEW 272; Onions 1005. 

*xwílěnan wk.vb.: Goth tveilan 'to pause, 
to cease', ON hvíla 'to resť, OFris hwlla 
id., MLG wilen 'to stay', OHG wllen 'to 
remain in a pláce'. Derived from *xwílo. 
Zupitza Gutt. 49; Torp-Falk 1 1 7; Feist 
284; Vrtes ANEW 272; Lehmann GED 
199; Kluge-Seebold 882. 

*xwíl6 sb.f: Goth tveila 'while, time, 
hour', ON hvíla 'beď [*xwilon), OE hwíl 
'while, time', OFris hwíle id., OS hwlla 
id., OHG hwlla, wlla id. Derivationally 
close to Slav *čih> 'lively, strong'. Further 
based on IE *k"eiH- 'to rest, to be quieť. 
Torp-Falk 117; Feist 284; Holthausen 
AEEW 182; Wissmann NP 72; Pokorný I 
638; Vries ANEW 272; Zalizniak II 180; 
Onions 1002; Nyman IF LXXXTV 
132-156; Trubachev ESSJa IV 112; 
Lehmann GED 199-200; Heidermanns 
319; Kluge-Seebold 882. 

*xwínanan str.vb.: ON hvína 'to whizz, to 
whistie', OE pres. hwínan id. Further cf. 
*xwlqjan > ON hvía 'to squeal', *xwajqjan 
> OHG hweion id. Of imitative origin. 
Torp-Falk 118; Holthausen AEE]V 
182; Jóhannesson IEW 258-259; Po- 
korný I 628; Vries ANEW 273; Onions 
1003; Seebold 280. 

*xwítaz adj.: Goth toeits 'white', ON hvítr 
id., OE hwít id., OFris hwlt id., OS hwlt 
id., OHG hwlz id. Gorresponds (with a 
different sufřix or an irregular dental) to 
IE *kwei-t- in ouher languages: Skt švetá- 
'white, brighť, Av spaéta- id., Lith šviečiu, 
švíestí 'to gleam', Slav *světb 'lighť. 
Bartholomae 1609; Karsten NB II 




205-206; Zupitza Gutt. 54; Torp-Falk 
1 18; Sohwentner FB 24-37; Trautmann 
BSW 310-311; Feist 284-285; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 182; Mayrhofer III 
406; Pokorný I 629; Fraenkel 1043; 
Vries ANEW 273-274; Onions 1004; 
Vasmer-Trubachev III 575-576; Lůhr 
Expr. 263-264; Lehmann GED 200; 
Heidermanns 316—317; Kluge-Seebold 

*xwítilaz sb.m.: ON hvítill 'white bed- 
cover', OE hmitel 'cloak, mantle'. Derived 
from *xwítaz. Holthausen AEEW 182; 
Vries ANEW 273. 

*xwítin3az sb.m.: ON hvítingr 'a kind of 
whale', E whiting, MLG mítink id. Derived 
from *xwltaz. Vrtes ANEW 273. 

*xwítin sb.f.: ON hvíti 'whiteness', OHG 
wizi 'white color, white spoť. Derived 
from *xwítaz. Heidermanns 317. 

*xwitjaz sb.m.: Swed dial. hwíte 'wheať, 
ME white id. An ablaut variant of *xwait- 
jaz. Cf. also G dial. wwte id. < *xwitjo 
(Holthausen IF XXXII 338). Lehmann 
GED 197. 

*xwítjanan wk.vb.: Goth ga-hweitjan 'to 
whiten', OE hwítan 'to make white, to 
polish', OHG wizen 'to paint white'. 
Derived from *xwitaz. Feist 284; 
Onions 1 004; Heidermanns 317. 

*xwopanan str.vb.: Goth tvopan 'to boasť, 
OE hwópan 'to threaten'. Of unknown 
origin. Grienberger Got. 125 (to *xau- 
paz); Bloomfield PBB XXXVII 251 
(formed after *wopan ~ *wópaz, *wop- 
janan); Thumb R'Z XVI 193-196 (to Gk 
KofSa^-óc; 'impudent rogue'); Uhlenbeck 
PBB XXX 294 (to Lat cupio 'to desire'); 
Petersson PBB XXXVIII 321 (to Skt 
kvánati 'to sounď); Feist 286; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 182; Kroes Nec 

XXXI 14-16 (to Lith kvapas 'vapor'); 
Pokorný I 535-536 (from *kau-); See- 
bold 285 (to *xwětanan); Lehmann GED 

*xwósanan str.vb.: OE hwósan 'to 
wheeze'. Identical with Skt kasáte 'to 
cough', Lith kósiu, kositi id. Further 
cf. Toch B kosi 'cough', Alb kolte id. 
(< *k"asla), Mír cassacht id., Lith kosulys id., 
Slav *kašlb id. Torp-Falk 1 1 8; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 182; Mayrhofer I 206; 
Pokorný I 649; Fraenkel 283-284; See- 
bold 285; OílulAED 189; Adams TB 207. 

*xw5st5janan wk.vb.: ON hosta 'to 
cough', OE hwóstan id., MDu hoesten id., 
OHG huostón id. Derived from *xwó~stó~n. 
Torp-Falk 1 18; Vries AV£II 7 250. 

*xw5stón sb.m.: ON hosti 'cough', OE 
hwósta id., MLG hoste id., OHG huosto id. 
Structurally close to W pas id. < *k"ds-t-. 
Derived from *xwosanan. Zupitza Gutt. 
58; Torp-Falk 118; Holthausen AEEJ\ t 
182; Pokorný I 649; Vries ANEW 250; 
Zalizniak I 154; Seebold 285; Tru- 
baohev ESSJa IX 160-161; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 185; Kluge-Seebold 389. 

*xw5tó sb.f: Goth hiota 'threat, repri- 
manď, ON neut. pl. hit id. Derived from 
*xwetanan, *xwatjanan. Aufrecht K~Z I 
471; Bloomfield PBB XXXVII 250 
(rhyme word); Feist 286; Mayrhofer I 
400—401 (to Skt códati 'to incite, to ani- 
mate'); Pokorný I 636 (to Lat tri-quetrus 
'three-cornereď); Vries ANEW 250; 
Seebold 284; Lehmann GED 201. 

*xw5tjanan wk.vb.: Goth tvotjan 'to 
threaten, to reprimanď, ON heeta 'to 
threaten'. Derived from *xwoto. Auf- 
recht KZ I 471; Torp-Falk 115; Feist 
286; Vries ANEW 250, 278; Seebold 
284; Lehmann GED 201. 

*idiz sb.f.: ON id 'deed, doing'. Deriva- 
tionally close to Skt ití- 'going, walking', 
further to *ei- 'to go'. Torp-Falk 27; 
Pokorný I 293-295. 

*ičtura(n) adv.: ON idur-mieltr 'of a meter 
repeating the samé syllable', MDu eder- 
kauwen 'to repeat over and over'. Identical 
with Lat iterum 'again' derived from *i-kro-\ 
Skt ítara- 'other'. Torp-Falk 27; Walde- 
Hofmann I 723-724; Pokorný I 284. 

*Í3Ílaz ~ Í3ulaz sb.m.: ON ígull 'hedge- 
hog, ruff' (wiuh secondary lengthening), 
OE i^il 'hedgehog', OS igil id., OHG igil 
id. The name of a prickly animal or fish 
is etymologically identical with the iso- 
lated Slav *]bgla 'needle' < Hghula and, 
probably, OPrus ayculo < *eighulá. On the 
other hand, it could be influenced by the 
continuants of IE *eghi- 'hedgehog'. 
Forsterman A"^3 I 498 (to *esalaz); Pictet 
KZ VI 185-186; Wrede Ostg. 144 (adds 
Goth PN Igila); Fiok BB XXLX 237; 

Bruch Festschr. Kretschmer 1 0—1 1 ; Torp- 
Falk 23; Trautmann APSpr. 296, BSW 3; 
Holthausen AEEW 187; Speoht Kš[ 
LXVI 56-57 (taboo term); Porzig Gliede- 
rung 202; Pokorný I 292; Zalizniak I 
133; Toporov PJa I 59; Trubaohev 
ESSJa VIII 213-214; Lehmann GED 204; 
Fvluge-Seebold 394. 
*iz pron.: Goth is 'he', ON es id., OFris er 
id., OS es, is id., OHG er id. Related to 
Sktj'ó- 'who, which', Av yó id., OPhryg 
yos id., Lat is 'this', Lidrjíj 'he', Slav *jb 
'this'. Neut. *it (Goth ita 'iť, OS it id., 
OHG iz id.) is identical with Lat neut. 
id 'this'. Bartholomae 1199-1227; 
Torp-Falk 27; Walde-Pokorny I 96- 
98; Walde-Hofmann I 720-721; Feist 
296; Mayrhofer III 8; Pokorný I 283; 
Fraenkel 194; Vries AMEW 105; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa VIII 204-205; Lehmann 
GED 207-208; Orel Phrygmn 469-470; 
FvLuge-Seebold 227 (from IE *eis). 

*i conj.: Godi ei 'in that čase, then, 
thereby'. Identical widr Slav *i 'anď < *ei 
(Feist 130). Sútterlin IF IV 93-95 (to 
IE *io-)\ Pokorný I 281-284; Lehmann 
GED 99. 

*idalaz adj.: OE idel 'vain, empty, voiď, 
OFris idel 'foolish, vain, empty', OS idal 
'vain, empty', OHG ital 'empty'. Of un- 
known origin. FvArsten JVB II 275-276; 
Wood AÍZJVXVII 6, XXV 213; Torp- 
Falk 3 (to IE *aidh- 'to burn'); Van 
Wijk IF XXXV 266; Sturtevant 
Language VI 25 (to Hitt idalu- 'bad, evil'); 
Holthausen AEEJ\ t 185; Pokorný I 12 
(to Gk ai6á^.r| 'sooť); Onions 460; 
Bonfante BSL LXLX 69-71 (samé as 

Sturtevant); Heidermanns 321 (seg- 
ments *i- as in Lith ypatiis 'speciál', Skt 
Tdfk 'such-like, of such a kinď); Kluge- 
Seebold 214. 
*Ixwaz sb.m.: ON ýr 'yew-tree', OE eóh 
id., OS íh id., OHG fem. iwa id. Other 
WGmc forms háve the stress on the suf- 
fix: OE íw < *T3waz, OHG igo < *iswon. 
Continues IE *eik-uo-. Despite formal 
difficulties, cannot be separated (as a 
loanword to Celtic?) from Olr éo id., W 
ywen id., OCorn hiuin id., Bret ivin id. On 
the other hand, Celtic forms hardly can 
be isolated from Lith ieva 'bird cherry', 
Slav Hva 'willow; band, edge'. A difficult 
word. Hoops Waldbáume 126-127, 239- 




240; Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 62; Torp-Falk 
28; Holthausen AEETr 92-93; Pokorný 
I 297; Chemodanov SSGJa I 57; 
Fraenkel 183; Vries AME] V 679; Zaliz- 
niak II 182; Onions 1020; Ivanov Etim. 
1971 298-302 (adds Hitt eia- 'evergreen 
tree'); Trubaohev ESSJa VIII 248-249; 
Orel Etim. 1985 35-37 ('willow' as a tree 
"walking" along the river-banks, from *ei- 
'to go'); Kluge-Seebold 207. 

*Isa-kaldaz adj.: ON ís-kaldr 'ice-colď, 
OE ís-ceald id., MLG u-kolt id., MHG is- 
kalt id. Compound of *Tsaz ~ *isan and 
*kaliaz. Carr Mom. comp. 89 (parallel 

*Isaz ~ *ísan sb.m./n.: ON Iss 'ice', OE 
ís id., OFris is id., OS ís id., OHG ís id. 
Related to Av aexa- 'colď, isu- 'icy', Osset 
yex 'ice' (Specht 18). Bartholomae 11; 
Torp-Falk 28; Sievers PBB XXXVIII 
324-329; Holthausen ^££ir 189; Vries 
AME] V 29,1; Pokorný I 301; Zalizniak II 
169; Onions 458; Kluge-Seebold 213. 

*isarna-smibaz sb.m.: ON járn-smidr 
'blacksmith', OE ísen-smib id., OS isarn- 
smith id., OHG isarn-smid id. Compound 
of *isarnan and *smi\)az. Carr Mom. 
comp. 75 (parallel formations). 

*isarnan sb.n.: Goth eisarn 'iron', ON ísarn 

id., OE ísern, ísen id., OFris isern, irsen id., 
OS ísarn id., OHG ísarn, isan id. Bor- 
rowed from Celtic: Gaul isarno-dori 'ferrei 
ostii', Olr íam, W haiarn, OCorn hoern, 
Bret houarn (Thurneysen apud Feist). 
Johansson BB XVIII 17 (to *aizan); 
Noreen AMF IV 110; Torp-Falk 28; 
Holthausen AEE\V 189; Feist 131; 
Pokorný I 300, KZ XLVI 292 (from 
Illyrian); Vries AME1V 287; Zalizniak I 
141; Onions 485; Lehmann GED 99; 
Kluge-Seebold 213. 

*Isarna-na3l5n ~ *ísarna-na3laz 
sb.m.: ON járn-nagli 'iron nail', OHG 
Isam-nagal id. Compound of *Tsarnan and 
*na^laz. Carr Mom. comp. 84 (parallel 

*itraz adj.: ON Ur 'excellent, glorious', OE 
prop. Iter-mann. Derived from IE *iet-: 
Toch A vat- 'to reach, to achieve', Skt 
yátatc 'to pláce oneself (in the right posi- 
tion)', W add-iad 'yearning'. Karsten 
MB II 458; Holthausen AEE1T 423; 
Jónsson A^FXLVI 334-335; Pokorný I 
506-507; Vries AME\\ t 288; Heider- 
manns 322 (segments *i- as in *idalaz). 

*Izarnan sb.n.: ON járn 'iron', OE íren id. 
An accentual variant of *isaman. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 189; Pokorný I 300. 

*ja ptcl.: Goth ja,jai 'yes', ON já id. (with 
irregular lengthening), OE jeá id., OFris 
je id., OS ja id., OHG ja id. Cf. also Goth 
jah 'and, indeeď (< *jo xwe = Skt yácca 
'and though'), Run ja(h) id., OE 3« id., 
OS ja id., OHG ja id. Fem. of dre 
pronominal stem *io- or *í- (Brugmann 
Grundrijj U/2 328). Grimm DG III 
270; Torp-Falk 327-328; Holthausen 
AEEW 141; Feist 299-300; Pokorný I 
283; Vries AMEW 289; Onions 1018; 
Lehmann GED 210; Kluge-Seebold 408. 
*jaba ~ *jabói conj.: Goth jabai 'if, OE 

3jf id., OFris jef id., OS efhá., OHG ibu 
id. Pronominal stem Ho- followed by 
particle *hhe ~ *bho. However, the root 
vocalism does not match in individual 
languages. Cf. Slav *i bo 'for, because'. 
Aufrecht KZ I 287; Brugmann KVG 
669 (derived from *ja); Torp-Falk 
328; Holthausen AEEW 142; Feist 
299-300; Trubachev ESSJa VIII 167 
168; Lehmann GED 210; Boutkan OFED 
*jainaz ~ *jenaz pron.: Goth jains 'that 
(one)', OE jeo/z id., OFris jen id., MLG 




jene id., OHG jeněr id. Not quite clear. It 
is possible that *jainaz and *jenaz go back 
to two different sources. While *jainaz 
reflects demonstrative particle *j- (cf. Lith 
jis 'he') followed by *aínaz (Brugmann 
Gnindrifi II/2 335—339) and may be 
derivationally close to Slav *jbm> 'other' 

< *i-(o)inos (Berneker I 432, Lang CMF 
I 97-99 but see differendy Trubaghev 
VJa XXLX/1 143: Slav *jbin, = Phryg 
ioq ví), *jenaz is a combination of the 
samé *j- and *enaz. The situation is 
further complicated by ON hann 'he' 

< *jainaz with a secondary h- by analogy 
with *xt. Cf. also a similar formation in 
Lith víenas 'one' < *u-anos. Hoffmann- 
Krayer K^XW 144-158; Grieneerger 
Got. 135-136; Torp-Falk 328; Holt- 
hausen PBB XIII 372, 590 (separates 
*jai- < loc. *ioi), AEEW 142; Kock AMF 
XXIV 186-189; Kieckers HG 145 (fol- 
lovvs Brugmann); Feist 300; Pokorný I 
319-321; Fraenkel 1239-1240; Vries 
AMEW 209; Trubachev ESSJa VIII 
233-234; Lehmann GED 210. 

*jaindě adv.: Goth jaind 'thither', OE 
3eond 'yond, yonder'. Derived from 
*jainaz ~ *jenaz. Torp-Falk 328; Holt- 
hausen AEE]\' 142; Feist 300; Lehmann 
GED 210. 

*jainjaz sb.m.: ON einir juniper'. Identical 
with Mír din 'bulrush' < Hoini-, Lat iúni- 
perus 'juniper- tree' (Fick II 223; Lidén IF 
XVIII 507). Torp-Falk 328; Walde- 
Hofmann I 731; Pokorný I 513. 

*jaukiz sb.f.: ON eykr 'beast of draughť, 
eyk-hestr 'cart-horse'. Close to Skt yógya- 
id., further to *jukan. Karsten MB I 
105-106; Torp-Falk 330; Schulze KZ 
LXI 189; Mayrhofer III 20; Pokorný I 
5 1 0; Matzel Festschr. Schrdder 96, KZ CV 
99; Vries AMEW 107; Heidermanns 322. 

*jexanan str.vb.: ON part. já 'to assenť, 
OFris ja 'to confess', OS gehan 'to articu- 
late, to pronounce', OHG jehan 'to say, to 
speak, to admiť. Related to Skt ydcatí 
'to ask, to solicite, to entreať, Mír with 
'language', W iaith id. (Lldén ANF III 
328). Torp-Falk 328; Hirt PhWschr. 

XIV 609 (to Lat iacio 'to throw, to utter'); 
Jóhannesson IEW 96-98; Mayrhofer 

III 14-15; Pokorný I 503-504; Vries 
AMEW 289; Seebold 286-287; Boutkan 
OFED s.v. 

*jextiz sb.f: OFris jecht 'confession', OHG 
jiht id. Derived from *jexanan. Derivation- 
ally close to W iaith 'language' < Hekti-. 
Torp-Falk 328; Pokorný I 503; See- 
bold 286. 

*jextojanan wk.vb.: ON játta 'to acknowl- 
edge, to assenť, OFris iechta 'to confess'. 
Derived from *jextiz. Torp-Falk 328; 
Vries /LVETT 291. 

*jexwla-čta3az sb.m.: ON jóla-dagr 'Yule- 
day', OE ^eóhhel-dďj id. Compound of 
*jexwlan and *da^az. Carr Mom. comp. 
81 (parallel formations). 

*jexwla-měn6bz sb.m.: ON jól-mánudr 
'uhe Yule month', OE ^éol-mónad id. Com- 
pound of *jexwlan and *mendpz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*jexwlan sb.n.: ON pl. jól 'feast of Yule 
(later — Christmas)', OE jeóhlwl, jeó/ id. 
Of unknown origin. Grimm DM II 664 
(to *xwe3w(u)lan ~ *xwexwlari); Bugge^IVF 

IV 135 (to Lat iocus 'game' and *jexanan); 
Grienberger SBAW Wim CXLII/8 
137 (to Lith jenku, jékti 'to become 
blinď); Merwger WuS V 184 (to Av 
yďcňa 'to ask'); Loewenthal PBB XLV 

265 (compound with elements related to 
Skt ísá 'pole, shaft of a carriage' and IE 
*k»el- 'wheel'); Fay JEGP XVII 424-425 
(a taboo modification of *xwe^w(u)lan 
~ *xwexwlari); Karsten IF XXII 298; 
PvOOth Wortst. 43 (follows Bugge); Iírog- 
mann K~UÍ 1 14 (samé as Bugge); Torp- 
Falk 328-329; Holthausen AEEW 141; 
Feist 301-303, KZ LI 143-144 (in- 
fluenced by *jeran); Walde-Hoffmann I 
716 (to Gk É\|íía 'game, amusemenť); 
Vries AME1V 292; Onions 1021; Leh- 
mann GED 211 (against Fay). 
*jexwljaz sb.m.: Goůijiuleis Yule-month, 
December', ON ýlir 'mid-November to 
mid-December', OE jrá/i 'December and 
January'. Derived from *jexwlan. Torp- 
Falk 328-329; Holthausen AEEW 142; 




Feist 301-302; Onions 1021; Lehmann 
GED 211. 

*jekilaz ~ *jekulaz sb.m.: ON JQkull 'ici- 
cle', OE ýcel id., OFris itsil 'spur', OS 
ichilla 'stiria'. Derived from *jekon. Fick 
KZ I 1 1 (to Lith yíia 'floe'); Torp-Falk 
328; Holthausen AEEW 142; Vries 
AMEW 294; Onions 459. 

*jekón sb.m.: ON jaki 'icicle', LG is-jack 
id., G dial. jdch 'hoar-frosť. Related to 
Hitt eka- 'cold, frost, ice', Mír aig 'ice' 
< *iagi-. Torp-Faek 328; Pokorný I 
503, Celtica V 236 (from Uralic, cf. Finn 
jda 'ice', Hungjég id.); Vries AME]V 289; 
Kammenhuber KZ LXXVII 67 (folio ws 
Pokorný); Puhvel II 257-259. 

*jesanan str.vb.: OHG jesan 'to ferment, 
to brew'. Related to Toch AB yás- 'to 
excite sexually', Skt yásyati 'to boil, to 
become hoť, Av yah- 'to boil', Gk ^éto 
'to boil, to seethe'. Bartholomae 1281; 
Torp-Falk 329; Mayrhofer III 13; 
Pokorný I 506; Frisk I 612; Onions 
1019; Seebold 287; Keuge-Seebold 299; 
Adams TB 500-501; Burlak IFTJa 253. 

*jestuz sb.m.: ON jqstr 'yeasť, OE jirf id., 
MLG gest 'dregs, dirt', MHG gest, jest 
'yeasť. Derived from *jesanan. Torp- 
Falk 329; Holthausen AEEW 142; 
Vries AMW 295; Onions 1019. 

*jeuxtan sb.n.: OE 3eoht 'yoke'. Derived 
from *jeukan. Structurally identical with 
Skt neut. yuktá- 'harnessed, yokeď. 
(Holthausen IF XLVIII 266). Holt- 
hausen AEEW 142; Mayrhofer III 20; 
Pokorný I 508-509; Lehmann GED 212. 

*jeukan sb.n.: MHG jiuch 'yoke'. Close 
to Gk í^eíiyoi; 'yoke of beasts, pair of 
mules, oxen or horses'. Further see *jukan. 
Torp-Falk 330; Frisk I 610. 

*jeukěnan wk.vb.: Gothjiukan 'to fight, to 
conquer', ga-jiukan 'to overcome', MHG 
jouchen 'to chase, to drive'. Cf. also OE 
3eócor 'strong, fierce, harsh'. Related to 
Toch AB yuk- 'to conquer', Av yaozaiti 'to 
be agitated, to be exciteď < *ieug-. See 
*jeukan. Wood MP II 471; Bartho- 
lomae 1231-1232; Holthausen AEEW 
141; Feist 301; Pokorný I 512; Lehmann 

GED 211 (further to *ieu-dh- 'to move, to 

*jěm(a)raz adj.: OE ^eámor 'sad, sorrow- 
ful', OFris sbst. jámer 'ruefulness, crying 
shame', OS sbst. jdtnar 'misery, misfor- 
tune', OHG sbst. jamar id. Identical with 
Gk línepoí; 'tame, cultivateď (Solmsen 
KZ XXXII 147). Further related to Skt 
yámati 'to subjugate'. Torp-Falk 329; 
Pokorný I 505; Dybo VSJa 26; Frisk I 

*jěn5 ~ *jěnaz sb.f./m.: Swed dial. an 
'reapers progress, a stroke of the scythe', 
MHG jan 'row, line'. Identical with Skt 
yana- 'going, riding', derived from *ie- : 
Ha- 'to go'. Torp-Falk 329; Pokorný 

I 296. 

*jěra-měn5pz sb.m.: ON ár-mánadr 'month 
of the year', OHG jar-manód 'January'. 
Compound of *jěran and *měnopz. Carr 
Mom. comp. 83 (parallel formations). 

*jěran sb.n.: Qoúijer 'year', ON ár id., OE 
jeár id., OFris jer id., OS jar, ger id., OHG 
jar id. Related to Av yar- id., Gk tópa 
'season', Slav *jaro 'heat, spring' and 
the like. Bartholomae 1287; Torp-Falk 
329; Schulze Kl. Schr. 831; Holthausen 
AEE]V 141; Feist 301; Porzig Gliederung 
115; Pokorný I 297; Dybo VSJa 26; 
Vries AME]\ t 12; Zalizniak I 141; Frisk 

II 1150-1151; Chantratne 1303-1304; 
Onions 1019; Trubaohev ESSJa VIII 
175-176; Lehmann GED 210-21 1;Kluge- 
Seebold 408-409. 

*jěra-talan sb.n.: ON ár-tal 'reckoning by 
years', OFris kr-tel 'one year', MDu jaer- 
tal 'number of years'. Compound of *jěran 
and *talan. Carr Mom. comp. 1^—lb (par- 
allel formations). 

*jětjanan wk.vb.: ON jata 'to say "yes"', 
OHG gi-jazen 'to agree'. Derived from 
*ja. But cf. % jextojanan. Torp-Falk 328; 
Vries ANE1\ t 291. 

*jěz ~ *jíz pron.: ON ér 'you', OE y id., 
OFris gi id., OS gí id., OHG ir id. 
Analogical modifications of *júz. Torp- 
Falk 330; Holthausen AEE]V 141; 
Pokorný I 513-514; Vries AMEW 103; 
Onions 1018; Fvluge-Seebold 395. 




*ju adv.: Goth ju 'just now, already', OE 
3eó 'formerly, before', OS ju 'already', 
OHG ju id. Identical with Lith jau id., 
Latv jau id., Slav *ju id. Rretschmer 
KZ XXXI 466 (to IE *ieum- 'young'); 
Meillet MSL LX 52; Trautmann BSW 
106; Torp-Falk 328; Holthausen 
AEEW 141; Feist 303; Pokorný I 285; 
Fraenkel 190; Stang LS 25; Trubaohev 
ESSJa VIII 190-191; Lehmann GED 

*ju3unj)iz sb.f.: OE 3eÓ3uS 'youth', OFris 
jogethe id., OS juguth id., OHG jugund id. 
Identical with Skt yuvatí- 'young woman' 
< Huunti-, with a taboo change of *-w- > 
*-5-. Related to *jun^az. Brugmann 
Grundňfi 11/ 1 439 (*-w- > *-$- by anal- 
ogy with *du^unpiz > OE dugud, OHG 
tugund); Torp-Falk 331; Holthausen 
AEE]V 141; Mayrhofer III 23; Lehmann 
Phon. 48 (*3 < *Hu), GED 213; Kluge- 
Seebold 412-413. 

*jukan sb.n.: Qoúi juk 'yoke', ON ok id., 
OE 3eoc id., OS juk id., OHG joh, juh id. 
Etymologically related to Hitt i-ú-ga-an 
id., Skt yugá- id., Gk i^vyóv id., Arm luc 
id. < *iugio-, Lat iugum id., W z«zí id., Lith 
júngas id. (with *-n- from the nasál infix 
of the verbal present), Slav *jbgo id. 
Pedersen &&. Gr. I 64, 98; Meillet MSL 

VII 57; Torp-Falk 330; Trautmann 
BSW 109; Holthausen AEEII' 141; 
Walde-Hofmann I 728-729; Feist 304; 
Pokorný I 508; Vries ANE) V 417; Mayr- 
hofer III 19; Fraenkel 196; Zalizniak 
I 142; Frisk I 615-616; Onions 1020; 
Puhvel II 495-496; Trubachev ESSJa 

VIII 206-208; Lehmann GED 212; 
Kluge-Seebold 411. 

*jukkjanan wk.vb.: OE jzcczzzz 'to itch', 
OS jukkian id., OHG jucken id. Related 
to *jeukenan. Bartholomae 1231-1232; 
Holthausen AEE\ I T 142; Pokorný I 512; 
Onions 488. 

*jukojanan wk.vb.: ON oka 'to yoke', OE 
3eoáan 'to preserve, to savé'. Derived 
from *jukan. Cf. a structural similarity in 
Lat iugo id. Walde-Hofmann I 728; 
Vries ANEW 418. 

*juk5n sb.m.: Goth ga-juka 'companion, 
yoke-fellow', ON oki 'cross-beam'. Iden- 
tical with Skt sam-yúj- 'joined through 
friendship or relationship', Lat con-iux 
'spouse'. Derived from *jukan. Walde- 
Hofmann I 261; Feist 186-187; Vries 
X7VEIK418; Lehmann GED 141. 

*jukuzjó sb.n.: Goůijukuzi 'yoke' (with an 
unclear -a), OE sýcer 'acre'. Fem. *(ie)- 
iug-usí of a perfect participle from IE 
*ieug- (Bammesberger Language XLI 
416-419, Nom. 213). Noreen IFW 325 
(Goth -uz,- < IE *-ues-)\ Streftberg IF 
XIV 494; Unwerth PBB XXXVI 20 (s- 
stem, cf. Gk C,evyoc, 'team', Lat iúgera 
'acre', Slav *jbgo 'yoke'); Holthausen 
AEEW 142; Feist 304; Lehmann GED 

*junďó sb.f: Goth junda 'youth'. Identical 
with Lat iuuenta id. < *iuunta (Brugmann 
Grundňfi 11/ 1 418). Torp-Falk 331; 
Walde-Hofmann I 736; Feist 304-305; 
Chemodanov SGGJa I 91; Lehmann GED 
213; Bammesberger Nom. 148. 

*jun3alin3az sb.m.: ON ynglingr 'young 
person', OE 5eorej&5 id., OFris jungeling 
id., OS jungling id., MHG jungeling id. 
Derived from *jun^az. Onions 1021; 
Ktuge-Seebold 413. 

*jun3a-líkaz adj.: ON ung-ligr 'youthful', 
OHG jung-llh id. Derived from *junsaz. 
Heidermanns 326. 

*jun3az adj.: Goth juggs 'young', ON ungr 
id., OE 3eon3 id., OFris jung id., OS juiig 
id., OHG jung id. Related to Skt yuvaéá- 
'youthful', Lat iuuencus 'youth', Olr óac 
'young', W ieuanc id. from Huun-kó- fur- 
ther connected with *ieu- 'young'. Cf. 
also Khwar 'yw'nk 'young' < Irán *aiwa- 
nak (Teubner Gedenkschr. Gůntert 302). 
Torp-Falk 331; Walde-Hofmann I 
735; Feist 303-304; Holthausen AEEJ I' 
142; Kluge 342-343; Mayrhofer III 
23-24; Porzig Festschr. Debrunner 
343-349; Hoffmann MSS VI 39-40; 
Pokorný I 510-511; Vries AJ\EJV 635; 
Eggers Festschr. Starek 62—81; Onions 
1021; Hamp KZ LXXXIV 1; Lehmann 
GED 212; Bammesberger Nom. 253; 




Heidermanns 325-326; Rluge-Seebold 

*jun3Ón sb.m.: ON ungi 'young of a birď, 
OHG jungo 'animal cub'. Derived from 
*junsaz. Heidermanns 325. 

*jutwó ~ *jetwó pron.: ON it 'you two', 
OE 3Ít id., OFris iat id., OS git id. The 
vocalism has been influenced by *wetwo. 
Identical with Lidi judu id. Originally, a 
compound of *iu 'you' an d *duo 'two' 
(Meillet MSL XIII 208). For the oblique 
cases cf. gen. *enkwara > Goth igqara, ON 
ykkar, OE incer, Streitberg UGG 265; 

Lotspeich JEGP XXX 150; Petersen 
JEGP XXXIII 66; Torp-Faek 329-330; 
Feist 291; Holthausen AEEW 142; Po- 
korný I 513-514; Fraenkel 199; Vries 
ANEU' 288, 677; Lehmann GED 204. 
*júz pron.: Goth jus 'you'. Related to Av 
yúš id., lAÚi jus id. Further to Skt yúyám 
id., Av yužsm id., Gk vmíeq id. See *jez ~ 
*jiz. Bartholomae 1303-1305; Torp- 
Falk 330; Feist 305; Mayrhofer III 26 
Pokorný I 513-514; Fraenkel 199 
Onions 1018; Lehmann GED 213 
Ktuge-Seebold 395. 

*kabisjaz ~ *kabisjó sb.m./f.: ON ke/sir 
'slavě (?)', OE ciefes 'concubine', OS kevis 
'concubine', OHG kebis, kebisa id. Pro- 
bably related to Lith žabas 'branch, 
bough', žabóju, zabiti 'to bridle', žebóju, 
Žebóti id. The semantic development in 
Gmc may be connected with that of the 
Baltic verb or similar to that of Slav 
*kopyl~b 'shoot, branch' ~ 'bastard, boy, 
servant'. Lidén SSUF 1894 63-64 (to 
Olr bé 'woman'); Torp-Falk 34; Zupitza 
KZ XXXVII 391 (to Lat captluus 'captive, 
captureď), Gutt. 183; Schroeder ,žjď% 
XXXVIII 523 (to OHG keva 'shell; 
cavea'); Trautmann BS1V 364; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 47; Pokorný I 408 (from 
*gabh- eventually related to *3etanari); 
Fraenkel 1282-1283; Vries ANE1V 304; 
Pisani TC XII 71 (to Gk áyarcóco); 
Menges ZfslPh XLIII 400-406 (together 
with the unclear Pol kobieta 'woman' from 
Uralic); Kluge-Seebold 435. 

*kablón sb.m.: ON kqfli 'cut off piece', 
MDu cavele 'piece of wood ušed to throw 
lots' (fem.). Probably related to Lith žabas 
'branch'. See *kabisjaz ~ *kabisjo. Zu- 
pitza Gutt. 183; Torp-Falk 34; Pokorný 
I 353; Fraenkel 1282-1283; Vries 
AMEW 296-297; Kluge-Seebold 415. 

*ka3Ón sb.m.: Norw dial. kage 'low bush', 
E dial. cag 'stump', G dial. Kag id. Of 
unknown origin. Torp-Falk 33. 

*kaibaz adj.: ON ákafr 'vehement, fiery', 
OE cáf 'quick, sharp, nimble'. Derived 
from *klbojanan. Torp-Falk 43; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 42; Heidermanns 327. 

*kailón ~ *kailaz sb.f./m.: Norw keila 
'channef, MLG kel 'narrow bay'. Related 
to *kllaz. Torp-Falk 43; Vries AME]\ t 

*kaipaz ~ *kaipó sb.m./f: ON keipr 
'rowlock', MLG kep 'cut, notch'. Related 
to Lat gibbus 'hunch, hump', Latv gibstu, 
gibt 'to benď (Holthausen PBB LXVI 
272). Torp-Falk 44; Jóhannesson IEW 
298 (to Icel kápa 'to move the fishing line 
up and down); Vries AJÍEW 80b. 

*kak5n sb.f: ON kaká 'cake', ME cake id. 
Probably related to Lith žagas 'conical 
stack'. Pokorný I 349 (to Lith gúogě 
'cabbage-heaď); Fraenkel 1284; Kluge- 
Seebold 490. 

*kalanan str.vb.: ON kala 'to freeze', OE 
calan 'to be cold, to become colď. 
Related to Lat gelu 'cold, frost, ice', Slav 
*Zolb 'bad weather'. Zupitza Gutt. 143; 
Torp-Falk 40; Holthausen AEEW 42; 
Walde-Hofmann I 585-586; Johan- 




nesson IEW 373-375; Pokorný I 365; 
Trubaohev Slav. jaz. V 1 79; Vries ANE] I ' 
297; Seebold 288-289; Lehmann GED 

*kalbaz sb.m./n.: ON kálfi 'calf ', OE cealf 
id., OFris calf id., OS fozí/id., OHG fozffl 
id. (z-stem). Despite the difference in the 
anlaut (*g- as opposed to *g*-), related to 
Skt gárbha- 'womb', Av garnwa- id., Gk 
SeXqrúc; 'womb', 8éX<paE, 'pigleť, 8oX<pó<;' 
ripriTpa, Hes. Zupitza Gutt. 11; Pers- 
son Beitráge 14-15 (to *kalbon I); Torp- 
Falk 42; Holthausen AEEW 45; 
Mayrhofer I 329; Pokorný I 359 (to 
*katbon I), 473; Vries ANEW 298; 
Zalizniak II 223; Frisk I 363; Onions 
136; Lehmann GED 214 (to Gaul galba 
'very fat man', Lat globus 'globe, heap'); 
Bammesberger Nom. 2 1 1 (old j-stem); 
Kluge-Seebold 418. 

*kalfoón I sb.m.: ON kálfi 'calf (anat.)', E 
calf id., G dial. Kalb 'muscle'. Of uncer- 
tain orígin. A descriptive stem? Cf. *kla- 
bón. Persson Beitráge 14-15 (to *kalbaz); 
Pokorný I 359. 

*kalbon II sb.f.: Goth kalbo 'heifer', OHG 
kalba id. Derived from *kalbaz. Torp- 
Falk 42; Zupitza Gutt. 11, 143; Feist 
305-306; Pokorný I 359; Zalizniak II 
223; Lehmann GED 214. 

*kaldaz adj.: Goth kalds 'colď, ON kaldr 
id., OE ceald id., OFris kald id., OS kald 
id., OHG kalt id. Derivative of *kálanan 
(in *-to-?). Somehow related to Slav sb. 
*xoldb 'colď, despite die phonetic difncul- 
ties (Zupitza KZ XXXVII 390). Kars- 
ten NB II 332; Bezzenberger BB XVI 
242 (to Slav *želdica 'black ice'); Zupitza 
Gutt. 143; Torp-Falk 40; Holthausen 
AEEW 45; Feist 306; Pokorný I 366; 
Chemodanov SSGJa I 56; Vries AME1V 
298; Onions 190; Seebold 288; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa VIII 57-58; Lehmann 
GED 214; Bammesberger Nom. 251; 
Heidermanns 328; Kluge-Seebold 420; 
Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*kalčtěnan wk.vb.: ON kalda 'to become 
colď, OE cealdian id., OHG kaltěn id. 
Derived from *kaliaz. Structurally close 

to Slav *xolditi 'to become colď. Vries 
ANEW 298; Trubachev ESSJa VIII 56; 
Heidermanns 328. 

*kalzan sb.n.: ON kalí 'calf. Derivation- 
ally close to Slav *golsb 'voice'. Further 
related to W galw 'to calf < *galu-, Slav 
*golgotb 'speech'. Torp-Falk 42; Po- 
korný I 350; Chemodanov SGGJa I 84. 

*kalzójanan wk.vb.: ON kalia 'to call, to 
cry', OFris helia 'to name', MLG kolsen 'to 
call', OHG kallon 'to talk'. Derived from 
*kalzan. Zupitza Gutt. 143; Torp-Falk 
42; Pokorný I 350; Vries ANEW 
298-299; Onions 137. 

*kalwaz adj.: OE calu 'balď, MDu kalu 
id., OHG kalo id. Closely connected with 
Slav *gotb 'bare, nakeď. Torp-Falk 42; 
Zupitza Gutt. 144; Torp-Falk 42; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 43; Senn JEGP XXXII 
521; Kluge 346-347; Pokorný I 349- 
350; Stang LS 24; Trubachev ESSJa VI 
204-205; Heidermanns 329; Kluge- 
Seebold 417. 

*kamfoaz sb.m.: ON kambr 'comb', OE 
camb id., OS kamb id., OHG kamb id. 
Identical with Toch A kam 'tooth', B kane 
id., Skt jámbha- 'tooth, tusk', Gk yóntpoi; 
'peg, naif, Alb dhemb ~ dhamb 'tooth', 
Lith žambas 'sharp edge', Latv zúobs 
'tooth', Slav *zob~b id. Kuhn K£ I 131; 
Zupitza Gutt. 192; Torp-Falk 37-38; 
Trautmann BSW 369; Holthausen 
AEE]V 43; Specht 86; Mayrhofer I 
419; Pokorný I 369; Fraenkel 1288- 
1289; Frisk I 319-320; Vries ANEW 
299; Zalizniak I 133; Onions 193; 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 106; Bammes- 
berger Nom. 53; Kluge-Seebold 420; 
Orel AED 82. 

*kambjanan wk.vb.: ON kemba 'to 
comb', OE cemban id., OS kembian id., 
OHG kemben id. Derived from *kambaz. 
Torp-Falk 38; Holthausen AEEW 46; 
Vries ANEW 306. 

*kan(i)paz sb.m.: ON kampr 'beard, mous- 
tache', OE cenep 'moustache', OFris kenep, 
kanep id., MDu caruf-been 'cheek bone'. 
Of unknown origin. Holthausen AEE\ V 
46; Trier Holz 86 (to *kenuz)\ Vries 




ANEW 299 (to *knatm, see *knappaz I); 
Kluge-Seebold 455. 

*kanna pret.-pres.vb.: Goth kann 'to get to 
know', ON kann 'to know', OE can id., 
OFris kan id., OS can id., OHG kann id. 
Related to IE *gem- 'to know': Toch A 
kna-, Skt janati, Gk Ep perf. ysytova 'to 
shout, to be made hearď, Alb njoh ~ njof 
'to know', Lat (gjnosco 'to know, to 
acknowledge', Lith žinóti 'to know', Slav 
'''znáti id. Zupitza Gutt. 1 93; Torp-Falk 
35-36; Trautmann BSW 371; Feist 
316-317; Holthausen AEE]\' 63; 
Walde-Hofmann II 176-177; Kluge 
319-320; Jóhannesson IEW 331-332; 
Mayrhofer I 429; Pokorný I 376-378; 
Fraenkel 1310; Vries ANEW 334; Frisk 
I 293; Onions 139-140; Seebold 289- 
290, KZ LXXX 273-283 {*-nn- < *-nH-)\ 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 100-101; Leh- 
mann GED 141, 222; Kluge-Seebold 
471-472; Orel AED 305; Burlak IFTJa 
243; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*kannin3Ó sb.f.: ON kenning 'doctrine, 
teaching', MLG kenninge 'feeling, recogni- 
tion', MHG kennunge id. Derived from 
*kannjanan Vřes ANE]V 306. 

"kannjanan I wk.vb.: Goth kannjan 'to 
make known', ON kenna 'to teach', OE 
cennan 'to choose, to prove, to declare', 
OFris kenna 'to know', OS ant-kennian 'to 
perceive', OHG in-kennen 'to know'. 
Causative of *kanna. Zupltza Gutt. 193; 
Torp-Falk 36; Holthausen AEE\V 46; 
Feist 307; Vries ANEW 306; Onions 
503; Seebold 289; Lehmann GED 215; 
Kluge-Seebold 437. 

"kannjaiiaii II wk.vb.: ON kenna (barn) 'to 
father a chilď, OE cennan 'to beget, to 
conceive'. Related to *kunjan. At a deeper 
level of reconstruction identical with 
*kannjanan I (Sghróder PBB XLIII 495; 
Gůntert WuS XI 128-130). Torp- 
Falk 34; Holthausen AEEW 46; Vries 
ANEW 306. 

*kannón sb.f.: ON kanna 'can, tankard, 
jug', OE canne 'can, cup', OS kanna id., 
OHG kanna 'vesseP. Related to *kanon 
(Lidén BB XXI 109). Hardly borrowed 

from latě Lat canna 'mug, jug' (Frtngs 
apud Vries) which is from Gmc. Torp- 
Falk 35; Lidén BB XXI 109 (to Mír 
gann 'vessel' < *gandh-n-)\ Holthausen 
AEEW 43; Pokorný I 351; Vries 
ANE1V300; Onions 139; Kluge-Seebold 

*kanón sb.m.: ON káni 'bowl, dish', MLG 
kane 'boať. Of unknown origin. Torp- 
Falk 35; Lidén BB XXI 109 (to *kannon); 
Falk ]VuS IV 89 (to Norw kana 'to crane 
one's neck'); Loewenthal IKaSX 184 (to 
Gk yívvq 'chin'); Pokorný I 351 (to Mír 
gann 'vessel' < *gandh(n)-)\ Vries ANE]V 
300; Kluge-Seebold 417. 

*karla-fulkan ~ *kerla-fulkan sb.n.: 
ON karl-fólk 'male folk', OE ceorl-folc 
'common people, public'. Compound of 
*karlaz ~ *kerlaz and *fulkan. Carr Nom. 
comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*karlaz ~ *kerlaz sb.m.: ON kari 'man', 
OE carl 'churl, rustic', ceorl 'freeman of 
the lowest class, man, husbanď, OFris 
zerl 'adult man', MLG kerle id., OHG kari 
'man, spouse'. Related to *karskaz and 
further derived from IE *ger(sj- 'to ripen, 
to grow old, to become frail', cf. Skt 
járant- 'old', Arm cer id., Gk yépcov 
'old man' and uhe like. Torp-Falk 38; 
Holthausen AEE1V 46-47; Porzig 
Festschr. Debrunner 348 (separates Gmc 
from this root); Pokorný I 391; Vřes 
ANEW 301; Zalizniak I 133; Frisk I 
301-302; Onions 146, 175; Kluge- 
Seebold 438. 

*karm(j)az sb.m.: OE cirm 'noise, shout, 
clamor', OS karm 'shout, cry'. Derivation- 
ally identical with Olr gairm 'cry, call', W 
garm id., Corn garm id., Bret garm id. 
Further related to *karó. Zupitza Gutt. 
78, 193; Holthausen AEEW 45, 47; 
Pokorný I 566. 

*karó sb.f: Goth kára 'care', ON kqr 'bed 
in which one lies bedridden', OE caru, 
cearu 'care, sorrow, grief ', OFris kar-jestere 
'fasting penitenť, OS kára 'care, sorrow, 
mourning', OHG kára 'mourning'. Re- 
lated to Lat gamo 'to prattle', Olr gáir- 
'clamor', W gair 'worď < *gario- and the 




like. Zupitza Gutt. 78, 193; Torp-Falk 
39; Holthausen AEEW 44; Walde- 
Hofmann I 583; Feist 307-308; Po- 
korný I 352; Zalizniak I 147; Onions 
146; Lehmann GED 215; Bammesberger 
Nom. 107-108; Kluge-Seebold 427. 

*karójanan wk.vb.: Goth karon 'to care 
abouť, OE carian 'to také care, to regard, 
to heeď, OS kárán 'to mourn', OHG karon 
'to bewail'. Derived from *karo. Torp- 
Falk 39; Holthausen AEEW 44; Feist 
307; Onions 146; Lehmann GED 215. 

*karskaz adj.: ON karskr 'brisk, bolď, 
MLG karsch 'lively, fresh', MHG karsch id. 
Derived from IE *ger(d)- 'to ripen, to 
grow old, to become frail', cf. Sktjárati 'to 
make old, to grow old, to decay', Slav 
*Zbrěti 'to ripen'. Karsten NB II 449; 
Zupitza Gutt. 144; Torp-Falk 39; 
Mayrhofer I 420; Pokorný I 390; Vrtes 
ANEW 302 (to Gk éyeípco 'to wake'); 
Vasmer-Trubachev II 106; Wissmann 
AWNP 36; Hetdermanns 330. 

*katilaz sb.m.: Goth katils 'ketde', ON 
ketill id., OE cytel id., MLG ketel id., OHG 
kezzil id. An old borrowing from Lat catil- 
lus 'small dish, deep vessel for cooking', 
dem. of catinus (Luft Z dadl xli 242). 
Schwentner PBB XLIV 498; Bruch 
Festschr. Kretschmer 6— 12; Jelltnek ZDADL 
LXVI 129; Holthausen AEE]V 48; Feist 
308; Vries ANEW 307; Onions 504; 
Lehmann GED 215-216; Kluge-Seebold 

*kat5n sb.m.: ON kati 'small ship', LG kat 
'small vehicle'. Of unknown origin. 
Falk II ~uS IV 88; Bruch Festschr. 
Kretschmer 12—14 (from OPic cat 'man of 
war'); Vries ANEW 303. 

*kaunan ~ *kauno sb.n./f: ON kaun 
'sore', MDu coon jaw'. Derived from 
*kewwanan. Derivationally close to Lith 
Žiáuna 'gill', Latv žaúnas 'gills, jaw', Slav 
*Žuna 'lip, mouth' < *geuna. Bugge KJ? 
XLX (1870) 431-432 (to Skt gavlní 
'groins'); Torp-Falk 45; Zupitza Gutt. 
78; Pokorný I 397; Fraenkel 1302- 
1303; Vries ANEW 303 (to ON ká 'to 
harass'); Lehmann GED 222. 

*kaupa-mannz sb.m.: ON kaup-maSr 
'merchanť, OE ceáp-man id., OFris kap- 
mon id., MLG kop-man id., OHG kouf-man 
id. Compound of *kaupaz and *mannz. 
Carr Nom. comp. 75 (parallel formations). 

*kaupa-skipan sb.n.: ON kaup-skip 'mer- 
chant ship', OE ceáp-scip id., MLG kop- 
schip id., OHG kouf-skif \á. Compound of 
*kaupaz and *skipan. Carr Nom. comp. 75 
(parallel formations). 

*kaupa-stadiz sb.m./f.: ON kaup-stadr 
'market-town', OS kóp-stedi 'market- 
place', OHG fem. kouf-stat id. Compound 
of *kaupaz and *staiiz. Carr Nom. comp. 
75 (parallel formations). 

*kaupaz sb.m.: ON -kaup 'purchase' (in 
cmpn.), OE ceáp 'catde, price, sále', OFris 
kap 'sále', OS kop 'bargain, purchase', 
OHG kouf id. A modification of Lat caupo 
'small tradesman' (Bruch ^DADL 
LXXXIII 92-103). Holthausen AEEW 
45; Vries ANEW 303; Onions 166; 
Bammesberger Nom. 97; Boutkan OFED 

*kaupjanan ~ *kaupojanan wk.vb.: 
Goth kaupon 'to trade, to do business', 
ON kaupa 'to buy' (irreg.), OE cýpan 'to 
seli', OFris kapia 'to buy, to seli', OS 
kópian 'to buy, to trade', OHG koufen 
id. Derived from *kaupaz, cf. Lat cauponari 
'to haggle' (Jellinek GGS 185). Feist 
309; Holthausen AEEW 48; Vries 
XY£ir308; Onions 166; Benveniste IEL 
110-112; Lehmann GED 216; Kluge- 
Seebold 434; Boutkan OFED s.v. 

*kauraz sb.m.: Norw kaure 'frizzy curi', cf. 
also neut. kaur 'wool'. Close to Mír gúaire 
'hair', Lidi pl. gauraí id., Latv gaup 'pubic 
hair' (Lidén IF XLX 341). Pokorný I 
397; Fraenkel 140; Vries ANEW 302. 

*kausjanan ~ *kauzjanan wk.vb.: 
Goth kausjan 'to sample, to experience, 
to taste', OFris kera 'to choose'. Structur- 
ally identical with Skt josáyate 'to caress, 
to také delight in'. Iterative-causative of 
*keusanan. Feist 310; Mayrhofer I 445; 
Pokorný I 399-400; Seebold 294. 

*kaw5 sb.f: Dan kaa 'daw, jackdaw', OE 
ceó 'a kind of crow, jay', MLG ká 'daw, 




jackdaw', OHG ka 'crow'. Of imitative 
origin, cf. Slav *kaut>ka 'daw, gulT. Torp- 
Falk 45. 

*kazan sb.n.: Goth kas 'jar, vessď, ON ker 
id., MLG kar id., OHG kar id. Cultural 
loanword, probably (indirectly) from Sem 
*ka'su- 'beaker' > Akk kasu- (Gůntert 
Festschr. Panzer 12). Curtius Gr. Et. 476 
(to Lat uás 'vessel, dish'); Osthoff BB 
XIX 321 (to Lat gero 'to carry, to leaď); 
Zupitza Gutt. 82, 193; Torp-Falk 42; 
Sutterlin ZFXXLX 125 (to Gk yamUi; 
'buckeť); Feist 308; Vries ANEW 306; 
Lehmann GED 215; Kluge-Seebold 

*kebran sb.n.: MHG kiver 'jaw, jawbone' 
(neut. or mase). Identical with Av zafar- 
'mouth'. Bartholomae 1657; Torp- 
Falk 34 (reconstruct *kefru)\ Pokorný I 
382; Kluge-Seebold 440. 

*kelkaz ~ *kelkón sb.m.: ON kjalki 
'jowF, OHG kelh, kelah 'goitre, swelling'. 
Related to *kulkaz. Torp-Falk 41; 
Vries ANEW 310-311. 

*kelpon ~ *kelpaz sb.f./m.: ON kelpa 
'otter trap', MLG kelp 'low fellow'. 
Probably related to Lat galba 'lat paunch, 
big belly' (from Celtic). Vrles ANEW 
306 (to ON kilpr 'handle of a vessel'). 

*kelpaz sb.n.: OE cild 'chilď. From here 
Goth kilpei 'womb' < *kelpin is derived. 
Of uncertain origin. Fortunatov BB 
VI 217 (to Skt jathára- 'belly, stomach, 
womb'); Lidén ZFXLX 335; Zupitza Gutt. 
77, 211; Torp-Falk 42; Mikkola 5BB 
XXI 225 (to Swed kolla, kulla 'girl' 
< *kulp-); Holthausen AEE]V 48; Feist 
311; Pokorný I 358; Onions 169; Leh- 
mann GED 218 (from IE *gel- 'roundeď); 
Bammesberger Nom. 211. 

*keluz ~ *kel5n sb.m./f.: ON kjqlr 'keel', 
OE ceole 'drroať, MLG kde id. Related 
to Olr gelid 'to swallow, to eať, gaile 
'stomach'. Torp-Falk 41; Holthausen 
AEEW 46; Pokorný I 365; Vries 
ANEW 312-313 (to Skt giráti 'to swaUow, 
to eať). 

*kemfoaz ~ *kembó sb.m./f: Swed dial. 
kimb 'ends of a stave protruding over the 

grounď, MLG kimme 'rim'. Probably 
related to *kambaz. Cf. also Lith gémbé 
'wooden hook'. Torp-Falk 37-38; 
Persson SVSVK 80; Holthausen AEEW 
49; Pokorný I 368; Fraenkel 146; Vries 
ANEW 309 (to Gk yé^co 'to be full'). 

*kembilaz sb.m.: ON kimbill 'bundle', 
MLG kimmel 'gag, toggle', OHG kembil 
'fetter, shaekle'. Derived from *kembaz ~ 
*kembó. Torp-Falk 37; Vries ^ijVEII'309. 

*kendiz sb.f: ON kind 'kind, variety'. 
Derivationally close to Lat gens 'race, 
clan', OW -gint (in compounds). Further 
related to *kenpan. Persson Beitrdge 686 
(on Av fra-zaintiš 'progeny'); Brugmann 
Grundrifi 11/ 1 434; Torp-Falk 35; 
Walde-Hofmann I 592; Pokorný I 373- 

*kennu-bainan sb.n.: ON kinn-bein 'cheek- 
bone', OE cin-bán id., MLG kinne-bin id., 
OHG kinni-bein id. Compound of *kennuz 
and *bainan. Garr Nom. comp. 50. 

*kennu-ber3o sb.f: ON kirm-bjqrg 'cheek- 
piece (of a helmet)', OE cin-ber^ id. 
Compound of *kennuz and *ber^5. Carr 
Nom. comp. 81 (parallel formations). 

*kennuz sb.f: Goth kinnus 'cheek', ON 
kinn id. (root stem), OE cin 'chin', OFris 
kin id. The geminate is believed to reflect 
the generalized *-nu- of gen. sg. in *genus, 
*genuos (Hirt Urgerm. II 47). Related to 
Toch A duál. šanwem 'jaw', Skt hanu- id. 
(with irregular h-), Av duál zanva id., Gk 
yévoi; 'chin', Lat gena 'cheek', Olr gin, giiin 
'mouth'. Wood IF XVIII 32 (identical 
with *genu- 'knee'); Back/FXL 162-167 
(to *gem- 'to give birth'); Zupitza Gutt. 
193; Torp-Falk 37; Holthausen AEEW 
49; Walde-Hofmann I 589-590; Feist 
312; MARTrNET Gem. 69; Porzig Gliederung 
126; Mayrhofer III 574-575; Pokorný 
I 381; Vries ANEW 309; Zalizniak II 
208; Frisk I 298; Onions 170; Lehmann 
GED 218-219; Bammesberger Nom. 161; 
Fvluge-Seebold 442. 

*kenj)an sb.n.: Norw dial. kind 'chilď, 
OS kind id., OHG kind id. Identical with 
Lat part. genitus, further connected with 
*gem- 'to give birth'. Zupitza Gutt. 193; 




Persson Beitráge 686; Torp-Falk 35; 
Hermann IF LIII 1 02; Walde-Hofmann 
I 592; Pokorný I 373-375; Vries AMEW 
309; Humbach MSS VII 55 (to Lat Genita 
(Mana), OSc Genetaí, W geneth 'girl'); 
Lehmann GED 218; Hamp IF LXXXVII 
77; Bammesberger ZF LXXIII 134 (OFris 
kind, OS kind < OHG), Mm. 94-95; 
Kluge-Seebold 442. 

*keppón sb.m.: ON kjappi 'he-goať, G 
dial. kippe 'newly born calf. Cf. 
Alb c(j)ap, sqap 'goať < PAlb *tsapa, 
Slav *cap~b id., Rum fap id., Ital zappo id. 
continuing an oriental JVanderwort of 
Iranian or Altaic origin, cf. NPers čapiš 
'one year old goať, Osset ciew 'goať, 
OTurk čdbiš 'six-months old kiď. Mar- 
tinet Gém. 116, 139; Vries AMEW 311. 

*kerbanan str.vb.: OE ceorfan 'to carve, to 
cut, to hew', OFris kewa id., MDu kerven 
id., MHG kerben 'to notch'. Related to Gk 
ypátpco 'to scratch, to write'. Zupitza 
Gutt. 144; Torp-Falk 40; Holthausen 
AEEW 46; Jóhannesson IEW 362-363; 
Pokorný I 392; Onions 149; Frisk I 
324-326; Jegers KZ LXXX 63-66 (on 
the connection with OPrus gírbin 'num- 
ber', Slav *žerbbjb 'loť); Seebold 292— 
293; Kluge-Seebold 438. 

*kernó(n) sb.f.: ON kirnu-askr 'churn-paiT, 
OE ctem 'butter tub' (o-stem), MLG kerne 
id., early G kerne id. Probably related to 
*kernon. Torp-Falk 38; Holthausen 
AEEW 46; Vries AMEW 310; Kluge- 
Seebold 428. 

*kernon sb.m.: ON kjarni 'kernel, nucleus', 
MLG kerne id., OHG kerno, kern id. An 
ablaut variant of *kurnan. Zupitza Gutt. 
193; Torp-Falk 38; Porzig Gliederung 
195; Pokorný I 391; Vries AMEW 312; 
Zalizniak II 227; Lehmann GED 217; 
Kluge-Seebold 438. 

*kerranan str.vb.: OE pret. pl. curran 'to 
creak', OHG kerran id. An onomatopoeic 
form that might be close or similar to Skt 
járate 'to crackle, to roar'. Zupitza Gutt. 
78, 193; Holthausen AEEW 47; Mayr- 
hofer I 421; Pokorný I 383-385; See- 
bold 293. 

*kerzan sb.n.: ON kjarr 'copsewooď. 
Identical with Gk yéppov 'wicker-work, 
oblong shield, wattled screens' < *yépoov 
(Lidén^FSÍ/VI/I 7-9). Torp-Falk 40; 
Pokorný I 392; Vries AMEW 312; Frisk 
I 300-301. 

*keulaz sb.m.: ON kjóll 'keel, barge, ship', 
OE ceól 'keel, ship', OS kiol 'ship', OHG 
kiol 'big ship'. May be close to Gk yaiAói; 
'round vessel', yaíXoc; 'kind of ship' 
(Pedersen KZ XXXLX 459). Bodr Gmc 
and Gk, however, can go back to the 
samé Semitic source, cf. . . . kcxÍ xá 
3>oiviKiK« likoia yaútan koAoíivtou, Hes. 
(Lewy Fremdw. 151,210). Falk WuS IV 
88-89 (ON < OE); Zupitza Gutt. 145; 
Torp-Falk 46, 561; Holthausen AEEW 
46; Pokorný I 397 (to Skt gola- 'globe, 
balí', Gk yúaA.ov 'cavity of tíre cuirass'); 
Vries AME) V 312; Zalizniak I 133; Frisk 
I 291-292; Onions 502; Chantraine 
239-240; Kluge-Seebold 440. 

*keusanan str.vb.: Goth kiusan 'to tesť, 
ON kjósa 'to elect, to choose', OE ceósan 
id., OFris kiása id., OS kiosan id., OHG 
kiosan id. Identical widr Skt jusáte, jásati 'to 
be fond of, to like, to enjoy', Av zaoš- 'to 
be pleased widr', Gk yeúouai 'to taste', 
Alb dua ~ due 'to love' < *gěus-n-o, Olr 
asa-gú 'to wish'. Zupitza Gutt. 194; Bar- 
tholomae 1656; Torp-Falk 48; Feist 
312-313; Holthausen AEE) I ' 47; Jóhan- 
nesson IEW 322-323; Mayrhofer I 441; 
Pokorný I 399-400; Vries AhEW 312; 
Frisk I 302; Onions 1 72; Seebold 
293-294; Lehmann GED 219; Kluge- 
Seebold 441; Orel AED 77-78. 

*kewwanan str.vb.: OE ceówan 'to chew', 
MLG keuwen id., OHG kiuwan id. Cf. also 
ON tjiggja, tyggva id. with abnormal t- 
(? < *kjujja-). Related to Slav *žuti id., 
Toch AB šuwá- 'to eať. Zupitza Gutt. 
145; Torp-Falk 44; Holthausen AEEh' 
47; Jóhannesson IEW 390; Pokorný I 
400; Vries AMEW 602; Onions 168; 
Seebold 294-295; Dybo BSJaO 16-18 
(Gmc gemination in a mobile paradigm); 
Kluge-Seebold 434; Adams TB 631— 
632; Burlak IFTJa 259. 




*kěmaz adj.: Norw dial. kaam 'dark, 
cloudeď, MLG sbst. kam 'mould on liq- 
uids', MHG sbst. kam id. Related to or, 
at least, similar with IE *kiěmo-\ Skt 
šyamá- 'dark gray, black', Lith šemas 'gray 
and blue, blue'. Torp-Falk 37; Pokorný 
I 541. 

*kidjan ~ *kittjan sb.n.: ON kio 'kiď, 
OHG kizzi id. Borrowed from an un- 
known IE source continuing *ghaido- (see 
*3aitz ~ *3aitiz). Torp-Falk 44 (to Alb 
kedh 'kid'); Pokorný I 409; Onions 505; 
Kluge-Seebold 444. 

*kip(p)az sb.m.: ON keppr 'cudgel, club', 
OE cipp 'log, coulter, plowshare', OS kip 
'post'. Cf. also OHG kipfa 'axle, stave' 
(fem.). Related to *kaipaz ~ *kaipo. 
Torp-Falk 44 (to Lat scipió 'walking 
staff'); Holthausen yfEíTr 49; Martinet 
Gém. 195; Vries ANEW 306; Onions 170. 

*kippjanan wk.vb.: ON kippa 'to pull, to 
snatch', MLG kippen 'to hatch', G kippen 
'to knock over'. Derived from *kip(p)az. 
Falk-Torp ND 511 (to Oir scibiud 'to 
move'); Torp-Falk 43 (to Slav *cěpiti 'to 
clutch'); Vries ANE]\ t 310. 

*kippon ~ *kippan sb.m./n.: ON kippa 
'bundle', MLG kip 'bundle (of furs, fish)'. 
Derived from *kip(p)az. Martinet Gém. 
197; Vries ANEW 310. 

*kitilójanan wk.vb.: ON kitla 'to tickle', 
OE citelian id., OS kitilon id., OHG 
kizzilon id. A descriptive stem. Schef- 
telowttz BB XXLX 30 (to Arm kcem 'to 
itch, to tickle' < *gidió); Torp-Falk 44; 
Holthausen AEEW 50; Vries ANEW 
310; Onions 507; Kluge-Seebold 444. 

*kťbójanan wk.vb.: ON kífa 'to strive, to 
quarrel', OFris zivia id., MLG kiven id., 
MHG klben id. Retains elements of a 
strong paradigm. Probably related to Lith 
geibstú, géibti 'to weaken'. Persson 
Beitrdge 84-85; Torp-Falk 43; Holt- 
hausen AEE] V 42; Pokorný I 354; Vries 
ANEW 308; Heidermanns 327; Kluge- 
Seebold 436. 

*kíkjanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. kikja 'to 
gasp, to pant', MHG kichen id. A redupli- 
cated form similar to Toch AB kak- 'to 

call' further related to Skt gati, gayati 'to 
sing', Slav *gajati 'to shouť. Torp-Falk 
44; Pokorný I 355. 

*kilaz sb.m.: Norw kile 'wedge', MLG kil 
id., OHG kil id. Related to *kinanan. 
Torp-Falk 43; Pokorný I 355 (recon- 
structs *kiilaz). 

*kimón ~ *kímaz sb.m.: Norw dial. kime 
'strip, piece', OS kimo 'germ', OHG chimo 
'sprouť. Related to *kínanan. Torp- 
Falk 43; Pokorný I 355. 

"klnanan str.vb.: Goth keinan 'to sprout, to 
buď (wk. pret), OE cínan 'to gape, to 
break into chinks', OS kinan 'to germi- 
nate', OHG kinan 'to sprout, to germi- 
nate'. Related to Latv sýliju, ziét 'to blos- 
som' and, further, to Lith žý džiu, žydeti id. 
(Zupitza Gutt. 79, 193). Pedersen K~ 
XXXIX 402 (to Arm cel, ciwl 'stalk'); 
Torp-Falk 43; Feist 310; Holthausen 
AEEW49; Pokorný I 355; Onions 170; 
Seebold 290-291; Lehmann GED 217 (to 
IE *skei- 'to cut, to separate'); Kluge- 
Seebold 437. 

*klabon sb.m.: ON klaji 'a kind of fork put 
on the neck of cattle', MLG klane 'yoke'. 
Related to Lith glěbiu, glebti 'to embrace', 
glóbiu, glóbů id., Slav *globa 'kind of pole'. 
Zupitza Gutt. 146; Torp-Falk 57; 
Pokorný I 359; Fraenkel 156; Vries 
ANEW 313; Stang LS 22; Trubaohev 
ESSJaVl 131-132. 

*klaimjanan wk.vb.: ON kleima 'to daub, 
to smear', OE daman 'to smear, to 
anoinť, MDu klaněn id., OHG part. bi- 
kleimenti. Derived from *klaimon ~ 
*klaimaz. Holthausen AEE] V 50; Vrtes 
ANEW 315; Onions 179. 

*klaim5n ~ *klaimaz sb.f./m.: ON 
kleima 'blot, dab', OE clarn 'mud, clay', 
MDu kleem 'glue', OHG kleim 'clay'. 
Related to Lith gléima 'slime', Latv glaima 
'flattery'. Torp-Falk 57 (to Lith glemhs 
'slime'); Holthausen AEE] V 50; Pokorný 
I 364; Fraenkel 157; Vries ANEW 
315; Onions 179, 181; Kluge-Seebold 

*klainiz adj.: Burg *klaini 'tender, shining', 
OE cldne 'clean', OFris klene 'narrow, 




thin', OS kleni 'narrow, slim, delicate', 
OHG kleini, klein 'delicate, fine, small'. 
Identical with Slav *glinb 'clay, dregs' 
< *gloini-. Cf. *klajjaz. Torp-Falk 57; 
Holthausen AEE]\ r 50; Trier Lehm 
30-33; Pokorný I 366-367; Onions 180; 
Trubaohev ESSJa VI 120-121; Kobler 
711; Heidermanns 332-333; Kluge- 
Seebold 448. 

*klaiwaz sb.m.: OS kle 'clover', OHG klěo, 
kle id. Cf. also OE cLefre id., MLG klaver 
id. Identical with Gk yA.oió<; 'glue, tar', 
Slav *glězrb 'slime'. Cf. *klenanan. Torp- 
Falk 58; Holthausen AEE]V 50 (to 
Slav *glbbiti 'to stick fasť); Pokorný I 
364; Frisk I 312-313; Onions 183; Tru- 
bachev ESSJa VI 121-122; Kluge- 
Seebold 447. 

*klajjaz sb.m.: OE c/«3 'clay', OFris klay 
id., MLG klei id. Related to Gk yXoióq 
'glutinous substance, gum' and particu- 
lariy close semantically to Slav *gh>jb 
'clay, glue'. See *klaiwaz. Torp-Falk 57 
(add ON kleggi 'cleg, horsefly' < *klajjori)\ 
Holthausen AEE]V 50; Pokorný I 
362-363; Frisk I 312-313; Onions 180; 
Trubachev ESSJa VI 162; Dybo BSA 

*klak(k)az sb.m.: ON klakkr 'peg', MDu 
klak 'stain', G Kleck 'stain, fleck'. Related 
to Slav *glazt> 'stone, pebble' (Persson 
Beitrdge 792). Zupitza Gidt. 211; Torp- 
Falk 55; Holthausen ^ITII/V 154 (to Slav 
*glezna 'ankle'); Persson SVSU^K 70 (to E 
dial. clink 'boulder'); Jóhannesson IEW 
366 (to *klan$janan); Pokorný I 357-358; 
Vries .i/VETT 313-314. 

*klamforjanan wk.vb.: ON klembra 'to 
jam, to pinch in a smith's vice', MHG 
klemberen 'to cotter'. Derived from 
*klambró. Vries ANEIV 316 (to IE 

*klamforó sb.f: ON klqmbr 'smith's vice', 
E clammer 'clip, brackeť, MHG klammer 
id. Derived from *klembanan. Torp-Falk 
56; Vries AMEW 318. 

*klampo sb.f: ON klqpp 'pier-like rock, 
stepping stones over a stream', MLG 
klampe 'hook, footbridge'. Related to 

*kle7nbanatíí Torp-Falk 57; Pokorný I 

*klan3Janan wk.vb.: ON klengjask 'to piek 
up a quarrel', OE clen^an 'to exhilarate'. 
Causative of *kleri3anan. Holthausen 
AEEIV 51; Vries AMEW 316; Seebold 

*klappan ~ *klappaz sb.n./m.: ON 
klapp 'clapping the hands', MHG klapf 
'erash'. Of imitative origin. Torp-Falk 
56; Holthausen AEEW 50; Onions 179. 

*klappójanan wk.vb.: ON klappa 'to 
pack, to clap', OE clappan 'to move, to 
palpitate', OFris klappia id., MLG klappen 
id., MHG klaffen 'to sounď. Of imitative 
origin. Cf. *klappan ~ *klappaz. Torp- 
Falk 56; Wissmann JVP 175; Holthausen 
AEEW 51; Martinet Gém. 168, 170; 
Vries ANE1V 314; Onions 179. 

*klatrójanan wk.vb.: Norw dial. klatra 'to 
beat, to knock', LG klateren 'to ratde, to 
clatter'. Cf. also OE clalrun^ 'drum, rat- 
tle'. Of imitative origin. Torp-Falk 55. 

*klautaz sb.m.: ME cleat 'wedge', MDu 
cloot 'balí, sphere', OHG kloz 'clod, lump, 
wedge' (mase, neut.). Close to Slav *gluda 
'lump'. Berneker I 307-308; Onions 
180; Trubachev Slav. jaz- V lil, ESSJa 
VI 144-145; Kluge-Seebold 452. 

*klawiban sb.m.: ON kláSi 'itch', OE 
cleweda 'clawing, seratching', OHG kla- 
wido 'scabies'. Derived from *klawjanan. 
Holthausen AEEIV 51; Pokorný I 361; 
Vries ANE1\ t 313. 

*klawjanan str. /wk.vb.: ON klá 'to 
serateh' (secondary *klaxanan), kleyja id., 
OE clawan 'to claw', OHG klawen 'to 
serateh'. Of unknown origin. Torp- 
Falk 58; Holthausen AEEIV 51; 
Jóhannesson IEJV 371; Pokorný I 361; 
Vries ANEJV 313; Onions 180; Seebold 

*klembanan str.vb.: OE climban 'to 
climb', MLG klimmen id., OHG klimbán 
id. Probably related to Lith glebiu, glebti 
'to grasp', Slav *globiti 'to fix together, to 
assemble'. See *klabon. Torp-Falk 56; 
Trautmann BSl\ r 91; Holthausen 
AEEW 52; Pokorný I 360; Onions 182 




(nasalized form of *kkianan); Vasmer- 
Trubachev I 413; Trubachev ESSJa VI 

*klempaz ~ *klemp5 sb.m.: ON kleppr 
'plummet, lump', LG klimp 'small clifF'. 
Connected with *klampo. Zupitza Gutt. 
146; Torp-Falk 57; Vries ANEW 316 (to 
IE *glembh-). 

*klenanan str.vb.: OHG klenan 'to glue, to 
stick, to smear'. Transformation of the 
originál *klinanan identical with Olr gle- 
naid 'to adhere' < *gli-na- (Braune AHDG 
307). Cf. *klaiwaz. Pokorný I 32-363; 
Dybo BSA 39. 

*klen3anan str.vb.: OE clinsan 'to cling, 
to stick close', MDu clingen id., OHG 
pres. clinget 'crispať. If assimilated from 
*klem3anan, probably related to Lith 
glemžti 'to sweep, to snatch up'. Torp- 
Falk 56; Holthausen AEEW 52; Fraen- 
kel 156; Onions 182; Seebold 300; 
Pokorný I 361; Fvluge-Seebold 450. 

*klenkwaz adj.: ON klqkkr 'bending, soft', 
LG klinker 'weak'. Further connected with 
ON klqkkva 'to soften' < *klenkwanan re- 
lated to Lith gl^žtú, glizti 'to become 
flabby' < *gleng-. Torp-Falk 56; Jóhan- 
nesson IE] V 293-294; Pokorný I 401 (to 
Lith glěžnas 'weak'); Chemodanov SGGJa 
I 84; Vries ÁNEW 318; Fraenkel 157; 
Seebold 300-301. 

*kleubanan str.vb.: ON kljúfa 'to cleave, 
to spliť, OE cleófan id., OS pret. sg. klof 
id., OHG klioban id. Related to Gk yXíxptů 
'to hollow ouť and identical with Lat 
glubo 'to deprive of the bark, to bark, to 
peef < *gleubh5 (Zupitza Gutt. 211). 
Torp-Falk 59; Holthausen AEE]V 51; 
Walde-Hofmann I 610—611; Jóhannes- 
son IEW 404-405; Pokorný I 401-402; 
Vries ANEW 317; Frisk I 315; Onions 
180; Seebold 301—302; Kluge- Seebold 

*klewón sb.m.: ON klé 'one of the stones 
to keep the warp straight in the old up- 
right loom', OE cleowe 'balí of ťhreaď. 
Related to *klaujanan. Torp-Falk 58. 

*kliběnan ~ *klibójanan wk.vb.: ON 
klifa 'to repeať, OE clifian 'to cleave, to 

adhere', OS klibon 'to adhere', OHG kle- 
běn 'to glue, to stick'. Derived from *ktiba- 
nan. Holthausen AEE]V 52; Seebold 
297; Fvluge-Seebold 447. 

*klibrójanan wk.vb.: ON klifra 'to climb', 
OE clifian 'to scratch, to claw'. Related 
to *kllbanan. Holthausen AEE]V 52; 
Vries ANEW 317. 

*klifan sb.n.: ON klif 'clifF, OE elf id., OS 
klif id., OHG kleb id. Related to *klíbanan. 
Torp-Falk 58; Holthausen AEEW 52; 
VRiEs/ljVETr316-317; Onions 182. 

*klíbanan str.vb.: ON klífa 'to climb', OE 
clífan 'to cleave, to adhere', OFris kltva 'to 
hang', OS bi-kliban 'to také rooť, OHG 
az-klíban 'to stick fasť. Related to Slav 
*glibati 'to stick, to get stuck'. Zupitza 
Gutt. 147; Torp-Falk 58; Holthausen 
AEEW 52; Jóhannesson IEW 365-373; 
Pokorný I 363-364; Vries ANEW 316- 
317; Onions 181; Stang LS 22 (to Slav 
*glbběti 'to stick fasť); Trubachev ESSJa 
VI 124; Seebold 296-297. 

*klíd5n sb.m.: OE clída 'plaster, salvě, 
poultice'. Close to Gk yMttov y^.oióv 
(Hes.), Lith glitiis 'smooth, sticky', Latv 
glist 'to be slimy'. Torp-Falk 58; Holt- 
hausen AEE]V 51; Pokorný I 364; Frisk 
I 313; Onions 183. 

*klowo ~ *klěwó sb.f: ON klá 'claw', 
OE clawu 'nail, claw, hoof, OFris klaune, 
kle 'claw', MLG kla, klouwe id., OHG 
klawa id., kloa id. Connected with *klaw- 
janan. May be further related to Toch B 
kolyi 'clawed paw (?)' (Adams TB 205). 
Kock ANF XXXII 198; Zupitza Gutt. 
146; Torp-Falk 58; Holthausen AEE]Y 
51; Pokorný I 361 (to Skt gláu- 'round 
lump'); Vries AJíE]V 317; Zalizniak II 
209; Onions 180; Fvluge-Seebold 447. 

*kluban ~ *klubó sb.n./f: ON klof 
'cleft between the legs', OE clufu 'ear of 
corn, clove of garlic'. See *klubon. Holt- 
hausen AEEW 53; Vries ANEW 317. 

*klubjó ~ *klubjón sb.f: ON klyf 
'trunk on a pack-horse', OHG klubba 
'tongs, a split piece of wood ušed as 
tongs'. Derived from *klubon. Torp- 
Falk 59. 




*klubon sb.m.: ON klofi 'cleft, rifť, OE 3 e- 
clofa 'copy of a destroyed documenť, 
OFris klova 'chasm', OS fugal-klovo 'perch 
(of the bird-catcher)', OHG klobo 'snare, 
trap'. Derived from *kleuíanan. Zupitza 
Gutt. 211; Torp-Falk 59; Holthausen 
AEE\V 53; Vries ANEW 317; Seebold 
302; Keuge-Seebold 451. 

*klunčtraz sb.m.: Norw klundr 'balí, lump', 
LG klunder 'bush'. Of unknown origin. 
Vries ANEW 318 (to ON klettr 'rock, 

*klun3az ~ *klun3o sb.m./f.: ON klungr 
'bramble', OHG klunga 'balí'. Derived 
from *kkn^anan. Vries ANE]V 318 (to 

*klunjanan wk.vb.: ON klunna 'to cling', 
OE clynian 'to wrap'. Related to *klewon. 
Holthausen AEE]V 53; Pokorný I 361; 
Vries ANEW 318 (related to *klów5 ~ 

*kluppjanan wk.vb.: OE clyppan 'to 
embrace, to clasp', OFris kleppa id. 
Related to Toch B klup- 'to squeeze' 
(Adams TB 226). Zupitza Gutt. 146; 
Holthausen AEE]V 53; Pokorný I 362 
(to Slav *glyba 'clod, lump'); Onions 182 
(to Lith glebti 'to embrace'). 

*kluttaz sb.m.: OE clott 'cloť, MHG klotz 
'lump'. With *-tt- < *-dh- close to Lith 
gludús 'smooth, soft' (related to glaíísti 'to 
cling'). Holthausen AEES I '53; Pokorný 
I 362; Fraenkel 155-156; Onions 183. 

*klútaz sb.m.: ON klidr 'kerchief, OE clút 
'small piece of cloth, patch', MLG klút, 
klúte 'patch'. See *kluttaz. Torp-Falk 
59; Holthausen AEE]V 53; Onions 

*knabilaz sb.m.: ON knefill 'post, pole', 
OS knevil 'short crossbar', OHG knebil 
'columbar, horse's collar'. Derived from 
*knabon (see *knappaz I). Zupitza Gutt. 
147; Torp-Falk 49; Vries ANEW 321 (to 
*knappaz L); Fvluge-Seebold 455. 

*kna33az sb.m.: Swed kiiagg 'knag, gnarl', 
ME knagge id., MLG knagge id. A pho- 
netic variant of *knakkaz ~ *knakko. Torp- 
Falk 49. 

*knakkaz sb.m.: Icel knakkr 'fracture, 

crash', ME cnak id., G Knack id. His- 
torically identical with *knakkaz ~ *knakkó. 
Kluge-Seebold 453. 

*knakkaz ~ *knakk5 sb.m./f: ON 
knakkr 'littie chair, high stool', LG knacke 
'peg'. Cf. verbal derivatives in MLG 
knacken 'to crash', early G knacken id. Of 
unknown origin. Can be the source of 
WGmc *knextaz > OE cniht 'boy, youth, 
servant, knighť, OFris knecht, kniucht 
'servant, soldier', OS knecht 'lad, youth', 
OHG kneht 'youth, servant' (for the 
semantics see *knappaz I). Zupitza Gutt. 
194; Torp-Falk 35 [*knextaz to *kenpan), 
48-49; Holthausen ÍT~ XLVII 307 
(*knextaz to *kna^az), AEE]V 54; 
Marttnet Gém. 137, 196; Pokorný I 
370; Vries ANE1V 319, 321; Onions 508; 
Fvluge-Seebold 453. 

*knappaz I sb.m.: ON knappr 'knob, stuď, 
OE cnepp 'top, cop, knop', OFris knapp 
'knob', MLG knapp 'hilT. Of unknown 
origin. WGmc words for 'boy' reflecťing 
*knap(p)an and *knaidn probably belong 
here (OE cnapa, cnafa, ODu mapo, OHG 
knapo, knappo, knabó). For the semantics cf. 
Slav *kopyl~b 'shoot, branch' ~ 'bastard, 
boy, servant'. Torp-Falk 49; Holt- 
hausen AEE] V 54; Marttnet Gém. 117, 
196; Vries ANEW 320 (to Gk yóntpoq 
'bolt, dowel', yvánnTto 'to bend, to 
curve'); Onions 507; Luhr Expr. 274- 
275; ííluge- Seebold 453. 

*knappaz II adj.: ON knappr 'scanty', 
MLG knap 'scanty, scarce, rare, spáre'. 
Probably connected with *knappaz I. 
Karsten NB II 228-229, 455; Torp- 
Falk 49; Pokorný I 370; Vries ANEW 
320 (to Gk yvánTO), Kvájtxco 'to bend, to 
curve'); Heidermanns 337. 

*knarruz sb.m.: ON knqrr 'merchant ship', 
ME knarre 'knag, gnarl', Du knar 'tree 
stump'. Similar to *kna$3az and *knappaz 
I. Falk WuS, IV 109; Vries A7VEIK323. 

*knatrójanan wk.vb.: Norw knatra 'to 
crackle', MDu cnateren 'to growl, to grum- 
ble', G knattern 'to crackle'. Somehow 
connected with *knakkaz. Vries ANE]\ 7 




*knausaz sb.m.: ON knauss 'knoll, crag', 
G dial. knaus 'button-like topping on the 
bread loaf. Derived from *knusjanan ~ 
*knusojanan. Vries IF LXXII 136-150 
(to Notw kmist 'knotty log'), ANEW 320. 

*knedanan str.vb.: OSwed pres. knodha 'to 
kneaď (< *knuia-), OE cnedan id., OS 
part. gi-knedan id., OHG knetan id. 
Compared with Slav *gnetq, *gnesti 'to 
press' (Lottner K% XI 193). Zupitza 
Gutt. 147; Torp-Falk 49; Holthausen 
AEEW 54; Jóhannesson IEW 332-337; 
Pokorný I 370—373; Chemodanov 
SGGJa I 72; Vries ANEW 322; Onions 
507; Seebold 303-304; Stang LS 23; 
Trubaohev ESSJa VI 165-166; Kluge- 
Seebold 455. 

*knewan sb.n.: Goth kniu 'knee', ON kné 
id., OE cneó id., OFris km, kně id., OS knio 
id., OHG knio id. From *gneuo-, a ťhe- 
matic derivative of IE *genu- id.: Hitt 
genu-, Toch A duál. kanwem, B keni, Skt 
janu, Arm cum, Gk yóvu, Lat genii and the 
like (Kuhn KZ I 129). Petersson SVSL 
I 7; Zupitza Gm/í. 194; Torp-Falk 49; 
Lohmann Genus 13; Holthausen AEE]\ j 
54; Walde-Hofmann I 592-593; Feist 
313; Mayrhofer I 429; Pokorný I 381; 
Vries ANEW 320; Zalizniak I 146; Frisk 
I 321; Onions 507; Lindeman Verschárfung 
16.18; Lehmann GED 220; Puhvel IV 
146-151; Kluge-Seebold 456; Adams 
TB 193; Burlak IFTJa 240. 

*kněanan str.vb.: ON kná 'to be able', OE 
cnáwan 'to know'. An archaic morphono- 
logical variant of IE *gem- 'to know': Skt 
pass. jňayáte 'to be known', Toch A kna-, 
Gk YiyvróoKeo 'to come to know, to per- 
ceive', Lat (gjnosco 'to know', Lith žinóti, 
Slav *znati. See *kanna. Zupitza Gutt. 
193; Torp-Falk 36; Holthausen AEEW 
54; Walde-Hofmann II 176-177; Jóhan- 
nesson IEW 331-332; Mayrhofer I 447 
Pokorný I 376-378; Fraenkel 1310 
Vries ANEW 319; Frisk I 308-309 
Onions 508; Vasmer-Trubachev II 
100-101; Seebold 302-303; Burlak 
IFTJa 243. 

*kněwaz ~ *kněwiz adj.: Crim. Goth 

acc. sg. knauen 'gooď, ON knár 'pithy, vio- 
gorous', OE on-cnéwe 'known, recog- 
nizeď. Related to Mír gnóe 'excellent, 
beautiful' (Much Idg. Anz- LX 198), Lat 
gnduus 'busy, diligenť. See *kneanan. 
Fíarsten NB II 193-194; Bezzenberger 
BB III 81; Torp-Falk 36; Feist 313; Po- 
korný I 378; Vries ANEW 320; Seebold 
303; Hamp IF LXXXI 39; Hamp IF 
LXXXI 39 (Celto-Germanic parallel); 
Lehmann GED 219; Heidermanns 337— 
338 (reconstructs *knawaz and *kněwiz). 

*kníbaz sb.m.: ON knífr 'knife', OE cníf 
id., OFris haf id., MLG haj id., G dial. 
Kneij í shoemaker's knife'. Related to *km- 
panan despite the difference in the inlaut 
consonantism. Zupitza Gutt. 148; Torp- 
Falk 50; Falk ANF XLI 1 1 8; Pokorný I 
370-371; Vries ANEW 321; Onions 

*knípanan str.vb.: Norw dial. knipa 'to 
pinch', MLG knipen id. Identical with 
Lith gnýbti id., žnýbti id. Torp-Falk 50; 
Trautmann BSW 93; Pokorný I 370- 
371; Fraenkel 159; Stang LS 23. 

*knočtiz sb.f: Goth knops 'race, stock', 
OHG knot, knuot 'origin, nature'. Conti- 
nues *gnotís close to Skt jňatí- 'kinsman', 
Gk yviatóq 'related by blood, brother'. 
Derived from *gem- 'to know'. Forste- 
mann KZ I 238; Torp-Falk 35; Feist 
313-314; Mayrhofer I 446; Pokorný 
I 373-375; Frisk I 306; Lehmann GED 
220; Bammesberger Jíom. 146. 

*knukójanan wk.vb.: ON knoka 'to 
knock', OE cnucian id., MHG knochen id. 
An imitative stem. Hellouist GHA 
XIV/2 12; Zupitza Gutt. 148; Torp-Falk 
50; Vries ANEW 322; Onions 508; 
Ktuge-Seebold 453 (to *knakkaz). 

*knuk5n sb.m.: MLG knoke 'bone', MHG 
knoche id. Probably related to *knewan. No 
direct connection with Gk yvúí; 'on uhe 
knees', where -\ is analogical (Schwyzer 
I 620). Torp-Falk 50; Pokorný I 381; 
Frisk I 317; Lůhr Expr. 219-220; 
Ktuge-Seebold 457. 

*knuppaz sb.m.: Norw dial. knupp 'buď, 
MLG knuppe id., OHG knopf 'knot'. 




Identical with Olr gnobh 'knot, knag'. 
Torp-Falk 50; Pokorný I 371. 

*knusjanan ~ *knusojanan wk.vb.: 
ON knosa 'to bruise, to beať, OE cnyssan 
'to press, to strike, to punch', MDu cnosen 
'to pinch', OHG knussen 'to strike, to 
strike together'. An onomatopoeic for- 
mation, cf. *kmpanan. Torp-Falk 51; 
Holthausen AEE]V 55; Pokorný I 372; 
Vries AAEir 322. 

*knut(t)janan ~ *knut(t)j5janan 
wk.vb.: ON knytja 'to knit, to trass', OE 
cnyttan 'to tie, to bind, to kniť, MHG 
knutzen 'to squeeze'. Derived from *knut- 
ton. Holthausen AEEW 55; Vries 
AVEIT323 (to *knuta Z ). 

*knuttón sb.m.: OE motta 'knot, fasten- 
ing', MLG knotte 'knot, knob', MHG 
knotze id. Cf. *knútaz and *knuppaz. 
Holthausen AEE]V 55; Pokorný I 
372^373 (to Lith gniutú, gniústi 'to press, 
to push'); Onions 508. 

*knuzljanan wk.vb.: ON knylla 'to beat 
with a blunt weapon', OE cnyllan 'to 
knell, to sound a bell', MHG kniillen 'to 
punch, to kick'. Of imitative origin. 
Torp-Falk 51; Holthausen AEE\V 55; 
Pokorný I 372 (from *knusjanan ~ *knuso- 
janari); Vries AMEW 323. 

*knúbilaz sb.m.: ON knýjill 'short horn', 
latě OHG knobel 'small bone'. Of un- 
known origin. Cf. *knukon? Pokorný I 
371—372 (to Lith gniáubti 'to embrace'; 
Vries AMEW 322-323; Kluge-Seebold 
457 (OHG < *knuwilaz). 

*knútaz adj.: ON sbst. knútr 'knot', MHG 
knúz 'bold, pert, overconfidenť. Related 
to *knuwjanan. Zupitza Gutt. 148; Torp- 
Falk 50; Wissmann MP 42-43; Pokorný 
I 371-373; Lerchner 152; Luhr Expr. 
281-282; Heidermanns 338-339; Kluge- 
Seebold 458. 

*knúwjanan wk.vb.: ON knýja 'to knock, 
to press', OE cnuwian 'to knock, to 
pounď, EFris knojen 'to press'. Distantiy 
related to Toch B nusk- 'to squeeze' 

< *gnu-sk- and Lith žniungú, žniúgti 'to 
falT, žniáugu, zniáugti 'to choke, to gag' 

< *gneu-g(h)-. Torp-Falk 50; Holt- 

hausen AEE\V 54; Pokorný I 371; 
Fraenkel 1321; Vries AMEW 323; Hei- 
dermanns 339; Adams TB 341. 

*kólaz ~ *koliz adj.: OE ml 'cool', MLG 
kol id., OHG kuoli id. Derived from 
*kalanan. Zupitza Gutt. 143; Torp-Falk 
40-41; Holthausen AEEW 56; Onions 
213; Seebold 288; Heidermanns 339. 

*kóljanan wk.vb.: ON kala 'to cool', OE 
célan 'to be cold, to become colď, OFris 
kěla 'to relieve', OHG kuolen 'to cool'. 
Derived from *kó~laz ~ *kb~liz. Torp- 
Falk 40-41; Holthausen AEE]V 56; 
Vrles AMEJV 342; Onions 502; Seebold 
288; Heidermanns 339; Boutkan OFED 

*kóniz adj.: Burg *konis 'bold', ON karnn 
'wise, skilful', OE céne 'keen, fierce, bolď, 
MLG koně 'valiant, brazen', OHG kuoni 
'valiant, brave, strong'. Derived from 
*kanna. Karsten VB 1113; Torp-Falk 
36; Holthausen AEEW 56; Pokorný I 
378; Vrks AMEW 342; Onions 502; 
Seebold 290; Piirainen 49-50; Matzel 
Festschr. Schroder 98, 109-110, KZ CV 
136; Luhr Expr. 537-538 (from *kno-niz) 
Bammesberger Mom. 243 (follows Luhr) 
Kobler 711; Heidermanns 339-340 
Fvluge-Seebold 491. 

*kónín sb.f.: ON Iqg-komi 'skill in the law', 
OHG kuoní 'courage, strengdr'. Derived 
from *komz. Heidermanns 340. 

*kopjanan ~ *kóp5janan wk.vb.: ON 
kápa 'to staré, to gape', OE cépan 'to 
observe, to keep, to regarď. Related to 
Lith žébiu, zébtí 'to eat unwillingly', Slav 
* zobati ~ *zobiti 'to peck, to care'. The 
originál meaning seems to be preserved 
in ON (Zupitza Gutt. 194). Torp-Falk 
34; Trautmann BS1 V 364; Holthausen 
AEEW 56; Pokorný I 349; Vries AMEW 
326; Vasmer-Trubaghev II 102 (against 

*kowz ~ *kúz sb.f.: ON kýr 'cow', OE cú 
id., OFris ku id., OS kó id. (< *kb~wiz), 
OHG kuo id. (z-stem witír traces of a root 
stem in pl.). Related to Toch A acc. sg. 
ko, B ke u id. Skt gáu- 'bull, cow', Av gmš 
id., Arm kov 'cow', Gk fJoíi<; 'bullock, 




bull', Lat bos 'ox, bull, cow', Olr bó 'cow', 
Latv guovs id., Slav *gov-^do 'cattle' 
(Fórsterman KZ I 493). Kern KZ I 
237-240; Bartholomae 505-509; Torp- 
Falk 45; Holthausen AEE]V 62; 
Walde-Hofmann I 112; Mayrhofer I 
351; Pokorný I 482-483; Vries ANEW 
340-341; Zalizniak II 209; Frisk I 
260-261; Onions 223; Trubachev ESSJa 
VII 74-75; Peeters KZ LXXXVIII 
134-136 (reconstructs *kwoz); Bammes- 
berger Nom. 200; Griepentrog ]Vurzel- 
nomina 233-256; Kluge-Seebold 491; 
Adams TB 189. 

*krabl5janan wk.vb.: ON krafla 'to paw, 
to scrabble with the hands', MLG krabbeln 
'to crawl'. Probably derived from *krat- 
bon. Vries ANEW 328. 

*krabb5n sb.m.: ON krabbi 'crab', OE 
crabba id., MLG krabbe id. Borrowed from 
an unknown Mediterranean source, cf. 
Gk Kapapo? 'horned beede, crayfish' > 
Lat cárabus 'a kind of sea-crab' of the 
samé origin. Cohen BSL XXVII 100 
(Ethio-Sem parallels); Torp-Falk 52; 
Walde-Hofmann I 164; Holthausen 
AEE]V 58-59; Marttnet Gém. 87; Cohen 
BSL XXVII 100; Vries ANEW 328 
(*'scratching animal', to Gk ypáipco 'to 
scratch, to write'); Onions 223; Lůhr 
Expr. 296; Kluge-Seebold 481. 

*krafjanan wk.vb.: ON krejja 'to demanď, 
OE crafian 'to ask, to implore'. Of uncer- 
tain origin. ZuprrzA Gutt. 212; Holt- 
hausen AEEW 59; Pokorný I 388; Vrtes 
ANEW 329. 

*kraftiz ~ *kraftuz sb.m.: ON haptr, 
hqptr 'might, strength, power', OE cncft 
'power, might, art, skill', OFris heft 
'might, strength, power', OS krajt id. (also 
fem.), OHG kraji id. (fem.). Derived from 
*krajjanan. Zupitza Gutt. 149; Torp- 
Falk 52 (to Slav *krěprt>kb 'strong'); 
Holthausen AEE]V 59; Pokorný I 388; 
Vries ANEW 329 (to *krappaz); Zalizniak 
II 201; Onions 224. 

*krakon sb.m.: ON kraki 'pale, stake', 
OHG kracko, krahho 'hook, harpuně'. 
Of unknown origin. Torp-Falk 51; 

Pokorný I 385 (to Gk yupyaOóc; 'wicker- 
baskeť); Vries ANEW 328; Lerghner 

*krammjanan wk.vb.: ON kretnja 'to 
squeeze, to bruise', OE crammian 'to 
cram, to stuff', MLG krammen 'to clutch 
with claws'. Derived from *hemmanan. 
Zupitza Gutt. 149-150; Torp-Falk 52; 
Holthausen AEE1V 59; Onions 224. 

*krampjanan wk.vb.: ON kreppa 'to 
clench', OHG part. widar-gi-chrampft 'to 
rise'. Derived from *krempanan. Torp- 
Falk 53; Seebold 308. 

*kran3az adj.: ON krangr 'weak, crank', 
MLG krangh 'weak, worn out, ill', OHG 
kranc 'weak'. Derived from *hen^anan. 
Karsten NB I 69; Torp-Falk 52 
Seebold 309; Heidermanns 341. 

*kranx5 sb.f: OM há 'angle', OE cró^. 
cróh 'corner', MLG hoch 'fenced lanď 
Connected with *heri3az despite the 
unvoiced *-*-? Holthausen AEE][' 6 
Pokorný I 385; Vries ANEW 327 (to 

*krankaz adj.: OESc kranker 'bad, wickeď, 
OFris kronk 'weak, ill', MLG hank id., 
OHG kranc 'weak, invalid'. A phonetic 
variant of '"kran^az. Torp-Falk 52; 
Seebold 308-309; Toporov PJa II 
289-290 (to Lith gr^žti 'to drill, to bore'); 
Hetdermanns 341—342; Kluge-Seebold 

*krankjanan wk.vb.: OESc hienkas 'to get 
worse', OFris krenza 'to damage', OHG 
bi-hanken 'to make ill'. Derived from 
*hankaz. Heidermanns 342. 

*kranón sb.m.: ON trani 'crane' (with 
irregular Í-), OE cran id. (< *hanaz), OS 
hano id., OHG hano id. Etymologically 
and derivationally close to Gk yépavoq 
id., Gaul (tri)garanos id., W garan